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in  royR  VOLUMES. 

By     ORSON     F.    WHITNEY. 




MARCH,  1892. 





/i.  HE  author  here  presents  the  first  volume  of  his  history  of  Utah, 
>r  a  work  which  has  engaged  his  attention,  though  not  uninter- 
ruptedly, since  May,  1890.  As  will  be  seen,  it  is  a  continuous 
historical  narrative  of  the  early  settlement  and  formation  of  the  Ter- 
ritory and  its  growth  and  development  up  to  the  year  1861,  a  point 
of  time  just  prior  to  the  advent  of  the  electric  telegraph,  and  not 
long  before  the  arrival  of  the  great  Pacific  Railway.  This  period, 
which  marks  in  local  annals  the  close  of  one  era  and  the  beginning 
of  another,  seemed  a  fitting  place  for  the  authors  pen  to  pause, 
while  the  press  gave  the  first  fruits  of  his  present  labor  to  the 

Necessarily  this  volume  has  most  to  say  of  the  Mormon  people. 
Being  the  pioneers  and  earliest  builders  of  our  inter-mountain  com- 
monwealth, it  was  as  proper  as  it  was  unavoidable  to  give  them  first 
and  foremost  mention  in  a  work  of  this  character.  It  was  also 
deemed  essential,  for  reasons  stated  elsewhere,  that  the  opening 
chapters  should  deal  more  or  less  comprehensively  with  the  history 
of  Utah's  pioneers  and  founders  prior  to  their  advent  into  the  Great 
Basin.  Something  of  their  religious  and  political  views,  their  early 
experiences  in  the  east  and  the  motives  which  impelled  them  west- 
ward, are  therefore  herein  contained.  Of  the  non-Mormon  portion 
of  the  community,  and  the  important  part  played  by  them  in  the 
stirring  drama  of  our  social,  political  and  material  development,  as 
much  will  be  said  hereafter. 

As  the  author  has  endeavored,  in  volume  one,  to  present  a  fair 
and  truthful  statement  of  facts  antedating  and  leading  up  to  the  new 
era  that  was  ushered  in  by  the  telegraph  and  the  locomotive. — which 


came  as  it  were  on  the  wings  of  the  lightning,  or  on  the  back  of  the 
enchanted  iron  horse, — he  will  as  diligently  strive,  in  the  succeeding 
volumes,  to  deal  faithfully  and  impartially  with  events  that  have 
since  taken  place.  It  is  the  design,  after  completing  the  general  nar- 
rative here  begun,  to  give  the  histories  of  the  various  counties  of  the 
Territory,  and  the  professions  and  pursuits  of  the  people.  Special 
chapters  on  agriculture,  manufacture,  mining,  commerce,  etc.,  may 
be  looked  for;  as  well  as  others  on  churches,  newspapers,  theaters, 
railways  and  other  agencies  of  civilization.  Literature,  music 
and  the  drama,  poets,  painters  and  sculptors  will  each  be  placed  in 
an  appropriate  niche,  while  bench  and  bar,  civil  and  military  affairs 
in  general  and  in  detail  will  all  be  duly  represented.  Biographies  of 
prominent  citizens,  men  and  women,  will  also  form  a  feature  of  the 

In  conclusion,  the  author  expresses  his  grateful  appreciation  to 
all  who  have  in  any  way  assisted  or  encouraged  him  in  his  literary 
labors:  to  Dr.  John  0.  Williams,  to  whom  belongs  the  credit  of 
originating  the  history  project — of  which  he  was  once  the  main  pro- 
prietor— and  of  pushing  forward  the  business  pertaining  to  it  with 
characteristic  energy  and  ability;  to  Mr.  J.  H.  E.  Webster,  his  part- 
ner, who,  in  conjunction  with  Dr.  Williams,  has  ably  conducted  and 
continues  to  conduct  the  canvass  for  the  work.  With  these  gentle- 
men and  their  associates  my  relations  have  been  of  the  most  pleasant 
character.  To  President  Wilford  Woodruff  and  council,  and  other 
leading  citizens,  for  their  warm  approval  and  endorsement  of  the 
project:  to  Governor  Arthur  L.  Thomas,  for  various  courtesies 
extended ;  to  the  Church  historian,  Apostle  Franklin  D.  Richards,  his 
assistant,  John  Jaques,  General  Robert  T.  Burton  and  A.  M.  Musser, 
Esq.,  for  advice  and  assistance  such  as  an  author  can  best  appreciate, 
I  feel  deeply  indebted.  Nor  should  the  name  of  Hon.  F.  S.  Richards 
be  omitted,  he  being  one  of  the  first  to  recognize  the  importance  of 
the  history  enterprise,  as  a  public  benefit,  and  to  give  it  his  hearty 
encouragement  and  support.  To  the  press  of  Salt  Lake  City  and  the 
Territory  in  general,  to  the  Union  Pacific,  Rio  Grande  Western  and 


Utah  Central  railways,  and  the  Salt  Lake  City  Railroad  Company,  I 
return  hearty  thanks  for  favors  bestowed.  The  share  of  credit  clue 
the  publishers  and  now  main  proprietors  of  the  history — Messrs. 
George  Q.  Cannon  and  Sons — is  manifest  from  the  appearance  of  the 
work  itself. 

I  shall  begin  immediately  upon  the  second  volume,  and  while 
taking  time  and  pains  to  do  the  work  in  a  manner  worthy  the  subject, 
it  is  my  intention  to  push  it  to  completion  with  all  possible  dispatch. 

Orson  F.  Whitney. 

Salt  Lake  City, 

February,  1892. 




Antecedents  of  Utah's  Early  Settlers — Joseph  Smith  and  Mormonism — The  Prophet's 
Birth  and  Boyhood — Social  and  Religious  Phases  of  Seventy  Years  Ago — Seek- 
ing for  the  True  Church — Joseph's  First  Vision — The  Father  and  the  Son — For- 
bidden to  Join  any  of  the  Churches — The  Youth  tells  his  Story — Prejudice  and 
Persecution — The  Angel  Moroni — Discovery  of  the  Golden  Plates — The  Prophet 
on  Probation — The  Record  of  Mormon,  the  Nephite,  in  the  Hands  of  Joseph, 
the  Translator. 17 


Translation  of  the  Book  of  Mormon — Poverty  and  Persecution — The  "  Money- 
Digging  and  Wife-Stealing"  Stories — Martin  Harris — The  Prophet  Removes  to 
Pennsylvania — Description  of  the  Plates  and  the  Urim  and  Thummim — Martin 
Harris  and  Professor  Anthon — The  Reputed  Method  of  Translation — The  Stolen 
Manuscript — Oliver  Cowdery — John  the  Baptist  and  the  Aaronic  Priesthood — 
Baptism  of  Joseph  and  Oliver — Joseph  Knight's  Beneficence — David  Whitmer — 
Joseph  and  Oliver  Remove  from  Harmony  to  Fayette — The  Melchisedek  Priest- 
hood—The Three  Witnesses— The  Eight— The  Translation  Complete  and  the 
Book  of  Mormon  Given  to  the  World 28 

What  the  Book  of  Mormon  Claims  to  be — The  Narrative  of  the  Nephite  Record — 
How  the  World  Received  it — The  Spaulding  Story — "  Mormonism  Unveiled" — 
The  Sidney  Rigdon  Anachronism — Discovery  of  the  Original  "Manuscript 
Story" — Its  Condensed  Narrative — Mormon's  Record  and  Spaulding's  Romance 
Compared — Reynolds'  "  Myth  of  the  Manuscript  Found" — President  Fairchild's 
Opinion — Numerous  Editions  of  the  Translated  Work 37 


Organization  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints — The  Doctrine  of 
Common  Consent — Oliver  Cowdery  the  First  Public  Preacher  of  Mormonism — 
Newel  Knight— The  First  Conference  of  the  Church— The  Elders  at  Colesville— 
Joseph  Smith  Arrested  for  "  Preaching  the  Book  of  Mormon  " — His  Trial  and 
Acquittal  at  South  Bainbridge — Re-arrested  and  Tried  at  Colesville — Another 
Failure  to  Convict — Return  to  Pennsylvania — A  Schism  Threatening  the  Church 
— Revival  of  Opposition  at  Harmony — The  Prophet  Removes  with  his  Family 
to  Fayette — The  Schism  Averted — -A  Mission  to  the  Lamanites  Announced.         57 

viii  CONTENTS. 


1830-1831.  Page. 

Mormonism's  Mission  to  the  Lamanites — Its  Significance — Oliver  Cowdery,  Parley  P. 
Pratt,  Peter  Whitmer,  Junior,  and  Ziba  Peterson  the  Chosen  Evangelists  to  the 
Red  Men — Their  Departure  for  the  West — The  Catteraugus  Indians — Kirtland 
and  the  Gampbellites — Sidney  Rigdon — His  Conversion  to  Mormonism — 
Edward  Partridge — Newel  K.  Whitney — Success  of  the  Elders  in  Ohio — Their 
Pilgrimage  Resumed — Elder  Pratt's  Arrest  and  Escape — Simeon  Carter — Among 
the  Wyandols — Storms  and  Privations — Arrival  at  Independence,  Missouri — 
Preaching  to  the  Delawares — Government  Agents  and  Christian  Missionaries — 
The  Elders  Ordered  out  of  the  Indian  Country.  66 

The  Church  Removes  to  Ohio — The  United  Order — Organization  of  the  Rishopric — 
Joseph  Smith's  First  Visit  to  Missouri — Jackson  County  the  Chosen  Site  of  the 
City  of  Zion — The  Land  Dedicated  for  the  Gathering  of  Israel  and  the  Ruilding 
of  the  New  Jerusalem — The  Return  to  Kirtland — The  Prophet  and  Elder 
Rigdon  at  Hiram — A  Vision  of  Human  Destiny — The  Mobbing  of  Joseph  and 
Sidney — A  Second  Visit  to  Missouri — The  War  of  the  Rebellion  Predicted — 
The  First  Presidency  organized — The  Kirtland  Temple  Projected.  .         .         79 

The  Jackson  County  Expulsion  and  its  Causes — Mobocratic  Mass  Meetings  at  Indepen- 
dence— Destruction  of  the  Office  of  the  "Evening  and  Morning  Star  "—Bishop 
Partridge  Tarred  and  Feathered — The  Mormons  Required  to  Leave  the  County 
Forthwith— A  Truce  Agreed  upon — The  Mob  Rreak  their  Pledge — Renewal  of 
Depredations — The  Mormons  Appeal  to  Governor  Dunklin — He  Advises  them  to 
seek  Redress  in  the  Courts — Legal  Proceedings  Instituted — The  Mob  Enraged — ■ 
The  October  and  November  Riots — A  Battle  on  the  Big  Blue — Lieutenant- 
Governor  Boggs  calls  out  the  Militia — The  Mormons  Disarmed  and  Driven — 
Clay  County  receives  the  Refugees — Jackson  County,  Missouri,  still  "  The  Land 
of  Zion." 100 

Brigham  Young,  the  Founder  of  Utah,  Embraces  Mormonism— Heber  C.  Kimball 
Enters  the  Fold— Wilford  Woodruff—  George  A.  Smith— Jedediah  M.  Grant— 
Erastus  Snow — The  First  High  Council  Organized — Zion's  Camp — The  Twelve 
Apostles  Chosen — The  Seventies  Selected — A  Revelation  on  Priesthood — 
Mormonism  and  Education — The  Kirtland  Temple  Dedicated — Lorenzo  Snow — 
The  Missouri  Mormons — Their  Removal  from  Clay  County  to  Caldwell — The 
Founding  of  Far  West.  *.  Ill 



1836-1838.  Page. 

The  Kirtland  Apostasy — The  Temporal  at  War  with  the  Spiritual — Financial 
Disasters — "  Something  New  must  be  done  to  Save  the  Church  " — Opening  of 
the  British  Mission — Heber  C.  Kimball  and  his  Confreres  in  Lancashire — 
Marvelous  Success  of  Mormonism  Abroad — Affairs  at  Kirtland  Continued — A 
Dark  Hour — Brigham  Young's  Fidelity — John  Taylor — Setting  in  Order  the 
Church — Flight  of  the  Prophet  and  his  Friends  from  Kirtland — The  Church" 
Removes  to  Missouri — Excommunications — New  Calls  to  the  Apostleship — The 

Law  of  Tithing  Instituted 131 


The  Mormons  in  Missouri — Far  West,  Diahman  and  Dewitt — A  Slumbering  Volcano 
— Celebrating  the  Nation's  Birthday — The  State  Election — Attempt  to  Prevent 
Mormons  from  Voting — The  Gallatin  Riot — The  Volcano  Awakes — Daviess 
County  in  Arms — Joseph  Smith  and  Lyman  Wight  Arrested — The  Mob  Army 
Threatens  Diahman — The  Mormons  arm  in  Self-defense — Generals  Atchison, 
Parks  and  Doniphan — The  Saints  Exonerated — Siege  and  Bombardment  of 
Dewitt — Governor  Boggs  Appealed  to — He  Declines  to  Interfere — Dewitt  Evacu- 
ated and  Diahman  again  Threatened — -Gilliam's  Guerillas — The  Mormon 
Militia  Make  War  upon  the  Mob — The  Danites — Battle  of  Crooked  River — Death 
of  David  W.  Patten — Governor  Boggs  Espouses  the  Cause  of  the  Mobocrats — 
The  Mormons  to  be  "  Exterminated  or  Driven  from  the  State" — The  Haun's 
Mill  Massacre — Fall  of  Far  West — The  Mormon  Leaders  in  Chains — Liberty 

Jail— The  Exodus  to  Illinois 142 


Nauvoo — The  Saints  in  Illinois  and  Iowa — Daniel  H.  Wells — The  Apostles  Depart 
for  Europe — -The  Prophet  lays  the  Grievances  of  His  People  Before  the  General 
Government — President  Van  Buren's  Reply — "  Your  Cause  is  Just,  but  I  can  do 
Nothing  for  You" — Illinois  Politics — Whigs  and  Democrats — The  Mormons 
Hold  the  Balance  of  Power — A  Cloud  on  the  Horizon — Missouri  Demands 
of  Illinois  the  Mormon  Leaders  as  Fugitives  from  Justice — The  Requisition 
Returned  Unserved — The  Nauvoo  Charter — The  Apostles  in  Great  Britain — The 
Beginning  of  Mormon  Emigration  from  Abroad — The  Saints  Concentrate  at 
Nauvoo — The  Politicians  Alarmed — Rise  of  the  Anti-Mormon  Party — The 
Missouri  Writ  Re-issued  and  the  Prophet  Arrested — Habeas  Corpus — Judge 
Douglas — Liberation — John  C.  Bennett — The  Shadow  of  a  Coming  Event — The 
Prophet  Predicts  the  Flight  of  His  People  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.         .  107 


Again  in  the  Toils — Joseph  Smith  and  Porter  Rockwell  Arrested,  Charged  with 
Attempted  Murder — Ex-Governor  Boggs  of  Missouri  the  Alleged  Victim — How 


the  Deed  was  Done — The  Prisoners  Released  by  Habeas  Corpus — They  Evade 
Re-arrest — Rockwell  Kidnapped  and  Carried  to  Missouri — Governor  Ford  Suc- 
ceeds Governor  Carlin — The  Prophet  Submits  to  a  Judicial  Investigation — Judge 
Pope — The  Mormon  Leader  Again  Liberated — Another  Requisition — Joseph 
Smith    Kidnapped — His    Rescue    and     Release — Anti-Mormon    Depredations 

Around  Nauvoo 197 

Celestial  Marriage — Why  the  Mormons  Practiced  Polygamy — The  Prophet  and  the 
Politicians — Joseph  Smith  a  Candidate  for  President -of  the  United  States — His 
Platform  of  Principles — Planning  the  Western  Exodus — The  Laws,  Fosters,  and 
Higbees  Excommunicated — The  "Expositor"'  Abatement — Arrest  of  the  Mayor 
and  City  Council  of  Nauvoo— A  Gathering  Storm — Nauvoo  under  Martial  Law — 
Governor  Ford  Demands  the  Surrender  of  the  Mormon  Leaders — The  Prophet 
and  his  Friends  Start  for  the  Rocky  Mountains — The  Return — The  Surrender — 
Carthage  Jail — Murder  of  the  Prophet  and  Patriarch.  ....       210 

Rrigham  Young  Succeeds  Joseph  Smith — The  Man  for  the  Hour — Sidney  Rigdon 
Rejected  and  Excommunicated — Factions  and  Followings — The  Prophet's 
Murder  Proves  an  Impetus  to  Mormonism — The  Crusade  Renewed — The 
Apostles  Driven  into  Retirement — The  "  Bogus  Brigham  "  Arrest — Repeal  of 
the  Nauvoo  Charter — Josiah  Lamborn's  Opinion  of  the  Repeal — Governor  Ford 
Advises  a  Mormon  Exodus — The  Prophet's  Murderers  Acquitted — The  Anti- 
Mormons  Change  Their  Tactics — The  Torch  of  the  Incendiary  in  Lieu  of  the 
Writ  of  Arrest — Sheriff  Rackenstos — The  Mobocrats  Worsted  and  put  to  Flight 
— Governor    Ford    Interposes    to    Restore    Order — General    Hardin    and  the 

Commissioners — The  Mormons  Agree  to  Leave  Illinois 233 

The  Exodus — Brigham  Young  Leads  his  People  Westward — Sugar  Creek — Samuel 
Brannan  and  the  Ship  "Brooklyn" — Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah — The 
Saints  Reach  the  Missouri  River — The  Mexican  War  and  the  Mormon  Battalion 
— Elder  Little  and  President  Polk — Colonel  Kane — More  Anti-Mormon  Demon- 
strations— The  Battle  of  Nauvoo — Expulsion  of  the  Mormon  Remnant  from  the 
City — Colonel  Kane's  Description  of  Nauvoo —  The  Church  in  the  Wilderness 

— Winter  Quarters. 248 



Mi.    Beginning  of  Utah   History — Why   the   .Mormons  did  not  Colonize  the  Pacific 

Coast — The    (iioat    Basin — Utah's  Physical   Features — Daniel   Webster  on  the 

"Worthless  West  " — Early  Spanish  Explorations — Escalante  in  Utah  Valley — 

La  Hontan's  Hearsays — American  Trappers  on   the  Shores  of  the  Great  Salt 


Lake — Colonel  Bridger — Captain  Bonneville — Colonel  Fremont — Early  Emigra- 
tions from  the  Missouri  to  the  Pacific — The  Dormer  Disaster.          .         .        .       281 
The  Mormon  Pioneers — Their  Journey  Across  the  Great  Plains — Pawnees  and  Sioux 
— The  Pioneer  Buffalo  Hunt — Fort  Laramie — The  Mississippi  Mormons — South 
Pass — Major  Harris — Colonel  Bridger — "  A  Thousand  Dollars  for  the  First  Ear 
of  Corn  Raised  in  Salt  Lake  Valley  " — A  Discouraging  Prospect — Elder  Brannan 
Again — Some   of   the    Battalion  Boys — Fort    Bridger — Miles  Goodyear — Echo 
Canyon— The  Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake 298 

Pen  Picture  of  Salt  Lake  Valley — How  it  Looked  to  the  Pioneers — Contrasted  Impres- 
sions— Orson  Pratt  and  Erastus  Snow  the  First  Explorers — The  Camp  on  City 
Creek — Plowing  and  Planting — Arrival  of  the  President — The  First  Sabbath 
Service  in  the  Valley — Orson  Pratt's  Sermon  to  the  Pioneers — Brigham  Young 
Lays  Down  the  Law — Apostle  Lyman  and  Elder  Brannan  Arrive — Exploring 
and  Colonizing — Ensign  Peak  Named — The  Great  Salt  Lake  Visited — Black 
Rock  Christened — Tooele  Valley — Utah  Lake  Seen — Salt  Lake  City  Planned 
and  Located.  ...........       325 

The  Pioneer  Settlers  Reinforced — Captain  James  Brown  and  his  Company — The 
Mississippi  Mormons — An  Indian  Affray — Utes  and  Shoshones — The  "  Old 
Fort  "  Projected — The  First  City  Survey — Utah  Valley  Explored — "  Renewing 
Covenants"  and  "Selecting  Inheritances" — Cache  Valley  Visited — Ascent  of  Twin 
Peaks— The  First  House  Finished  in  Salt  Lake  City— The  First  White  Child 
Born  in  Utah — First  Death  in  the  Pioneer  Colony — The  Ox-team  Companies 
Return  to  Winter  Quarters — Great  Salt  Lake  City  Named — The  Pioneer  Leaders 
Recross  the  Plains — Immigration  of  1847 — Captains  of  Hundreds  and  Fifties — 
The  First  Stake  of  Zion  in  the  Rocky  Mountains — Arrivals  from  the  West — 
Winter  at  the  Fort — Harriet  Young's  Adventure — Indian  Captives  and  Captors — 
Cedar  and  Rush  Valleys  Explored— Close  of  the  Year  1847.         .  .  .       342 

Founding  New  Settlements — Brigham  Young  as  a  Colonizer — Davis  County  Occupied 
— The  Goodyear  Purchase — The  Cricket  Plague — Saved  by  the  Gulls — Days  of 
Famine — The  First  Harvest  Feast — How  Gold  was  Discovered  in  California — 
Immigration  of  1848 — Matters  Spiritual  and  Temporal — Lands  Distributed  to 
the  Settlers— The  First  Utah  Currency— More  Apostles  Ordained— The  Stake 
Reorganized— Salt  Lake  City  Divided  into  Bishops'  Wards.  .  .  .       370 



1849.  Page. 

Beginning  of  Utah's  Political  History — The  Provisional  Government  of  Deseret — 
Utah  Valley  Settled— The  Ute  Indians— Sowiette  and  Walkara— The  Gold- 
Hunters — "  Winter  Mormons  " — Deseret  Applies  for  Statehood — First  Celebra- 
tion of  Pioneer  Day — The  Stansbury  Expedition — The  Perpetual  Emigrating 
Fund — The  First  Missionaries  Sent  from  the  Rocky  Mountains — Why  Brigham 
Young  Discouraged  Mining — The  Great  Salt  Lake  Valley  Carrying  Company — 
Sanpete  and  Tooele  Valleys  Settled.  389 

Salt  Lake,  Weber,  Utah,  Sanpete,  Juab  and  Tooele  Counties  Created — Parley  P.  Pratt 
Explores  Southern  Utah — The  First  Indian  War — A  Skirmish  at  Battle  Creek 
—The  Two  Days'  Fight  at  Provo— Table  Mountain— A  Treaty  of  Peace— The 
Pioneer  Newspaper  of  the  Rocky  Mountains — Death  of  Presiding  Bishop 
Whitney — The  First  P.  E.  Fund  Emigration — George  A.  Smith  Pioneers  Iron 
County — Educational  Beginnings — The  University  of  Deseret — The  Cities  of 
Salt  Lake,  Ogden,  Provo,  Manti  and  Parowan  Receive  their  Charters — The 
First  Municipal  Government  in  the  Great  Basin.  .....       420 

Utah  Territory  Created — Brigham  Young  Governor — How  the  News  Beached  Deseret 
— Dissolution  of  the  Provisional  Government — Its  Acts  Recapitulated — The  First 
Utah  Census — The  First  Territorial  Election — John  M.  Bernhisel  Delegate  to 
Congress — Arrival  of  the  Federal  Officials — Brandebury,  Brocchus  and  Harris — 
A  Discontented  Trio — Judge  Brocchus  Insults  the  Mormon  People  at  Their 
Conference — Brigham  Young's  Beply — The  Three  Officials  Leave  the  Territory 
— Governor  Young's  Letter  to  President  Fillmore — Beport  of  the  "Runaway" 
Judges  and  Secretary — A  Case  of  Moral  and  Official  Hari-Kari — The  Grant 
Letters — Utah's  First  Legislative  Assembly — Its  Initial  Acts — The  First  Murder 
Trial  in  Utah — Fillmore,  Millard  County,  the  Chosen  Capital  of  the  Territory 
— Box  Elder  and  Juab  Counties  Settled — The  San  Bernardino  Colony — A  Ter- 
ritorial Library — Probate  Judges  and  Their  Jurisdiction.  .  .  .         442 

A  Great  Pacific  Railway  Wanted — The  Governor  and  Legislature  of  Utah  Petition 
Congress  for  its  Construction — Celestial  Marriage  Proclaimed  to  the  World  as  a 
Mormon  Doctrine — Orson  Pratt  Preaches  the  First  Sermon  on  Polygamy — His 
Mission  to  Washington — The  "Seer" — Utah's  ottering  to  the  Washington  Monu- 
ment— Governor  Young  on  Manual  Training  and  Home  Industries — His  Views 
of  Slavery — Feramorz  Little  and  the  Mail  Service — The  Pioneer  Merchants  of 
Utah— Dramatic  Beginnings — The  Salt  Lake  Temple  Begun — Arrival  of  the 
New  Federal  Officials 486 

CONTENTS.  xiii 


1853-1854.  Page. 

Another  Indian  War — Causes  of  the  Outbreak — Pedro  Leon  and  his  Associates — 
Governor  Young  Proclaims  Against  the  Mexican  Slave-traders — Purchase  of  Fort 
Bridger — Walker  on  the  War  Path — Indian  Raids  in  Utah  and  Sanpete  Valleys 
— The  War  Becomes  General — Colonel  George  A.  Smith  Given  Command  of  the 
Southern  Utah  Military  Districts — Governor  Young's  Letter  to  Chief  Walker — 
The  Gunnison  Massacre — End  of  the  Walker  War — Other  Events  of  1853-4 — 
Summit,  Green  River  and  Carson  Counties  Created — Utah  Settlements  at  the 
Close  of  1853 — John  C.    Fremont  at   Parowan — Death  of  President   Willard 

Richards — A  Grasshopper  Visitation. 508 

Brigham  Young's  Record  as  Governor — An  Administration  Acceptable  to  Both  Mor- 
mons and  Gentiles — They  Unitedly  Petition  for  his  Reappointment — Colonel 
Steptoe — The  Gunnison  Massacre  Investigated  and  the  Murderers  brought  to 
Justice — Death  of  the  Ute  Chief  Walker — The  Triumph  of  Brigham  Young's 
Indian  Policy — Why  the  Savages  Drew  a  Distinction  Between  "  Americans  "  and 
"Mormons" — Death  of  Chief  Justice  Reed — Judge  Kinney  Succeeds  Him — 
Morgan  County  Settled — The  Elk  Mountain  and  Salmon  River  Missions — The 
Carson  Colony — George  Q.  Cannon  and  the  "Western  Standard" — Death  of 
Associate-Justice  Shaver — The  Mormon  People  Honor  the  Memory  of  Their 
Departed  Friend — Judge  Drummond  Succeeds  Judge  Shaver — The  Utah  Legis- 
lature Convenes  at  Fillmore — Another  Movement   for  Statehood — Cache,  Box 

Elder  and  Other  Counties  Settled 532 



A  Year  of  Calamities — Another  Famine  in  Utah — More  Indian  Outbreaks — Death  of 

Colonel  Babbitt — Massacre   of  the   Margetts   Party — The  Hand-cart  Disaster — 

Narratives  of  Messrs.  Chislett  and  Jaques — The  Reformation — Death  of  Jedediah 

M.  Grant 547 

The  Utah  Expedition — Buchanan's   Blunder — Some  of  the  Causes  which  Led  to  It — 
An  Historic  Beview — The  Magraw  Letter — Judge   Drummond's  Charges — Clerk 
Bolton's  Reply — Indian  Agent  Twiss  and   his  Complaint — The  B.  Y.  Express 
Carrying  Company — The  Real  Reason  why  the  Troops  were  Sent  to  Utah — Sec- 
retary  Floyd  and  his  Record — Mormondom  Sacrificed  to    Favor   Secession — 
Blaine  on  Buchanan's  Cabinet — General  Scott's  Instructions  to  the  Army — Fera- 
morz  Little  and  the   New   York   Herald — The  Expedition  Starts  Westward — 
Mayor  Smoot  Brings  the  News  to  Utah.  ......       567 

Pioneer  Day  in  the  Tops  of  the  Wasatch  Mountains — The  Celebration  at  Silver  Lake 



— Tidings  of  the  Coming  of  the  Troops — How  the  News  was  Received — Brigham 
Young  Determines  to  Resist  the  Entry  of  the  Army  into  Salt  Lake  Valley — Gen- 
eral Johnston  and  his  Command  Leave  Fort  Leavenworth — Captain  Van  Vliet 
Precedes  the  Expedition  to  Utah — His  Interviews  with  Governor  Young — The 
Mormon  Leader's  Ultimatum — "When  those  Troops  Arrive  They  shall  find  Utah 
a  Desert" — A  Second  Moscow  Threatened — Van  Vliet's  Official  Report.  .  600 
The  Echo  Canyon  Campaign — Utah  Under  Martial  Law — Colonel  Burton  Takes  the 
Field — The  United  States  Troops  Enter  the  Territory — General  Wells  Goes  to 
the  Front — Echo  Canyon  Fortified — Lot  Smith  Burns  the  Government  Trains — 
Major  Taylor's  Capture — Mormon  Cossacks — Colonel  Alexander's  Dilemma — He 
Starts  for  Soda  Springs — Colonel  Burton  Intercepts  Him — The  Project  Aban- 
doned— Correspondence  Between  Colonel  Alexander  and  Governor  Young — 
Apostle  Taylor's  Letter  to  Captain  Marcy — Arrival  of  General  Johnston — A 
March  of  Misery — Forts  Bridger  and  Supply  Burnt — Colonel  Cooke's  Experience 
— Camp  Scott — The  Federal  Army  goes  into  Winter  Quarters — Return  of  the 
Militia — Preparing  for  the  Spring  Campaign 619 


President  Buchanan  Begins  to  see  His  Blunder — Colonel  Kane  the  Mediator — His 
Mission  to  Utah — The  Mormons  Agree  to  Receive  Governor  Gumming,  but  not 
With  an  Army  at  his  Heels — Colonel. Kane  Visits  Camp  Scott — He  Escorts  the 
New  Executive  to  Salt  Lake  City — Cordial  Meeting  of  the  Two  Governors — 
Judge  Drummond's  Falsehood  Exploded — The  Court  Records  Found  Intact — 
The  "Move  "  South — The  Peace  Commissioners — President  Buchanan's  Pardon 
— Johnston's  Army  Enters  the  Valley — Camp  Floyd — The  Citizens  Return  to 
Their  Homes. 664 


After  "  The  War " — The  Federal  Courts  in  Operation — Judge  Sinclair  §eeks  to 
Renew  the  Strife — He  Sentences  a  Murderer  to  be  Hung  on  Sunday — Judge 
Cradlebaugh's  Administration — The  Story  of  the  Mountain  Meadows  Massacre — 
Cradlebaugh's  Vain  Attempt  to  Fasten  the  Awful  Crime  upon  the  Mormon 
Leaders — He  Summons  the  Military  to  his  Aid — The  Court  House  at  Provo  Sur- 
rounded by  Federal  Bayonets — The  Citizens  Protest  and  the  Governor  Proclaims 
Against  the  Military  Occupation — A  Conspiracy  to  Arrest  President  Young 
Thwarted  by  Governor  Gumming — Attorney-General  Black  Rebukes  the  Utah 
Judges— The  Anti-Mormons  Seek  the  Removal  of  Governor  Gumming — Colonel 
Kane  to  the  Rescue — How  Utah  was  Affected  by  Johnston's  Army — Horace 
Greeley  at  Salt  Lake  City — More  Newspapers — The  "  Valley  Tan"  and  the 
"Mountaineer" — William  H.  Hooper  Delegate  to  Congress — The  Pony  Express 
— The  Civil  War — Camp  Floyd  Abandoned 689 


Brigham  Young 
Joseph  Smith 
Hyrum  Smith 
Parley  P.  Pratt 
Heber  C.   Kimball     - 
Willard  Richards 
William  Miller 
George  A.  Smith 
Levi  Richards 
Wilford  Woodruff 
Amasa  M.  Lyman 
Clara  D.  Young 
Ellen  S.  Kimball 
William  Clayton 
The  Pioneer  Route,  184 
First  Glimpse  of  ;i  The 
Great  Salt  Lake  Valley 
Erastus  Snow     - 
John  Pack     - 
Lorenzo  D.  Young 
Captain  James  Brown 
Charles  C.  Rich 
John  Young 
Daniel  Spencer 
Joseph  Horne 
Joseph  B.  Noble 
Jacob  Houtz 
Harriet  Page  Wheeler 
Peregrine  G.  Sessions 
John  Stoker 
Lorin  Farr 
Horace  S.   Eldredge 
Charles  Crismon 
Edward  Hunter 




Mary  J.  Dilworth  Hammond 



Julian  Moses 

-       434 


Nathaniel  H.  Felt 



Seth  M.  Blair 

-       452 


John  M.  Bernhisel 


-       231 

William  C.  Staines 

-       483 


William  Jennings 


-       250 

Alonzo  H.  Raleigh 



Jesse  W.   Fox 



Truman  O.  Anuell 

-       506 


Anson  Call 


-       302 

Dimick  B.  Huntington 

-       526 


John  Nebeker 


-       310 

Salt  Lake  City  in  1853 

-       530 

7     -             318 

Leonard  W.  Hardy 


Valley"        322 

John  Neff 

-       548 

f.  1847          325 

Jedediah  M.  Grant    - 


-       330 

Abraham  O.  Smoot 

-       567 


John  R.  Murdoch 


-       338 

Feramorz  Little 

-       596 


Nicholas  Groesbeck 


-       348 

Silver  Lake 

-       600 


Lake  Martha 


-      360 

Lake  Blanche 

•       608 


Daniel  H.  Wells 



James  Ferguson 

-       622 


Robert  T.  Burton 


Young           368 

Andrew  Cunningham 

-      630 


J.  D.  T.  McAllister 


-       374 

Edwin  D.  Woolley 

-       648 


John  I!.  Winder 


-       384 

Samuel  W.    Richards 

-       666 


Colonel  Thomas   L.   Kane 



Reuben  Mii.lec 





Antecedents  of   Utah's    early    settlers — Joseph   smith    and    mormonism — the    prophet's 

birth  and  boyhood social  and    religious  phases   of    seventy  years    ago seeking 

for  the  true  church joseph's  first  vision the  father  and  the  son forbidden 

to    join    any    of    the    churches the    youth    tells    his    story prejudice    and 

persecution the  angel  moroni — 'discovery  of  the  golden  plates the  prophet  on 

probation the   record    of  mormon.   the   nephite,    in    the    hands    of   joseph,  the 


/^tS  IT  would  be  natural,  in  describing  a  lake  or  large  body  of 
^■^  water,  to  give  some  account  of  the  origin,  course  and  character 

of  the  streams  flowing  into  and  forming  it,  so  is  it  expected  of  the 
historian,  who  describes  a  city  or  country  and  its  inhabitants,  to 
dwell  to  some  extent  upon  their  antecedents,  to  speak  of  the  sources 
whence  they  sprang.  The  history  of  Utah,  therefore,  must  include 
the  history  of  her  founders,  and  with  their  general  narrative,  as  a 
religious  community,  it  now  suits  our  purpose  to  begin. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  present  century,  in  the  little  town  of 
Sharon,  Windsor  County,  Vermont,  there  lived  an  humble  family  of 
the  name  of  Smith.  Joseph  and  Lucy  were  the  parents'  names,  and 
their  children,  seven  sons  and  three  daughters — some  born  prior, 
some  subsequent  to  the  time  of  which  we  write — were  Alvin,  Hyrum, 
Sophronia,  Joseph,  Samuel  H.,  Ephraim,  William,  Catharine,  Don 
Carlos  and  Lucy.  The  father  was  a  farmer,  though  not  a  flourishing 
one,  having  lately  lost  his  property  through  the  dishonesty  of  a 
trusted   friend,  and  was  now  renting  a   farm  in  Sharon,  and   toiling 


early  and  late  for  a  bare  livelihood.  They  were  a  God-fearing  folk. 
honest,  straightforward  in  their  dealings,  and  of  good  repute  among 
their  neighbors. 

It  was  on  the  23rd  of  December,  1805,  that  the  son  was  born  to 
whom  was  given  the  paternal  name.  This  son.  Joseph  Smith,  junior, 
was  the  famous  Mormon  Prophet,  the  founder  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

The  boy  was  about  ten  years  old  when  his  parents  migrated  from 
Vermont  and  made  their  home  at  Palmyra,  Ontario — now  Wayne 
— County.  New  York ;  whence  they  removed,  four  years  later,  to  Man- 
chester in  the  same  county. 

A  brief  glance  at  some  of  the  social  conditions  of  those  early 
times  and  primitive  places  may  here  be  necessary.  Western  New 
York,  the  arena  of  our  story's  immediate  action,  was  then  an  almost 
new  country.  Farm  and  forest,  society  and  solitude,  civilization  and 
semi-savagery  divided  it.  The  red  man.  though  no  longer  roaming 
wildly,  had  not  disappeared  from  its  borders,  and  the  whites,  who  of 
course  predominated  and  held  sway,  if.  like  all  Yankees,  shrewd  and 
intelligent,  were  mostly  illiterate  and  untaught.  The  masses  were 
poor,  but  there  were  farmers  and  artisans  who  were  prosperous,  and 
the  people,  as  a  rule,  were  industrious  and  provident.  Their  style  of 
living  was  exceedingly  plain.  Houses  were  usually  small,  unplas- 
tered,  unpainted  and  rudely  furnished.  A  huge  fire  on  the  hearth, 
fed  with  pine  knots  from  the  neighboring  forest,  gave  light  and 
warmth  to  those  within  the  house,  or  the  flickering  flame  of  the  tal- 
low-dip shed  its  uncertain  lustre  over  the  scene.  The  floors  were 
often  without  carpets,  the  tables  without  cloths,  and  the  frugal  meal. 
cooked  amid  the  glowing  embers  on  the  hearth,  or  in  the  iron  pot 
suspended  by  a  chain  from  the  chimney  hook,  was  eaten  from  pewter 
or  wooden  plates,  with  horn-bandied  knives  and  iron  spoons.  Clocks 
were  a  rarity,  the  ••time  o'  day"  being  commonly  "guessed"  by  the 
sun  :  pictures  avid  musical  instruments  were  few  and  of  inferior  kind, 
and  the  family  library  consisted,  in  most  instances,  of  the  Bible,  an 
almanac  and  whal  books  were  in  vogue  at  the  village  school.    In 

HISTORY   OF  UTAH.  19  was  just  such  a  social  condition  as  life  in  our  own  Utah  once 
presented,  and  in  rare  cases  yet  presents,  in  sparsely  settled  localities, 
where  primitive  taste  or  poverty  still  reigns. 

The  people  of  those  times,  or  at  any  rate  of  that  region,  were 
generally  religious,  and  were  great  Bible  readers  ;  though  many  spirit- 
ually inclined  and  well  versed  in  scripture,  were  neither  communi- 
cants nor  church-goers.  The  leading  sects  of  today  were  nearly  all 
represented  in  the  ecclesiastical  category  of  the  period,  each  having 
its  doughty  champions,  its  Davids  in  the  field,  armed  cap-a-pie  and 
confronting  -with  valorous  zeal  the  gigantic  Philistines  of  sin  and 
unbelief.  The  infidel,  however,  did  not  abound,  as  at  a  later  day. 
Nearly  every  one  professed  some  sort  of  religion.  Religion,  indeed, 
and  not  agnosticism,  was  the  fashion  and  flavor  of  the  times.  Yet 
the  tide  of  spiritual  thought  and  emotion,  like  any  other  tide,  was 
subject  to  the  extremes  of  ebb  and  flow. 

Soon  after  the  removal  of  the  Smith  family  to  Manchester,  a 
wave  of  religious  excitement,  of  a  character  common  to  the  period, 
began  rolling  over  the  land,  and  camp-meetings  and  revivals,  like 
bubbles  on  the  crest  of  the  mighty  billow,  were  held  far  and  near 
under  the  auspices  of  the  various  Christian  sects.  The  whole  region 
rang  and  resounded  with  the  echoing  notes  of  the  evangelic  trumpet. 
The  village  of  Manchester  shared  in  the  general  excitement  and  enthu- 
siasm,— Methodists,  Baptists,  Presbyterians,  etc.,  all  vieing  with  each 
other  in  the  work  of  "  soul-saving,"  and  crowds  of  converts  flocking 
to  the  standards  of  the  ministers  of  the  rival  faiths.  Among  the 
proselytes  made  by  the  Presbyterians  were  Lucy  Smith,  Joseph's 
mother,  his  brothers  Hyrum  and  Samuel,  and  his  sister  Sophronia. 

Fruitful  as  were  the  labors  of  the  revivalists,  however,  one  thing 
militated  against  their  further  success.  It  was  lack  of  unity.  They 
were  not  united  ;  either  in  doctrine,  sentiment  or  common  Christian 
feeling.  Divisions  in  doctrine  among  the  Christian  churches  were 
neither  shocking  nor  surprising ;  from  the  days  of  Wycliffe,  Luther 
and  Wesley  the  world  had  grown  used  to  such  things  ;  and  so  long  as 
modern  Christians  merely  differed  in  opinion  regarding  the  "one  Lord, 


one  faith,  one  baptism"  of  the  ancients,  and  were  careful  to  "love  one 
another  "  and  "avoid  disputations,*'  their  course  would  occasion  little 
comment  and  less  complaint. 

But  strife  and  hatred  among  professed  ministers  of  Christ,  while 
provoking  mirth  and  mockery  from  the  infidel,  are  to  all  good  Christ- 
ians horrifying.  And  such  things,  sad  to  tell,  were  manifested  by  the 
ministers  of  whom  we  are  speaking,  and  by  many  of  their  converts  as 
well,  and  deprecated  and  deplored  by  divers  thoughtful  and  pious 
minds,  who  consequently  stood  aloof  and  forbore  to  taste  of  the 
fountains  that  sent  forth  such  bitter  Avaters. 

In  matters  of  doctrine,  as  said,  the  sects  were  much  divided, — 
though  on  certain  points  agreed.  For  instance,  some  held,  as  now, 
that  the  ordinance  of  baptism  was  non-essential  to  salvation.  Others 
contended  that  it  was  essential.  Some  claimed  sprinkling  to  be 
the  proper  mode  of  baptism ;  others,  that  pouring  water  upon  the 
head  was  the  true  method,  and  others  still  that  immersion  of  the 
whole  body  in  the  liquid  element  was  necessary.  And  similar 
differences  in  other  doctrines.  The  main  points  upon  which  most  of 
the  sects  agreed  were  :  that  God  was  a  being  without  body,  parts  or 
passions ;  that  He  no  longer  communicated  His  will  to  man ;  that 
the  heavens  were  closed  and  the  canon  of  scripture  full ;  that  the 
days  of  miracles  and  revelations  were  over ;  that  faith  without  works 
was  sufficient  to  save,  and  that  all  who  died  without  hearing  of  or 
believing  in  Jesus  Christ  as  the  world's  Redeemer,  were  doomed  to 
never-ending  torment.  Even  infants  were  not  exempt,  according  to 
the  Calvinistic  creed,  but  were  fated  to  eternally  "roast  in  sulphur," 
if  Ihe  Almighty  had  seen  fit  to  cut  short  their  lives  ere  they  came  to 
the  knowledge  of  His  only  begotten  Son.  A  chaos,  a  Babel  of  religi- 
ous opinions  and  their  professors,  differing,  yet  all  claiming  to  be 
right,  and  to  have  the  Bible  as  their  basis  of  belief  and  source  of 
inspiration  ;  a  ceaseless  clash  and  war  of  words  in  support  of  those 
opinions.  Such  iii  brief  was  the  spiritual  condition  of  the  Christian 
world  at  the  period  of  which  we  are  writing. 

Among  1 1  lose  who  stood  aloof,  surveying  the  scene  of  strife, 


wondering  which  of  all  these  wrangling  sects  was  the  true  Church  of 
Christ,  was  Joseph  Smith,  the  farmer's  boy,  then  a  little  over  fourteen 
years  of  age.  Anxious  for  his  soul's  salvation, — for  he  was  a 
thoughtful  and  conscientious  lad, — he  much  desired  to  know  the  true 
way,  in  order  that  he  might  walk  therein.  Unable  to  solve  the  prob- 
lem, though  feeling  assured  that  the  contending  churches  were  not 
all  divine,  he  forbore  to  join  with  any,  but  attended  their  meetings 
as  often  as  convenient,  particularly  those  of  the  Methodists,  to  whom 
he  was  somewhat  partial. 

One  day,  he  relates,  while  reading  the  scriptures,  his  eye  chanced 
to  rest  upon  the  fifth  verse  of  the  first  chapter  of  the  Epistle  of  James, 
running  as  follows  :  "If  any  of  you  lack  wisdom,  let  him  ask  of  God, 
that  giveth  to  all  men  liberally,  and  upbraideth  not,  and  it  shall  be 
given  him."  The  sacred  words  sank  deeply  into  the  boy's  simple  soul. 
He  did  "lack  wisdom,"  wisdom  to  know  the  truth ;  and  he  would  "ask 
of  God,"  who  had  thus  promised,  by  His  ancient  apostle,  to  hear  and 
answer  prayer.  Such  was  his  simple  faith.  Such  was  his  earnest 

Joseph's  record  then  relates  how  on  a  bright  spring  morning  in 
the  year  1820,  he  retired  to  the  woods, — a  sylvan  solitude  not  far  from 
his  father's  home, — and  finding  himself  alone,  bowed  down  in  prayer. 
It  was  his  first  attempt  to  orally  address  Deity.  He  had  scarcely  begun, 
he  declares,  when  suddenly  he  was  seized  by  some  mysterious  power 
which  paralyzed  his  tongue  so  that  he  could  no  longer  speak.  Simul- 
taneously a  cloud  of  darkness  encompassed  him,  filling  his  soul  with 
horror  and  presaging  instant  destruction.  So  literal  were  his  sensa- 
tions that  he  felt  himself  in  the  fell  grasp  of  some  actual,  though 
unseen,  personage  or  influence  of  another  world.  Exerting  all  his 
powers,  he  called  upon  God  for  deliverance — his  thoughts  now  pray- 
ing in  the  absence  of  speech — and  just  as  reason  seemed  tottering, 
and  hope  was  hovering  on  the  brink  of  despair,  he  saw  a  light 
descending  from  heaven,  directly  over  his  head,  of  such  surpassing 
brilliance  as  to  exceed  that  of  the  noon-day  sun.  The  pillar  of  splen- 
dor gradually  fell  until  it  rested  upon   the  prostrate  youth,  who.  the 


moment  it  appeared,  found  himself  delivered  from  the  deadly  influ- 
ence that  had  held  him  bound.  In  the  midst  of  the  pillar  were  two 
personages  of  ineffable  glory,  in  the  form  of  men,  one  of  whom, 
addressing  Joseph  by  name,  and  pointing  to  the  other,  said.  "This  is 
my  beloved  Son,  hear  him  !" 

The  amazed  and  enraptured  youth,  so  soon  as  he  could  collect 
his  thoughts  and  command  utterance,  recalling  the  object  of  his 
quest,  asked  of  the  glorious  oracles  which  of  all  the  religious  sects 
was  right,  and  which  one  should  he  join  ?  To  his  astonishment  he 
was  told  that  none  of  them  were  right,  and  that  he  must  not  unite 
with  any;  that  their  creeds  were  an  abomination  and  their  professors 
corrupt ;  that  they  taught  for  doctrine  the  commandments  of  men, 
drawing  near  to  the  Lord  with  their  lips  while  their  hearts  were  far 
from  Him.  and  having  a  form  of  godliness  but  denying  the  power 
thereof.  Again  forbidding  him  to  join  any  of  the  churches,  the  two 
personages  withdrew,  the  pillar  of  light  ascended  and  vanished,  and 
the  rapt  youth,  recovering  from  his  vision's  ecstacy,  found  himself 
lying  upon  his  back  gazing  up  into  heaven. 

Naturally  enough,  the  boy's  story,  being  told,  and  its  truth  per- 
sisted in — and  that,  too.  with  every  evidence  of  solemn  sincerity — 
created  no  small  sensation.  Some  were  amazed,  some  simply  amused 
at  its  audacity  ;  others  horror-stricken  at  its  blasphemy, — for  such  it 
seemed  to  them.  In  the  midst  of  a  generation  which  doubted  and 
even  denied  the  Creator's  personality,  applying  to  Him,  in  thought  if 
not  in  word.  Pope's  eloquent  definition  of  the  all-pervading  Spirit, 

Warms   in    the   sun.   refreshes   in    the   breeze. 
Glows   in   the  stars  and   blossoms   in  the  trees, 
Lives  through  al]  life,  extends  through  all  extent, 
Spreads  undivided,  operates  unspent, 

be  mi  untutored  lad.  bad  bad  tbe  temerity  to  assert,  in  full  face  of 
the  teachings  and  traditions  of  the  sects  and  schools,  that  God  the 
universal  Father  was  a  man,  a  living,  breathing,  glorified  man.  and 
thai  God  the  Sun  was  a  man  also.  made,  like  other  men.  in  the  imaee 


of  that  Father's  person.*  Moreover,  that  he  had  both  seen  and  heard 
them.  The  idea  was  preposterous — blasphemous  !  It  was  a  matter- 
of-fact,  even  skeptical  age, — skeptical  as  to  modern  miracles  and  spirit- 
ual manifestations, — that  Joseph  Smith  confronted,  and  such  a  tale, 
however  sincerely  told,  was  altogether  too  marvelous  for  belief.  Such 
an  event  was  very  much  too  literal  to  suit  the  temper  of  the  times. 
To  speak  of  Christ's  coming  to  earth  at  some  future  period  was  one 
thing ;  to  claim  that  He  had  already  come,  and  had  appeared  to  so 
insignificant  a  person  as  young  "Joe  Smith"  was  quite  another  thing. 
The  fellow  must  be  mad,  or  else  a  wicked  and  designing  impostor. 
So  thought  that  generation — so  thinks  this — with  comparatively  few 

Joseph  had  a  friend,  a  Methodist  minister,  prominent  in  the 
religious  movement  then  agitating  the  neighborhood.  To  him,  among 
the  first,  he  confided  his  story,  thinking  that  his  clerical  friend  would 
rejoice  at  the  recital.  In  this,  however,  he  was  disappointed.  The 
minister  treated  the  matter  with  utter  contempt,  flatly  telling  him  that 
it  was  '•  all  of  the  devil ;  "  that  there  were  no  such  things  now  as 
visions  and  revelations,  that  they  had  all  ceased  with  the  Apostles, 
and  that  the  world  would  never  have  any  more  of  them. 

But  the  matter  did  not  end  there.  With  the  usual  zeal  of  the 
heretic-hunter,  the  minister,  forgetting  his  former  friendship  for  the 
boy,  went  about  prejudicing  the  minds  of  his  fellow  preachers  and  the 
people  against  him.  The  result  was  that  the  lad,  who  had  formerly 
been  a  favorite  with  the  preachers,  suddenly  found  himself  an 
object  of  their  distrust  and  derision, — the  target-  of  their  bitterest 
scorn.  Continuing  to  affirm  the  truth  of  his  tale,  prejudice  increased. 
and  the  arrows  of  persecution  began  falling  around  him.  The 
preachers  and  professors,  so  disunited  before,  all  united  now  upon 
one  point, — to  deride  and  denounce  "Joe  Smith  the  imposter."  Nay, 
more;  his  very  life  was  attempted  by  the  bullet  of  the  ambushed 
assassin.     Still,  said  he,  "I  had  seen  a  vision.     I  knew  it,  and  I  knew 

*  "God  Himself  was  once  as  we  air  now,  and  is  an  exalted  man.  and  sits  enthroned 
in  yonder  heavens." — (oseph  Smith. 


that  God  knew  it,  and  I  could  not  deny  it:  at  least  I  knew  that  by  so 
doing  I  would  offend  God,  and  come  under  condemnation." 

Three  years  elapsed,  and  still  this  strange  boy, — for  strange  he 
must  have  seemed, — scorned  and  buffeted  and  belied,  steadfastly  main- 
tained his  testimony.  Driven  from  the  ranks  of  the  religious  and 
respectable  because  of  his  convictions,  he  was  often  forced  for  com- 
panionship, which  his  genial  and  kindly  nature  craved,  into  society 
not  the  most  select,  and  was  led  in  the  way  of  temptations  which  he 
did  not  always  resist.  During  those  days  he  did  things,  as  he 
candidly  confesses,  that  were  "  offensive  in  the  sight  of  God."  Self- 
condemned  for  his  youthful  follies,  accusing  conscience  finally  drove 
him  to  seek  forgiveness  of  his  Maker,  and  implore  a  fresh  proof  of 
his  "state  and  standing  before  Him." 

For  what  followed  in  his  experience  we  again  refer  to  his  own 
record,  which  necessarily  forms  the  principal  basis  of  this  portion  of 
our  narrative.  It  was  the  night  of  September  21st,  1823.  Joseph, 
retiring  to  rest,  began  pleading  with  the  heavens  and  pouring  out  his 
soul  in  penitent  supplication.  While  so  engaged  he  saw  ;a  light 
appearing  in  his  room,  increasing  in  brilliance  until  brighter  than  the 
blaze  of  noon-day.  Immediately  a  glorious  being,  clad  in  a  loose 
robe  of  radiant  whiteness,  his  countenance  lustrous  as  lightning, 
stood  at  his  bedside,  his  feet  seemingly  resting  on  air.  The  head, 
neck,  hands  and  feet  were  bare,  and  the  body,  wherever  exposed,  of 
all  but  transparent  purity.  He  called  the  youth  by  name,  and  giving 
his  own  name  as  Moroni,  proclaimed  himself  a  messenger  from  the 
presence  of  God.  He  told  Joseph  that  the  Lord  had  a  work  for  him 
to  do,  and  that  his  name  should  be  spoken  both  well  and  evil  of 
among  all  nations ;  showed  him  in  vision  where  there  was  a  record 
deposited,  written  upon  plates  of  gold,  giving  an  account  of  the 
ancient  inhabitants  of  America  and  their  origin,  and  containing  the 
fullness  of  the  Everlasting  Gospel  as  delivered  by  the  Savior  to  those 
inhabitants;  also  that  an  instrument  called  the  Vrimand  Thmtmim, 
consisting  of  two  stones  set  in  a  silver  bow  and  fastened  to  a  breast- 
plate, was  deposited  with   the  plates,  having  been  prepared  by  the 


Almighty  for  the  purpose  of  the  book's  translation.  The  angel  then 
quoted  from  the  scriptures  various  prophecies  relating  to  the  restora- 
tion of  the  Gospel  and  the  Priesthood,  the  setting  up  of  Messiah's 
latter-day  kingdom  and  the  ushering  in  of  the  Millennium.  These 
prophecies, — including  part  of  the  third  and  all  of  the  fourth  chapters 
of  Malachi,  the  eleventh  chapter  of  Isaiah,  the  twenty-second  and 
twenty-third  verses  of  the  third  chapter  of  Acts,  and  the  last  five 
verses  of  the  second  chapter  of  Joel, — he  said  were  about  to  be  ful- 
filled. He  also  declared  that  "the  fullness  of  the  Gentiles"  would 
soon  come  in.  He  warned  the  youth  that  when  he  obtained  posses- 
sion of  the  plates,  he  must  not  show  them  to  any  save  those  to  whom 
he  should  be  commanded  to  show  them, — otherwise  he  should  lie 
destroyed.  Having  delivered  his  message  the  angel  departed,  ascend- 
ing by  what  seemed  "a -conduit  opening  right  up  into  heaven,"  and 
the  room  made  radiant  by  his  presence  again  grew  dark.  But  while 
musing  and  marveling  over  this  visitation,  with  its  new  and  strange 
revealings,  Joseph  saw  the  light  returning.  In  an  instant  the  same 
messenger  stood  at  his  bedside.  Rehearsing  without  the  least  varia- 
tion the  things  before  related,  the  oracle  added  that  great  and  grievous 
judgments,  desolations  by  famine,  sword  and  pestilence  were  coming 
upon  the  earth  in  this  generation.  Again  he  departed,  but  still  again 
returned,  and  after  repeating  his  former  message,  cautioned  the  youth 
against  giving  way  to  a  mercenary  spirit  that  would  tempt  him.  owing 
to  the  pdverty  of  his  father's  family,  to  obtain  the  plates  for  purposes 
of  worldly  gain.  This  he  must  not  attempt  to  do,  but  seek  only  to 
glorify  God  and  build  up  his  kingdom.  A  third  time  the  messenger 
vanished,  when  almost  immediately  the  village  cock  crew,  and  the 
first  faint  streaks  of  dawn  shot  athwart  the  eastern  horizon. 

From  loss  of  sleep  and  the  severe  strain  upon  his  physical  pow- 
ers, incident  to  his  extraordinary  experience.  Joseph,  going  into  the 
field  to  labor  that  clay,  found  himself  exhausted  and  utterly  unable 
to  toil.  Noticing  his  condition,  his  father,  who  was  near,  bade  him 
return  to  the  house  and  rest.  He  attempted  to  obey,  but  in  crossing 
the  fence  from  out  the  field  his  strength  completely  failed,  and  he 


fell  helpless  and  unconscious  to  the  ground.  A  voice  calling  him  by 
name  aroused  him.  He  looked,  and  lo !  the  angel  messenger  of  the 
past  night  standing  above  him  in  a  halo  of  glory.  For  the  fourth 
time  Moroni  delivers  his  message,  which  now  burns  as  in  letters  of 
fire  upon  the  young  man's  mind,  then  bids  him  return  to  his  father 
and  tell  him  all.  Joseph  obeys,  his  sire  declares  it  to  be  divine,  and 
directs  him  to  go  and  do  all  that  the  angel  has  commanded. 

Accordingly,  as  the  record  continues,  he  set  out  for  the  spot 
where  he  bad  been  shown  the  plates  were  deposited.  It  was  a  bill. 
two  or  three  miles  from  the  village  of  Manchester.  "  On  the  west 
side  of  this  hill,"  says  he,  "  not  far  from  the  top,  under  a  stone  of 
considerable  size,  lay  the  plates  deposited  in  a  stone  box  :  this  stone 
was  thick  and  rounding  in  the  middle  on  the  upper  side,  and  thinner 
towards  the  edges,  so  that  the  middle  part  of  it  was  visible  above  the 
ground,  but  the  edges  all  round  Avere  covered  with  earth.  Having 
removed  the  earth  and  obtained  a  lever,  which  I  got  fixed  under  the 
edge  of  the  stone,  with  a  little  exertion  I  raised  it  up ;  I  looked  in 
and  there  indeed  did  I  behold  the  plates,  the  TJrim  and  Thummim  and 
the  breast-plate,  as  stated  by  the  messenger.  The  box  in  which  they 
lay  was  formed  by  placing  stones  together  in  some  kind  of  cement. 
In  the  bottom  of  the  box  were  laid  two  stones  cross-ways  of  the  box, 
and  on  these  stones  lay  the  plates  and  the  other  things  with  them." 

Attempting  to  possess  himself  of  the  box's  contents,  Joseph  finds 
himself  restrained,  and  at  that  moment  the  angel  who  has  directed 
him  thither  appears  and  forbids  him  to  touch  them.  Four  years,  he 
is  informed,  must  elapse  before  the  season  will  be  ripe  and  the  records 
delivered  into  his  hands.  Meantime  he  must  lead  a  godly  life,  and 
visit  the  bill  once  a  year,  until  the  four  years'  term  has  expired;  then 
and  there  to  be  further  taught  in  relation  to  his  prophetic  mission. 
Much  more  does  the  angel  unfold. — among  other  thing  that  lie. 
Moroni,  while  living  in  the  flesh,  was  the  last  of  a  line  of  prophets 
who  ministered  to  an  ancient  people  called  Nephites,  who  inhabited 
ibis  land  :  Ihal  lie  was  the  son  of  Mormon,  a  Nephite  prophet,  general 
and    historian,   whose   record   il    is   Ihal    there   lies   deposited,   where 


Moroni,  divinely  directed,  hid  it  fourteen  centuries  before;  that  this 
hill  was  called  by  the  Nephites  Cumorah,  but  to  the  Jaredites,  their 
historic  predecessors,  it  had  been  known  as  the  hill  Ramah.  Having 
finished  his  course  of  counsel  and  admonition,  the  messenger  departs, 
and  the  youth,  after  carefully  covering  the  box  containing  the  records 
and  replacing  the  surrounding  soil,  seeks  his  home  to  tell  to  the 
astonished  household  the  marvelous  things  revealed  by  the  heavenly 
messenger.  Unlike  the  minister  in  whom  he  formerly  confided,  they 
believe  his  words  and  rejoice  in  his  strange  and  wondrous  story. 

Agreeable  to  his  instructions,  Joseph,  at  the  end  of  each  year,  or 
on  the  22nd  of  each  of  the  four  succeeding  Septembers,  repairs  to 
the  hill  Cumorah,  meets  and  receives  further  teachings  from  Moroni. 
Finally,  at  the  end  of-  the  fourth  year — September  22nd.  1827 — the 
angel  custodian  of  the  golden  plates  and  the  Urim  and  Thummim 
delivers  the  ancient  relics  into  his  keeping. 




Translation  of  the  book  of  mormon — poverty  and  persecution — the  "  money- digging" 
and  "wife-stealing"  stories martin  harris the  prophet  removes  to  pennsyl- 
vania  description  of  the  plates  and  the  urim    and  thummim martin  harris  and 

professor  anthon the  reputed  method  of   translation the  stolen  manuscript 

oliver  cowdery— -john  the  baptist  and  the  aaronic  priesthood baptism  of  joseph 




1(©\0T  for  some  months,  according  to  Joseph,  after  receiving  the 
-I  b.  golden  plates,  was  he  enabled  to  begin  the  task  of  their  trans- 
lation. In  the  first  place  he  was  very  poor,  and  having  married,  was 
obliged  to  labor  more  diligently  than  ever  for  his  daily  bread.  In 
the  next  place  he  was  constantly  harassed  by  enemies. 

He  tells  that  while  on  his  way  home  with  the  plates,  he  was 
repeatedly  set  upon  by  unknown  men,  who  strove  to  wrest  them  from 
him.  Once  they  dealt  him  a  severe  blow  with  a  bludgeon.  Thanks 
to  his  superior  strength,  for  he  was  now  a  stalwart  youth  of  nearly 
twenty-two,  and  aided  as  he  believed  by  the  Almighty,  he  success- 
fully withstood  his  assailants,  and  finally  reached  home  in  safety. 
But  his  enemies  did  not  rest.  Falsehood  like  a  flood  pursued  him, 
and  the  waves  of  prejudice  rose  higher  and  higher.  The  house  in 
which  he  lived  was  beset  by  mobs;  armed  assassins  lay  in  wait  for 
liim  ami  shut  at  him  as  he  passed;  robbers  broke  into  his  rooms  to 
cany  off  the  records,  and  every  means  imaginable,  both  of  force  and 
strategy,  was  vainly  employed  to  get  them  from  him. 

In  the  interim  of  his  fourth  and  fifth  visits  to  Cumorah,  Joseph 
had  married  Miss  Emma  Hale,  daughter  of  Isaac  Hale,  of  Harmony, 


Susquehanna  County,  Pennsylvania.  He  had  formed  her  acquaint- 
ance in  the  fall  of  182o,  while  working  for  a  Mr.  Josiah  Stoal.  a  resi- 
dent of  Chenango  County,  New  York,  who  had  hired  him  to  go  with 
him  to  Pennsylvania  and  dig  for  a  silver  mine.  While  thus  employed, 
Joseph  boarded  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Hale,  and  became  enamored  of 
his  daughter,  who  returned  his  affection.  The  silver  mine  proving 
an  ignis  fatuus,  after  a  month's  fruitless  labor  Joseph  persuaded  his 
employer  to  abandon  the  useless  enterprise.  Subsequently  he  made 
overtures  for  the  hand  of  Miss  Hale,  but  her  parents  withheld  their 
consent  to  the  union.  Emma,  however,  was  of  age,  and  a  girl  of  high 
mettle,  and  her  lover  no  less  spirited  and  determined.  They  acted 
without  consent,  and  went  elsewhere  to  be  married;  the  nuptial  knot 
being  tied  by  one  Esquire  Tarbill.  at  his  home  in  South  Bainbridge. 
Chenango  County,  New  York,  on  the  18th  of  January.  1827. 

From  these  two  incidents  in  his  career. — his  being  employed  to 
dig  for  a  silver  mine,  and  his  marriage  with  Miss  Hale  away  from  her 
father's  home, — arose  the  prevalent  stories  of  "money-digging"  and 
''wife-stealing,"  used  against  him  by  his  enemies. 

The  anger  of  Emma's  parents  over  the  independent  action  of  the 
young  couple,  now  happily  wed,  evidently  soon  abated;  for  at  the 
expiration  of  a  few  months  after  their  marriage,  we  find  them  con- 
templating a  removal  to  the  home  of  the  Hales  in  Pennsylvania.  And 
this,  owing  to  the  annoyance  and  persecution  to  which  they  were  sub- 
jected at  Manchester.  Too  poor  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  trip. — a 
distance  of  about  a  hundred  miles. — Joseph  at  this  juncture  received 
timely  aid  from  a  Mr.  Martin  Harris,  a  well-to-do  farmer  residing  in 
Palmyra  Township,  a  few  miles  from  Manchester.  Mr.  Harris,  who 
had  previously  become  interested  in  Joseph,  gave  liini  fifty  dollars  to 
assist  him  on  his  journey.  This  enabled  the  young  couple  to  reach 
their  destination.  They  arrived  at  Harmony  in  December,  LS27.  On 
their  way  thither,  the  wagon  in  which  they  traveled  was  twice  stopped 
by  officers,  or  men  claiming  to  be  such,  armed  witli  search  warrants, 
who  ransacked  the  vehicle  in  quest  of  the  golden  plates.  They  were 
secreted,  it  is  said,  in  a  barrel  of  beans,  and  thus  escaped   discovery. 


These  plates  are  thus  described.  They  were  of  uniform  size. 
about  eight  inches  in  width,  each  one  a  little  thinner  than  ordinary 
tin.  They  were  bound  together  by  three  rings  running  through  one 
of  the  edges,  forming  a  book  about  six  inches  in  thickness,  one-third 
of  which  was  sealed.  This  part  was  not  to  be  opened:  the  time  not 
having  come  for  its  contents  to  be  known.  The  unsealed  two-thirds 
of  the  volume, — the  plates  of  which  could  be  turned  like  the  leaves  of 
a  book,  and  were  covered,  both  sides,  with  strange  characters,  "small 
and  beautifully  engraved." — were  left  free  to  be  translated  by  means 
of  the  Vrim  and  Thummim. 

This  instrument  consisted  of  two  precious  stones,  set  in  the  rims 
of  a  silver  bow,  and  fastened  to  a  breast-plate.  The  breast-plate,  like 
the  record  plates,  was  of  gold,  the  inside  concave,  the  outside  con- 
vex, and  four  golden  bands  attached  served  to  fasten  it  to  the  person 
of  the  wearer. 

In  February.  1828.  Martin  Harris,  the  Palmyra  farmer,  visited  his 
young  friend  at  Harmony.  Being  shown  certain  mystical  characters, 
which  Joseph  informed  him  he  had  copied  from  the  golden  plates  and 
translated.  Martin,  by  permission,  took  these  characters  to  the  city 
of  New  York,  to  exhibit  them  to  the  savants  and  linguists  of  the 

According  to  his  account,  he  first  submitted  them  to  Professor 
Charles  Anthon.  of  Columbia  College,  who  stated  that  the  translation 
was  correct,  and  as  to  the  characters,  translated  and  untranslated, 
that  they  were  Egyptian.  Chaldaic,  Syriac  and  Arabic — true  and  gen- 
uine. Being  asked  for  a  certificate  to  that  effect,  he  willingly  gave 
one.  addressing  it  to  the  people  of  Palmyra. 

"  How  did  the  young  man  learn  that  there  were  gold  plates 
there?"  asked  the  Professor,  as  Harris,  having  folded  the  certificate 
and  put  it  in  bis  pocket,  turned  to  go. 

••  An  angel  of  God  revealed  it  to  him,"  answered  the  farmer. 

A  look  (it  dismay,  as  if  doubting  the  speaker's  sanity,  stole  over 
the  lace  of  the  Professor,  who,  as  soon  as  he  could  regain  himself. 

exclaimed  "Lei  me  see  that  certificate." 


Martin  returned  the  paper,  whereupon  Professor  Anthon  tore  it 
in  pieces,  remarking  that  there  were  no  such  things  now  as  minister- 
ing of  angels,  but  that  if  the  plates  were  brought  to  him  be  would 
translate  them. 

Martin  informed  him  that  a  portion  of  the  golden  book  was 
sealed,  and  that  he  would  not  be  permitted  to  bring  it. 

"'I  cannot  read  a  sealed  book,"*  replied  the  Professor,  and  the 
interview  abruptly  ended. 

Harris  next  consulted  Dr.  Mitchell,  another  scholar,  who  sec- 
onded all  that  Professor  Anthon  had  said  concerning  the  characters 
and  the  translation. 

Such  was  the  report  of  his  errand  with  which  Martin  Harris 
returned  to  Joseph  Smith.  So  far  was  he  now  converted  to  the  lat- 
ter"s  views,  that  lie  then  and  there  offered  to  act  as  his  scribe  in  the 
work  of  translation.  As  Joseph  Avas  a  poor  penman,  this  offer  was 
gratefully  accepted. 

The  following  is  the  reputed  method  of  translation.  The  Pro- 
phet, scanning  through  the  Urim  ami  Thummim  the  golden  pages, 
would  see  appear,  in  lieu  of  the  strange  characters  engraved  thereon, 
their  equivalent  in  English  words.  These  he  would  repeat,  and  the 
scribe,  separated  from  him  by  a  veil  or  curtain,  would  write  them 
down.  A  peculiarity  of  the  process  was  that  until  the  writing  was 
correct  in  every  particular,  the  words  last  given  would  remain  before 
the  eyes  of  the  translator,  and  not  disappear.  But  on  the  necessai-y 
correction  being  made,  they  would  immediately  pass  away  and  be 
succeeded  by  others.  In  this  manner  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  said  to 
have  been  translated.  Hence  the  claim  of  the  Latter-day  Saints. — 
called  "Mormons"  for  their  belief  in  the  book. — to  its  plenary 

From  the  12th  of  April  to  the  14th  of  June,  1828,  Joseph  and 
Martin  continued,  with  some  intermissions,  their  joint  labor  of  trans- 
lating.    In  that   interim  the  latter  copied  by  dictation  one  hundred 

The  Latter-day  Saints  regard  lliis  us 


and  sixteen  pages  of  foolscap  manuscript.  These  pages  he  much 
desired  to  show  to  his  wife  and  other  curious  or  skeptical  persons, 
with  a  view  to  their  conversion.  After  many  entreaties  and  refusals, 
he  obtained  Joseph's  permission  to  do  so.  on  condition  that  they 
should  be  shown  only  to  certain  persons  who  were  named.  Martin. 
however,  broke  his  pledge  and  permitted  others  to  see  them.  The 
result  was  that  the  manuscript  was  stolen.  Neither  he  nor  Joseph 
ever  again  beheld  it.  A  temporary  estrangement  ensued  between 
them,  and  the  Prophet,  it  is  said,  having  angered  the  Almighty,  lost 
his  gift  tnr  a  season.  Martin,  though  eventually  forgiven,  never  again 
acted  as  Joseph's  scribe. 

Oliver  Gowdery  next  comes  upon  the  scene.  He  is  a  school- 
teacher by  profession :  by  trade  a  blacksmith;  young  in  years,  but  a 
man  of  intelligence  and  education.  Pursuing  his  vocation  of  peda- 
gogue at  Manchester.  New  York,  during  the  winter  of  1828-9,  while 
boarding  in  the  family  of  Joseph  Smith,  senior,  he  hears  of  young 
Joseph,  his  visions  and  the  golden  plates,  and  is  impressed  with  a 
belief  in  their  genuineness.  He  is  also  imbued  with  the  idea  that 
his  future  destiny  and  that  of  the  Prophet  are  in  some  manner 
interwoven.  At  Sabbath  sunset,  April  5th,  1829.  he  presents  himself 
at  Joseph's  door  in  Harmony,  and  volunteers  his  services  as 
a  scribe  and  secretary.  The  proffered  aid  is  eagerly  accepted. 
Two  days  later  the  youthful  twain. — who  are  yet  to  be  known  as  the 
first  and  second  Elders  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints. — continue  the  work  of  translating  the  Nephite  record.  The 
rendering  into  English  progresses  rapidly  under  their  united  and 
almost  incessant  labors,  and  by  the  middle  of  May  the  greater  part  of 
the  translation  is  complete. 

Joseph  and  Oliver  testify  that  on  a  certain  day  they  suspended 
I  heir  task  and  went  old  into  the  woods  to  pray  and  inquire  of  the 
Lord  concerning  the  doctrine — then  well  nigh  obsolete  in  Christen- 
dom— of  baptism  for  the  remission  of  sins,  which  they  had  found 
mentioned  in  the  translation  of  the  plates.  While  calling  upon  the 
Lord,    they   declare,  a    heavenly   messenger  descended   in   a   cloud   of 


light,  and  laying  his  hands  upon  their  heads,  spake  these  words : 
"  Upon  you,  my  fellow  servants,  in  the  name  of  Messiah,  I  confer  the 
Priesthood  of  Aaron,  which  holds  the  keys  of  the  ministering  of 
angels,  and  of  the  gospel  of  repentance,  and  of  baptism  by  immer- 
sion for  the  remission  of  sins ;  and  this  shall  never  again  be  taken 
from  the  earth,  until  the  sons  of  Levi  do  offer  again  an  offering  unto 
the  Lord  in  righteousness." 

The  angel  who  thus  ordained  them  said  that  his  name  was  John, 
the  same  who  was  anciently  surnamed  "the  Baptist,"  and  that  he 
acted  under  the  direction  of  Peter,  James  and  John,  who  held  the  keys 
of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood;  this,  the  higher  authority,  should 
in  due  time  be  conferred  upon  them,  and  Joseph  should  then  be 
the  first  Elder  and  Oliver  the  second  Elder  in  the  Church  of  Christ. 
The  Melchisedek  Priesthood  would  authorize  them  to  bestow  the 
Holy  Ghost  by  the  laying  on  of  hands,  a  power  not  conferred  by  the 
Priesthood  of  Aaron.  They  were  then  directed  to  baptize  each  other 
by  immersion ;  Joseph  first  to  baptize  Oliver,  Oliver  then  to  baptize 
Joseph ;  after  which,  in  the  same  order,  they  were  to  re-ordain  each 
other  to  the  Aaronic  Priesthood.  These  instructions  were  carefully 
obeyed.  The  date  given  for  these  events  is  May  15th,  1829.  Accord- 
ing to  the  record,  it  was  soon  after  this  that  the  Melchisedek  Priest- 
hood was  conferred  upon  Joseph  and  Oliver  by  the  Apostles  Peter, 
James  and  John. 

In  the  latter  part  of  May  the  mobocratic  spirit,  which  till  then  had 
lain  dormant  in  that  locality,  manifested  itself  at  this  place  of  peace- 
ful name,  Harmony,  where  a  violent  assault  upon  the  two  young  men 
was  only  prevented  by  the  personal  influence  of  Mr.  Hale,  Joseph's 
father-in-law.  Joseph  was  now  living  in  his  own  home,  but  the  gaunt 
wolf  of  poverty  still  hovered  round  his  door.  Hearing  of  his  strait- 
ened circumstances  and  having  faith  in  his  professions,  an  elderly 
man  named  Joseph  Knight,  residing  at  Colesville,  Broome  County,  New 
York — thirty  miles  distant — came  bringing  supplies  of  food  and  other 
necessaries,  to  enable  him  and  his  scribe  to  continue  their  work  with- 
out interruption.     This  act  of  beneficence  was  several  times  repeated. 


A  family  named  Whitmer,  friends  of  Oliver  Cowdery,  at  Fayette. 
Seneca  County,  New  York,  had  also  been  apprised  of  the  situation. 
Early  in  June  David  Whitmer  arrived  at  Harmony  with  a  message 
from  his  father,  Peter  Whitmer,  senior,  inviting  Joseph  and  Oliver  to 
come  to  Fayette  and  make  their  home  in  his  household.  This  offer 
was  thankfully  accepted. 

At  the  home  of  Father  Whitmer,  to  which  they  at  once  repaired, 
they  zealously  prosecuted  their  labors.  At  intervals  Joseph  and  Oliver 
would  converse  with  the  Whitmers  and  other  people  of  the  neighbor- 
hood upon  the  subject  of  religion,  baptizing  such  as  believed  and 
desired  to  embrace  their  principles.  During  the  month  of  June, 
Hyrum  Smith,  David  Whitmer  and  Peter  Whitmer,  junior,  were  bap- 
tized in  Seneca  Lake ;  the  first  two  by  Joseph  Smith,  the  last-named 
by  Oliver  Cowdery.  Samuel  H.  Smith  had  been  baptized  by  Oliver  at 
Harmony  some  time  before. 

Among  the  predictions  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  one  to  the 
effect  that  three  special  witnesses  should  be  chosen  to  behold  the 
plates  from  which  it  was  translated.  These  plates  were  to  be  shown 
them  by  an  angel.  Oliver  Cowdery,  David  Whitmer  and  Martin  Harris 
were  selected  as  these  witnesses.  The  event  is  thus  recorded  in  their 
own  words,  forming  a  portion  of  the  preface  to  the  Book  of  Mormon : 


Be  it  known  unto  all  nations,  kindreds,  tongues,  and  people  unto  whom  this  work 
shall  coine,  that  we,  through  the  grace  of  God  the  Father,  and  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  have 
-ecu  Hi"  plales  which  contain  this  record,  which  is  a  record  of  the  people  of  Nephi,  and 
also  of  the  Lamanites,  their  brethren,  and  also  of  the  people  of  Jared,  who  came  from  the 
tower  of  which  hath  been  spoken  ;  and  we  also  know  that  they  have  been  translated  by 
the  gift  and  power  of  God,  for  his  voice  hath  declared  it  unto  us ;    wherefore  we  know  of 

a  surety  thai  the  work  is  true.      And   we  also  testily  thai  we  have  seen   il ugravings 

whii  li  are  upon  the  plates;  and  they  have  been  shewn  unto  us  by  the  power  of  God.  and 
not  of  man.      And  we  declare  with  words  of  soberness,  that  an    angel  of  God  came  down 

'"'in  heaven,  and  he  brought  and  laid  befor r  eyes,  that  we  beheld  and  saw  the  plates. 

and  il ugravings  thereon  ;  ami  we  know  that  il  is  by  the  grace  of  God   the   Father,  and 

our  Lord  JeSUS  Christ,  thai  we  beheld  and  hear  record  that  these  things  are  true:  and  it  is 

marvelous  in  our  eyes,  nevertheless  the  voice  of  the  Lord  commanded  us  that  we  should 

bear  rd  of  it;    wherefore  to  he  obedienl   unto  the  commandments  of  God,  we  bear 

testi y  of  these  thing!     And  we  know  that  if  we  are  faithful   in  Christ,  we  shall   rid 


our  garments  of  the  blood  of  all  men,  and   be  found 

spotless  before  the  judgment-seat  of 

Christ,  and  shall  dwell  with  him  eternally  in  the  h 

eavens.      And  the  honor  be  to  the 

Father,  and  to  the  Son,  and  to  the  Holy  Ghost,  whi< 

•h  is  one  God.      Allien. 

Oliver  Cowdery, 


David  Whitmer, 
Martin  Harris. 

Eight  others  also  testify,  as  follows : 


Be  it  known  unto  all  nations,  kindreds,  tongues,  and  people  unto  whom  this  work 
shall  come,  that  Joseph  Smith.  Jun.,  the  translator  of  this  work,  has  shewn  unto  us  the 
plates  of  which  hath  been  spoken,  which  have  the  appearance  of  gold  ;  and  as  many  of 
the  leaves  as  the  said  Smith  has  translated,  we  did  handle  with  our  hands  ;  and  we  also 
saw  the  engravings  thereon,  all  of  which  has  the  appearance  of  ancient  work,  and  of 
curious  workmanship.  And  this  we  hear  record  with  words  of  soberness,  that  the  said 
Smith  has  shewn  unto  us,  for  we  have  seen  and  hefted,  and  know  of  a  surely  that  the 
said  Smith  has  got  the  plates  (if  which  we  have  spoken.  And  we  give  our  names  unto 
the  world.  In  witness  unto  the  world  that  which  we  have  seen  ;  and  we  lie  not.  God  bear- 
ing witness  of  it. 

Christian  Whitmer,  Hiram  Page, 

Jacob  Whitmer,  Joseph  Smith,  Sen.. 

Peter  Whitmer,  Jun.,  Hyrum  Smith, 

John  Whitmer,  Samuel  H.  Smith. 

Among  the  revelations  recorded  as  "given  through  Joseph  the 
Seer"  during  the  month  of  June,  1829,  is  one  making  known  the 
calling  of  the  Twelve  Apostles  of  the  coming  Church.  The  mission 
to  ''search  out  the  Twelve"  was  given  to  Oliver  Cowdery  and  David 
Whitmer.  In  other  revelations,  addressed  to  various  individuals,  it 
is  reiterated  that  '"a  great  and  marvelous  work  is  about  to  come  forth 
among  the  children  of  men." 

As  the  translation  drew  to  a  close,  the  Prophet  and  his  friends 
visited  Palmyra,  the  home  of  Martin  Harris,  to  arrange  for  the  pub- 
lication of  the  Book  of  Mormon.  They  secured  the  copy-righl  and 
contracted  with  Mr.  Egbert  B.  Grandin  to  print  live  thousand  copies 
for  the  sum  of  three  thousand  dollars.  Martin  Harris  was  In  furnish 
the  money.     The  copy-righl  was  secured  June  11th.  1829. 

Respecting  the  final  disposition  of  the  plates  and  the  Urim  and 
Thummim,  Joseph  slides  that  the  same  heavenly  messenger  who  com- 


mitted  them  to  his  care,  reclaimed  them  when  the  work  of  translation 
was  over. 

The  manuscript  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  carefully  copied, 
the  original  retained  by  the  translator,  and  the  copy, — said  to  be  in 
the  writing  of  Oliver  Cowdery,* — placed  in  the  hands  of  the  printer. 
Joseph  then  paid  a  visit  to  his  home  in  Pennsylvania,  leaving  his 
more  scholarly  friend  Cowdery  to  superintend  the  proof-reading  and 
other  details  of  publication.  Early  in  the  year  1830  the  first  edition 
of  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  given  to  the  world. 

*  This  manuscript  is  now  in  the  possession  of  the  family  of  the  late  David  Whitmer, 
at  Richmond,  Ray  County,  Mo. 



What  the  book  of  mormon  claims  to  be — the  narrative  of  the  nephite  record — how 
the  world  received  it the  spaulding  story "  mormonism  unveiled  " the  sid- 
ney   rigdon    anachronism discovery    of    the    original    "  manuscript    story  " its 

condensed     narrative mormon's    record    and     spaulding's     romance     compared 

Reynolds'    "  myth    of    the    manuscript    found  " — president    fairchild's     opinion — 
numerous  editions  of  the  translated  work. 

•L  HE  Book  of  Mormon  claims  to  be  a  record  of  two  great  races  that 
>K  flourished  successively  upon  the  American  continent  ages  prior 
to  its  discovery  by  Columbus.  Their  combined  histories,  written 
by  a  succession  of  authors — prophets  and  kings — cover  a  period 
extending  from  the  time  of  the  Tower  of  Babel  down  to  about  the 
beginning  of  the  fifth  century  of  the  Christian  era.  The  records  of 
these  authors  comprise  fifteen  books,  named  in  their  order  as  follows : 
I.  Nephi,  ii.  Nephi,  Book  of  Jacob,  Book  of  Enos,  Book  of  Jarom, 
Book  of  Omni,  The  Words  of  Mormon,  Book  of  Mosiah,  including 
the  Record  of  Zeniff,  Book  of  Alma,  Book  of  Helaman,  in.  Nephi,  iv. 
Nephi,  Book  of  Mormon,  Book  of  Ether,  and  the  Book  of  Moroni. 

The  first  of  the  ancient  races  referred  to,  whose  histories  are 
briefly  given  in  these  records,  were  the  Jaredites,  who,  in  the  disper- 
sion following  the  confusion  of  tongues,  came  across  the  great  deep 
and  peopled  what  is  now  North  America.  Their  leaders  were  .Tared 
and  his  brother,  Mahonri  Moriancumr,  from  the  former  of  whom  the 
nation  derived  its  name.  Their  greatest  national  character,  however, 
was  this  "  brother  of  Jared," — otherwise  nameless  in  the  record, * — 
under  whose  inspired  leadership  the  colony  left  the  land  of  Shinar, 
and  crossing  one  of  the  great  oceans  in  ships  or  "  barges  "  of  their 
own  building,  landed  on  these  northern  shores,  made  glorious  during 

:::  Joseph  Smith  supplied  the  proper  name,  Mahonri  Moriancumr. 


the  lapse  of  centuries  by  their  power,  wisdom,  wealth  and  civiliza- 

The  Jaredite  leaders  were  democratic  in  their  instincts,  abhorring 
the  idea  of  kings  and  monarchies,  which  they  had  been  taught  to 
believe  could  not  long  flourish  upon  this  goodly  land, — a  land  destined 
to  be  "  free  from  bondage."  But  their  people,  like  the  Israelites  of  a 
later  period  in  the  far-off  land  of  Canaan,  desired  a  king,  and  besought 
them  ere  they  died  to  anoint  one  of  their  sons  to  rule  over  them. 
The  thought  was  repugnant  to  the  great  and  good  founders  of  the 
nation,  who  foresaw  the  inevitable  result, — the  captivity,  perchance 
the  destruction  of  their  people.  However,  they  yielded  reluctant 
assent,  and  one  of  the  sons  of  Jared — Orihah — his  three  brothers  and 
all  the  sons  of  the  brother  of  Jared  having  declined  the  proffered 
purple,  was  anointed  king. 

A  short  period  of  prosperity  followed,  for  the  people  served 
God  and  were  righteous.  Then  came  wealth,  class  divisions,  pride, 
tyranny,  with  their  usual  concomitants. — luxury,  licentiousness  and 
crime.  The  worship  of  God  was  neglected,  then  abandoned.  Self- 
interest  dethroned  patriotism,  and  passion  usurped  the  place  of 
principle.  Civil  wars  broke  out,  dismembering  and  dividing  the 
nation.  From  civilization  and  refinement  the  race  sank  into  brutal- 
ity and  savagery,  until  finally,  over  the  precipice  of  destruction,  of 
utter  annihilation,  swept  the  awful  torrent  of  a  mighty  people's  ruin. 

The  last  of  many  prophets  who  taught  and  warned  the  Jaredites, 
seeking  in  vain  to  avert  their  coming  doom,  was  Ether  their  historian, 
wIki.  having  witnessed  the  destruction  of  his  people,  hid  up  their 
records  for  discovery  in  after  ages,  and  disappeared  from  view. 

A  few  passages  from  the  Book  of  Ether*,  as  abridged  by  Moroni 
the  Xephite.  are  here  presented  : 

And  now  I,  Moroni,  proceed  to  finish   my  record  c terning  the  destruction  of  the 

) i1'1'  of  whom  I  have  been  writing. 

For  behold,  thej  rejected  the  words  of  Ether;  for  he  truly  tn],l  them  of  all  things, 
from  the  beginning  of  man ;  and  thai  after  the  waters  had  receded  from  oil  the  face  of  this 

Chapter  xiii.  1-14. 


land,  it  became  a  choice  land  above  all  other  lands,  a  chosen  land  of  the  Lord  ;  wherefore 
the  Lord  would  have  that  all  men  should  serve  him  who  dwell  upon  the  face  thereof; 

And  that  it  was  the  place  of  the  New  Jerusalem,  which  should  come  down  out  of 
heaven,  and  the  Holy  Sanctuary  of  the  Lord. 

Behold,  Ether  saw  the  days  of  Christ,  and  he  spake  concerning  a  New  Jerusalem 
upon  this  land  ; 

And  he  spake  also  concerning  the  house  of  Israel,  and  the  Jerusalem  from  whence 
Lehi  should  come  ;  after  it  should  be  destroyed,  it  should  be  built  up  again  a  holy  city 
unto  the  Lord,  wherefore  it  could  not  be  a  New  Jerusalem,  for  it  had  been  in  a  time  of  old, 
but  it  should  be  built  up  again,  and  become  a  holy  city  of  the  Lord  ;  and  it  should  be 
built  unto  the  house  of  Israel  ; 

And  that  a  New  Jerusalem  should  be  built  up  upon  this  land,  unto  the  remnant  of 
the  seed  of  Joseph,  for  which  things  there  has  been  a  type ; 

For  as  Joseph  brought  his  father  down  into  the  land  of  Egypt,  even  so  he  died  there  ; 
wherefore  the  Lord  brought  a  remnant  of  the  seed  of  Joseph  out  of  the  land  of  Jerusalem, 
that  he  might  be  merciful  unto  the  seed  of  Joseph,  that  they  should  perish  not,  even  as  he 
was  merciful  unto  the  father  of  Joseph,  that  he  should  perish  not ; 

Wherefore  the  remnant  of  the  house  of  Joseph  shall  be  built  upon  this  land  ;  and  it 
shall  be  a  land  of  their  inheritance ;  and  they  shall  build  up  a  holy  city  unto  the  Lord, 
like  unto  the  Jerusalem  of  old  ;  and  they  shall  no  more  be  confounded,  until  the  end 
comes  when  the  earth  shall  pass  away. 

And  there  shall  be  a  new  heaven  and  a  new  earth  ;  and  they  shall  be  like  unto  the 
old,  save  the  old  have  passed  away,  and  all  things  have  become  new. 

And  then  cometh  the  New  Jerusalem  ;  and  blessed  are  they  who  dwell  therein,  for  it 
is  they  whose  garments  are  white  through  the  blood  of  the  Lamb;  and  they  are  they  who 
are  numbered  among  the  remnant  of  the  seed  of  Joseph,  who  were  of  the  bouse  of 

And  then  also  cometh  the  Jerusalem  of  old;  and  the  inhabitants  thereof,  blessed  are 
they,  for  they  have  been  washed  in  the  blood  of  the  Lamb ;  and  they  are  they  who  were 
scattered  and  gathered  in  from  the  four  quarters  of  the  earth,  and  from  the  north  countries, 
and  are  partakers  of  the  fulfilling  of  the  covenant  which  God  made  with  their  father 

And  when  these  things  come,  bringeth  to  pass  the  scripture  which  saith,  There  are 
they  who  were  first,  who  shall  be  last ;  and  there  are  they  who  were  last,  who  shall  be 

And  1  was  about  to  write  mure,  but  am  forbidden;  but  great  and  marvelous  were  the 
prophecies  of  Ether,  but  they  esteemed  him  as  nought,  and  cast  him  out,  and  be  hid 
himself  in  the  cavity  of  a  rock  by  day.  and  by  night  he  went  forth  ■vfewiag  the  things 
which  should  come  upon  the  people. 

And  as  he  dwell  in  the  cavity  of  a  mek,  he  made  the  remainder  of  this  record, 
viewing  the  destructions  which  came  upon  the  people  by  night. 

The  sole  survivor  of  the  final  slaughter,  which  took  place  near 
the  hill  Ramah,  between  the  two  great  contending  factions  of  the 


fratricidal  Jaredites,  was  Corianlumr.  their  king.  Having  slain  Shiz, 
the  leader  of  the  opposing  host,  in  a  duel  upon  the  bloody  field, 
where  all  save  this  twain  had  fallen,  Coriantumr  lived  long  enough 
to  tell  the  sad  story  of  his  people's  ruin  to  their  successors  upon  this 
northern  land.  These,  the  people  of  Mulek.  were  a  colony  led  out 
from  Jerusalem  under  Mulek,  son  of  Zedekiah,  king  of  Judah,  about 
the  time  of  the  beginning  of  the  Babylonian  captivity.  They  did  not 
remain  a  distinct  nation,  but  coalesced  with  the  Nephites,  the  second 
of  the  two  great  races  mentioned. 

The  Nephites,  with  whose  history  the  Book  of  Mormon  begins, 
— the  discovery  of  Mulek's  colony  and  the  finding  and  translating  of 
the  Jaredite  Book  of  Ether  being  incidents  in  their  career, — were 
likewise  from  Judea.  They  were  mostly  the  descendants  of  Lehi, 
who,  divinely  guided,  departed  with  his  family  from  Jerusalem  about 
the  year  600  B.  C, — eleven  years  before  Mulek's  colony  emigrated, — 
while  the  Prophet  Jeremiah  was  pouring  his  solemn  warnings  in  the 
ears  of  king,  princes,  priests  and  people  of  the  sin-laden  and  doomed 
city.  Lehi  was  descended  from  Joseph,  through  Manasseh.  His 
wife's  name  was  Sariah.  Their  children,  when  leaving  Jerusalem, 
were  four  sons, — Laman,  Lemuel,  Sam  and  Nephi, — and  several 
daughters  whose  names  are  not  given.  Subsecraently  were  born  to 
them  two  more  sons, — Jacob  and  Joseph.  The  other  members  of 
Lehi's  colony  were  Ishmael  and  his  family,  who  were  of  Ephraim,* 
and  a  servant  named  Zoram.  The  sons  and  daughters  of  Lehi  and 
Ishmael  intermarried. 

The  course  of  the  colony  from  Jerusalem  led  to  the  Red  Sea  and 
along  its  shores ;  thence  eastward  across  the  peninsula  of  Arabia. 
On  the  shores  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  under  the  inspired  direction  of 
Nephi,  who  became  the  virtual  leader  of  the  colony,  they  built  a  ship, 
and  in  it  crossed  £i  the  great  waters  " — the  Indian  and  Pacific  oceans 
— to  South  America.  They  are  supposed  to  have  landed  on  the  coast 
of  the  country  now  called  Chili.     Thence,  as  their  nation  or  nations 

*  Joseph  Smith  said  thai  the  manuscripl  lost  by  Martin  Harris  so  stated. 


grew,  and  the  people  multiplied,  the  descendants  of  Lehi  spread  over 
the  whole  face  of  South  and  North  America. 

After  Lehi's  death  the  colony  divided ;  Laman  and  Lemuel,  who 
had  always  been  jealous  of  their  younger  and  gifted  brother  Nephi, 
rebelling  against  his  rule,  and  leading  away  others  to  form  a  separate 
people.  Thenceforth  there  were  two  nations  ;  the  followers  of  Laman, 
who  were  known  as  Lamanites,  and  the  adherents  of  Nephi.  who 
took  upon  them  his  name  in  like  manner.  The  Lamanites.  for  their 
iniquity,  were  cursed  by  the  Almighty  with  dark  skins.  They  became 
a  loathsome  and  benighted  race,  savage  and  blood-thirsty,  roaming 
the  wilderness  and  subsisting  upon  wild  beasts,  killed  for  game,  or 
by  their  frequent  marauding  incursions  into  the  territory  of  the 
Nephites.  The  latter  were  highly  civilized,  dwelling  in  cities  and  cul- 
tivating the  arts  and  sciences.  Unlike  their  dark-skinned  neighbors, 
they  were  "  a  white  and  a  delightsome  people,"  fair  and  beautiful  to 
look  upon.  Gentle  in  peace,  valorous  in  war,  refined,  intelligent, 
wealthy  and  powerful,  they  were  at  once  the  envy  and  the  terror  of 
their  foes,  the  ferocious  Lamanites,  who  hated  them  with  an  inten- 
sity indescribable.  Many  were  the  wars  and  conflicts  between  the 
two  races ;  the  Lamanites  being  generally  the  aggressors,  while  the 
Nephites  fought  in  self-defense.  Their  warriors  were  highly  disci- 
plined, wore  armor,  and  wielded  the  sword,  spear  and  javelin,  while 
the  Lamanites,  whose  favorite  weapons  were  the  bow  and  sling,  went 
half  nude  or  clothed  in  skins,  affording  little  protection  against  the 
sharp  blades  and  keen  points  of  their  adversaries.  Still  they  were 
fiercely  brave,  and  frequently  came  off  conquerors.  When  the 
Nephites  served  God  they  prospered,  and  in  war  were  invincible  and 
invulnerable.  When  they  forgot  Him,  as  they  often  did,  their  power 
waned  and  departed,  and  they  fell  an  easy  prey  to  their  enemies. 
But  as  often  as  they  repented,  their  strength  and  valor  returned,  and 
the  God  of  battles  fought  with  them  and  against  their  foes. 

The  religion  of  the  Nephites,  until  the  advent  of  the  Savior, — 
who  appeared  to  them  shortly  after  His  resurrection  and  established 
His  church  among  them, — was  the  law  of  Moses;  though  they  also 


understood  and  practiced  the  first  principles  of  Christ's  gospel, 
revealed  to  them  prior  to  His  coming.  One  of  their  first  projects, 
alter  separating  from  Laman  and  his  followers,  who  turned  entirely 
from  the  Lord,  was  to  build  a  temple  to  the  Most  High,  constructed 
after  the  pattern,  though  not  on  the  same  scale  of  magnificence,  as 
the  temple  of  Solomon.  Nephi,  his  brothers  Jacob  and  Joseph  and 
their  descendants  were  the  officiating  Priesthood. 

The  Nephite  government  was  originally  a  limited  monarchy,  with 
Nephi, — against  his  own  will,  for  he,  like  the  first  Jaredite  leaders,  was 
an  anti-monarchist, — as  king  or  protector.  His  successors,  for  sev- 
eral centuries,  were  mostly  wise  and  able  rulers,  during  whose  reigns 
the  Nephites  enjoyed  many  periods  of  prosperity,  and  the  nation, 
though  at  times  brought  to  the  brink  of  ruin  by  the  wickedness  of 
its  people,  spread  abroad  and  became  powerful.  The  Lamanites  like- 
wise had  kings,  who  were  autocrats,  but,  as  stated,  they  were  a 
nomadic  and  savage  race,  and  only  at  rare  intervals. — and  then  by 
fusion  or  contact  with  the  Nephites, — reached  a  standard  of  civiliza- 

In  the  year  B.  C.  91,  tin-  Nephite  republic  was  proclaimed,  and 
for  a  period  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  years  the  nation  was  ruled 
by  judges  elected  by  the  people.  Wars  with  the  Lamanites  and  with 
bands  of  truculent  outlaws  known  as  C4adianton  robbers ;  victories, 
defeats,  internal  dissensions,  revolutions,  disasters,  works  of  glory  and 
deeds  of  darkness  mark  this  checkered  period, — an  era  of  violent 
vicissitudes.  In  the  year  A.  D.  30  the  republic  was  disrupted,  and  the 
people  divided  into  tribes  and  factions. 

Then  came  the  greatest,  most  glorious,  and  withal  most  terrible 
event  in  the  annals  of  the  Nephite  nation. — the  advent  of  the  risen 
Redeemer;  His  appearance  to  the  more  righteous  portion  of  the 
people,  preceded  by  the  appalling,  overwhelming  destruction  and 
desolation  of  the  wicked.  First,  according  to  those  annals,  an  awful 
tempest,  unparalleled  in  force  and  fury,  swept  over  the  land,  leaving 
denili  and  devastation  in  its  wake.  Three  hours  it  endured, — but  what 
hours!     During  the  prevalence  of  the  storm,  while  the  lightning's 


fiery  falchion  smote,  and  the  batteries  of  heaven  thundered  and  rever- 
berated, the  whole  face  of  nature  was  changed,  disfigured,  like  the 
rage-distorted  visage  of  an  angry  man.  Mountains  disappeared, 
sunken  or  swept  away.  Valleys  became  towering  peaks.  Impelled  by 
the  whirlwind,  great  boulders  hurtled  through  the  air,  as  if  thrown 
by  Titan  hands,  or  rolled  grinding  and  crashing  along  the  quivering 
earth.  The  mighty  heart  of  nature  throbbed  tumultuously.  Earth- 
quakes with  awful  rumblings  rent  the  ground.  Great  chasms  opened, 
like  monster  jaws,  engulfing  cities  with  their  living  millions,  while 
others  were  devoured  by  fire,  or  swallowed  by  the  raging  seas,  heav- 
ing beyond  their  bounds.  Three  hours  of  fearful  turmoil,  with  three 
days  of  thick  darkness  following,  during  which  the  affrighted  inhabit- 
ants, survivors  of  the  tempest  and  its  terrors,  lay  shuddering  half 
lifeless  upon  the  quaking  earth,  listening  to  the  horrible  groanings  and 
grindings  of  the  storm  ;  or  when  its  fury  lulled,  loudly  bewailing  their 
own  and  their  fellows'  woes. 

At  length  the  tumult  ceases  ;  the  earth  no  longer  trembles,  and 
the  voice  of  Him  who  stilled  with  a  word  the  stormy  waves  of  Galilee 
is  heard  from  heaven  proclaiming  in  solemn  tones  the  calamities  that 
have  befallen.  A  note  of  awful  warning  to  the  transgressor;  a  prom- 
ise of  peace  and  of  pardon  to  the  penitent.  Subsequently  the  Savior 
appears.  The  more  righteous  of  the  Nephites  behold  Him.  He 
shows  to  them  His  wounded  side  and  the  prints  of  the  nails  in  His 
hands  and  feet:  instructs  them  in  the  truths  of  His  gospel;  heals 
their  sick,  blesses  their  children,  administers  the  sacrament  and 
establishes  His  church  in  the  midst  of  them.  Therein  are  apostles, 
prophets,  etc. — the  same  orders  of  Priesthood,  the  same  doctrines, 
ordinances,  gifts  and  graces  that  characterize  the  church  at  Jerusa- 
lem. He  informs  the  Nephites  that  they  are  the  "other  sheep,"  of 
whom  He  spake  lo  His  Jewish  disciples — though  they  understood 
Him  not — who  were  "not  of  that  fold:'*  not  of  Judah  but  of  Joseph: 
and  that  from  them  He  goes  to  visit  still  "other  sheep,"  not  of  this 
land,  ••neither  of  the  land  of  Jerusalem."  Having  fully  instructed 
them  He  departs:  not.  however,  before  giving  to  three  of  the  Twelve 


whom  He  has  chosen,  power  over  death,  insomuch  that  the  destroyer 
cannot  assail  them,  and  to  all  the  Apostles  power  to  preach  the  gos- 
pel, administer  its  ordinances,  work  miracles,  build  up  the  Church 
and  bring  souls  to  Him. 

Then  ensue  nearly  two  centuries  of  unexampled  peace  and  pros- 
perity, during  which  period  the  Church  of  Christ,  a  pure  theocracy, 
reigns  supreme.  A  community  of  interests,  spiritual  and  temporal — 
more  than  realizing  the  theories  of  a  Bellamy — is  established;  Neph- 
ites  and  Lamanites  throughout  the  entire  land  are  converted  unto 
Christ,  and  bask  in  the  light  of  an  almost  Millennial  era.  This 
happy  state  continues  until  the  year  A.  D.  200,  when  the  first  signs  of 
disintegration  appear.  Other  churches  are  then  founded,  other  creeds 
promulgated,  and  the  order  of  unity,  equality,  fraternity,  is  aban- 
doned. Thirty  years  later  a  great  separation  takes  place,  and  the 
people  are  again  known  as  Nephites  and  Lamanites. 

It  is  the  beginning  of  the  end.  The  period  of  the  nation's 
decline  and  downfall  has  arrived,  and  the  descent  is  thenceforth  ruin- 
ous and  rapid.  Contentions,  crimes  and  disasters  follow  in  succes- 
sion. Nearly  a  century  rolls  by.  The  great  international  conflict 
has  resumed.  Again  have  wars  between  Nephites  and  Lamanites 
drenched  and  deluged  the  land  with  blood  and  tears.  The  Nephites 
now  occupy  "the  land  northward,"  whither  they  have  been  driven  by 
their  victorious  foes,  who  hold  possession  of  the  southern  continent. 
The  "narrow  neck  of  land"  divides  them.  The  struggle  goes  on. 
Each  army  invades  alternately  the  territory  of  the  other ;  only  to  be 
repulsed  and  driven  back.  Again  and  again  sounds  the  tocsin  of  war. 
Again  and  again  the  two  nations  rush  to  battle.  Peace  after  peace  is 
patched  up,  only  to  be  rent  asunder.  At  length  the  Lamanites  gain 
an  advantage.  They  once  more  invade  the  northern  continent.  The 
degenerate  Nephites  no  longer  prevail  against  them.  Bravely,  des- 
perately  they  contend,  but  vainly.  The  God  whom  they  have  offended 
is  no  longer  with  them,  and  victory  perches  permanently  upon  the 
banners  <>('  their  adversaries.  Backward,  still  backward  they  are 
driven,  disputing  with  stubborn  valor  every  inch  of  ground.     The 


whole  land  reeks  and  smokes  with  blood  and  carnage.  Rapine  and 
slaughter  hold  sway.  Each  side,  drunken  with  blood,  besotted  and 
brutalized,  vies  with  the  other  in  cruelties  and  atrocities.  Finally 
the  hill  Raman — Cumorah — is  reached,  and  there,  on  the  spot  where 
ages  before  the  Jaredite  nation  perished,  the  Nephites,  similarly 
fated,  make  their  final  stand. 

Their  general,  Mormon,  foreseeing  the  destruction  of  his  people, 
has  committed  to  his  son  Moroni, — like  himself  one  of  a  righteous 
few  left  of  a  degenerate  nation, — the  records  of  their  race,  including 
an  abridgment  of  their  history  written  with  his  own  hand  upon 
plates  of  gold.  These  are  accompanied  by  certain  instruments  called 
"interpreters" — Urim  and  Thummim — used  by  the  Nephite  prophets 
in  translating. 

The  carnage  of  Cumorah  ensues ;  the  Nephite  nation  is  annihil- 
ated, and  the  Lamanites, — ancestors  of  the  dusky  aborigines  whom 
Columbus,  centuries  later,  found  and  named  Indians, — are  left  in 
absolute,  undisputed  possession  of  the  soil.  Moroni,  having  sur- 
vived the  awful  massacre,  abridges  the  Jaredite  record,  adds  it  to  the 
Nephite  history  written  by  his  sire,  and  deposits  the  golden  plates 
and  interpreters  in  the  hill  Cumorah,  A.  D.  420. 

Such,  briefly,  is  the  story  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  which  Joseph 
Smith  and  his  confreres  had  now  given  to  the  world;  the  famous 
"Gold  Bible,"  so  styled  in  derision  by  opponents  of  Mormonism,  but 
revered  by  the  Latter-day  Saints  as  an  inspired  record,  of -equal 
authority  with  the  Jewish  scriptures,  containing,  as  they  claim,  the 
revelations  of  Jehovah  to  His  Israel  of  the  western  world,  as  the 
Bible  His  revelations  to  Israel  in  the  Orient.  The  Saints  hold  that 
the  Book  of  Mormon  is  the  veritable  "stick  of  Joseph,"  that  was  In 
be  one  with  the  "stick  of  Judah" — the  Bible — as  foretold  by 

The  book  being  published  and  circulated,  speculation  at  once 
became  rife  as  to  its  origin.     Of  course  nobody  believed,  or  compar- 

*  Chapter  xxxvii.  16-19. 


atively  few,  that  it  had  come  in  the  way  its  translator  and  the  wit- 
nesses declared.  The  same  skepticism  that  repudiated  the  idea  of  the 
Father  and  the  Son  appearing  to  Joseph  Smith,  now  ridiculed  the 
claim  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  to  being  a  divine  record.  That  it  was 
purely  of  human  origin,  or  worse,  was  very  generally  believed. 
Passing  by  the  many  minor  theories  put  forth  to  account  for  it.  we 
will  merely  take  up  one.  the  celebrated  Spaulding  story,  which 
obtained  greater  credence  and  notoriety  than  any  other,  and  still 
forms  the  back-bone  argument  of  objectors  to  the  divine  authenticity 
of  the  Book  of  Mormon. 

In  the  year  1816,  at  Amity,  Washington  County,  Pennsylvania, 
died  Solomon  Spaulding.  a  native  of  Ashford.  Connecticut,  where  he 
was  born  in  1761.  A  few  years  prior  to  his  decease,  he  had  resided 
at  Conneaut,  Ashtabula  County,  Ohio.  At  one  time  in  his  life  he 
was  a  clergyman, — at  least  he  wore  to  his  name  the  prefix  of 
"Reverend," — and  is  said  to  have  been  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  Col- 
lege. Though  not  a  man  of  much  ability,  nor  of  much  education,  if 
we  may  judge  from  his  work,  he  cultivated  a  taste  for  literature. 
and  aspired  to  the  distinction  of  authorship.  His  mind  ran  upon 
ancient  and  archaic  themes,  insomuch  that  about  the  year  1812.  while 
living  at  Conneaut,  he  wrote  a  romance  entitled  "Manuscript  Story,'' 
giving  a  fabulous  account  of  the  pre-historic  races  of  North  America. 
The  romance  was  suggested  by  the  discovery,  near  the  author's  home, 
of  certain  relics,  such  as  bows  and  arrows,  and  the  existence  in  that 
vicinity  of  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  fort.  Two  years  later,  Spaulding 
removed  from  Ohio  to  Pennsylvania,  stopping  awhile  in  Pittsburg, 
and  then  settling  at  Amity,  where,  as  stated,  he  died  in  1816. 

The  romance,  unpublished,  remained  in  the  possession  of  his 
widow  until  1834, — four  years  after  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  pub- 
lished,— at  which  time  she  was  living  at  Monson,  Hampden  County, 
Massachusetts,  and  having  re-married  was  then  Mrs.  Matilda 

During  the  year  1834,  D.  P.  Hurlburt,  an  apostate  Mormon,  came 
to  Mrs.  Davison  and  procured  the  "Manuscript  Story"  written  by  her 


former  husband.  His  avowed  purpose  was  to  use  this  work,  of  which 
he  had  heard  in  Pennsylvania,  in  an  expose  of  Mormonism,  which 
certain  opponents  of  the  Saints, — whose  headquarters  were  then  at 
Kirtland,  Ohio, — were  helping  him  to  publish  in  that  state.  Hurl- 
burt's  reason  for  desiring  the  romance  was  that  he  had  recognized, 
from  the  account  he  had  obtained  of  it,  a  supposed  resemblance 
between  it  and  the  Book  of  Mormon,  which  he  was  then  zealously 
decrying.  He  agreed  with  Mrs.  Davison  to  publish  the  story  and  give 
her  half  the  profits  realized  from  its  sale.  She  reluctantly  consented 
to  part  with  the  relic,  giving  him  an  order  for  it  addressed  to  Mr. 
Jerome  Clark,  of  Hartwick,  Otsego  County,  New  York,  with  whom  she 
had  temporarily  left  an  old  trunk  containing  the  manuscript.  Hurlburt, 
having  secured  it,  returned  to  Ohio.  A  perusal  of  its  pages,  how- 
ever, failed  to  afford  him  and  his  colleagues  the  satisfaction  they  had 
anticipated.  The  supposed  resemblance  between  it  and  the  Book  of 
Mormon,  they  found  to  be  indeed  suppositional,  or  at  all  events  so 
vague  as  to  poorly  subserve  their  purpose.  They  therefore  sup- 
pressed it.  Hurlburt  wrote  to  Mrs.  Davison  that  the  manuscript  "did 
not  read  as  he  expected,"  and  that  he  should  not  publish  it.  He  did 
not  return  it,  however,  though  repeatedly  urged  by  the  owner  so  to 
do,  but  gave  out  that  it  had  been  accidentally  destroyed  by  fire,  claim- 
ing to  have  been  so  informed  by  Mr.  E.  D.  Howe,  a  publisher  at 
Painesville,  with  whom  he  had  left  the  romance  to  be  read  and  then 
returned  to  Mrs.  Davison.  From  that  time,  until  fully  fifty  years 
later,  nothing  further  was  known  of  the  fate  of  the  Spaulding  manu- 

"Mormonism  Unveiled" — Hurlburt's  expose — appeared  in  due 
time;  not,  however,  in  the  name  of  D.  P.  Hurlburt.  but  of  E.  D.  Howe, 
who  had  purchased  the  work  and  published  it.  It  was  a  satirical 
assault  upon  Mormonism  in  general,  and  upon  Joseph  Smith  in  par- 
ticular. It  announced  to  the  world  that  the  Book  of  Mormon,  in. all 
probability,  was  Solomon  Spaulding's  romance  revised  and  amplified. 
The  assertion  was  supported,  not  by  extracts  from  the  two  records, 
compared,  bid  by  depositions  from  various  persons  who  claimed  to  lie 


familiar  with  both,  touching  the  points  of  alleged  similarity  between 
them.  It  denied,  on  the  authority  of  these  deponents,  that  the  writ- 
ing obtained  of  Mrs.  Davison  was  the  "Manuscript  Story,"  and 
claimed  that  it  bore  no  resemblance  to  it.  Mrs.  Davison,  however, 
though  no  friend  to  Mormonism,  stated  that  it  was  the  "  Manuscript 
Story,"  thatHurlburt  obtained  of  her,  and  her  statement  is  borne  out 
by  the  fact  that  no  other  manuscript  of  like  character,  claiming 
Solomon  Spaulding  as  its  author,  has  ever  yet  appeared. 

The  theory  put  forth  by  the  author  of  "  Mormonism  Unveiled " 
regarding  the  origin  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  this  :  that  Sidney 
Rigdon, — then  Joseph  Smith's  "right-hand  man," — who  had  formerly 
resided  at  Pittsburg,  where  Mr.  Spaulding  once  tarried  for  a  time. 
had  procured  the  dead  clergyman's  manuscript  from  the  printing- 
office  of  Messrs.  Patterson  and  Lambdin,  in  that  city ;  that  being  a 
man  of  ability  and  education,  Rigdon  had  altered  and  enlarged  the 
original  work,  adding  the  religious  portions,  and  then,  through  Joseph 
Smith,  had  palmed  it  upon  the  world  as  an  ancient  and  inspired 
record.  This  hypothesis  found  many  believers,  and  even  to  this  day, 
among  non-Mormons  generally,  is  accepted  as  authentic  and  reliable. 

On  the  other  hand,  Mormon  pens  and  tongues  have  been  busy 
for  fifty  years  denying  the  truth  and  consistency  of  the  Spaulding 
story.  They  have  always  affirmed  that  until  after  the  Book  of 
Mormon  was  published,  Joseph  Smith  had  not  been  seen,  nor  scarcely 
heard  of,  in  those  parts  traversed  by  the  Spaulding  manuscript ;  that 
Sidney  Rigdon  did  not  visit  Pittsburg  until  years  after  the  removal  of 
the  Spauldings  from  that  city;  that  he  never  was  connected,  as 
alleged,  with  a  printing-office  in  that  place ;  that  up  to  the  fall  of 
1830,  several  months  after  the  Book  of  Mormon  was  published,  he 
had  not  so  much  as  seen  the  book,  and  that  until  December  of  the 
same  year  he  and  Joseph  Smith  had  never  met.  In  short,  that 
Rigdon's  alleged  connection  with  the  origin  of  the  Book  of  Mormon 
was  an  anachronism  pure  and  simple,  and  that  any  theory  seeking  to 
identify  that  record  with  the  Spaulding  romance  was  susceptible  of 
the  easiest  disproof. 


But  all  in  vain.  The  world  had  made  up  its  mind.  The  Mormon 
side  of  the  story  was  too  miraculous  for  belief:  the  Hurlburt-Howe 
theory  too  plausible  for  disbelief ;  and  the  Spaulding  romance,  with 
Sidney  Rigdon  or  "some  other  designing  knave"'  as  its  amplifier  and 
embellisher,  has  continued  to  be  regarded  as  the  literary  nucleus  of 
the  Book  of  Mormon. 

In  the  year  1884,  fifty  years  after  its  disappearance  and  alleged 
destruction,  the  missing  Spaulding  manuscript  was  brought  to  light. 
Its  discoverer  was  Mr.  L.  L.  Rice,  of  Honolulu,  Sandwich  Islands. 
Being  visited  that  year  by  President  James  H.  Fairchild,  of  Oberlin 
College,  Ohio,  Mr.  Rice,  at  his  suggestion,  was  looking  through  his 
papers  in  quest  of  certain  anti-slavery  documents,  when  he  came  upon 
a  package  marked  in  pencil  on  the  outside  •'Manuscript  Story — Con- 
neaut  Creek,"  which  proved  upon  examination,  to  their  great  surprise, 
to  be  the  long-lost  romance  of  Dr.  Spaulding.  Its  presence  among 
the  private  papers  of  Mr.  Rice  was  explained  by  the  fact  that  about 
the  year  1840  he  and  a  partner  had  purchased  from  E.  D.  Howe,  the 
publisher  of  "  Mormonism  Unveiled,"  the  business  and  effects  of  the 
Painesville  "  Telegraph."  At  that  time  Mr.  Rice, — who  in  Ohio  was 
an  anti-slavery  editor, — had  received  from  Howe  a  collection  of 
miscellaneous  papers,  which,  prior  to  Mr.  Fairchilcfs  visit,  he  had 
never  taken  time  to  thoroughly  examine.  The  original  of  the 
"  Manuscript  Story"  Mr.  Rice  presented  to  President  Fairchild.  but 
an  exact  copy,  procured  of  the  former  by  a  representative  of  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  was  published  verbatim 
et  literatim  at  Salt  Lake  City  in  1886.* 

As  stated  by  Howe — or  Hurlburt — it  is  "a  romance  purporting  to 
have  been  translated  from  the  Latin,  found  on  twenty-four  rolls  of 
parchment  in  a  cave  :  "  its  author  thus  anticipating  a  method  in 
vogue  among  popular  novelists  of  the  present  period, — notably  of 
the  H.  Rider  Haggard  school.  It  contains  perhaps  a  tenth  as  much 
reading  matter  as  the  Book  of  Mormon,  and   unlike  that  record   is 

*  Josephites — dissenting  Mormons — have  also  published  the  "Manuscript  Story." 
Their  edition  was  the  firsi  t<>  appear. 


written  in  modern  style.  None  of  the  proper  names,  and  few  if  any 
of  the  incidents,  are  similar  to  those  of  the  Nephite  narrative.  Its 
rhetoric  is  exceedingly  faulty. — more  so  than  the  usually  criticised 
passages  of  the  Book  of  Mormon. — and  the  pamphlet  throughout  is 
largely  mis-spelled  and  poorly  punctuated.  Rehabilitated  and  con- 
densed, the  story  would  run  about  as  follows : 

In  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Gonstantine,  a  young  patrician  named 
Fabius.  secretary  to  his  imperial  majesty,  sails  from  Rome  for  Britain. 
with  an  important  commission  to  the  commander  of  his  country's 
legions  stationed  there.  After  safely  traversing  the  Mediterranean,  the 
ship  encounters  near  the  British  coast  a  terrific  storm,  which  drives 
her  oceanward  until  she  is  utterly  lost  in  the  midst  of  the  watery 
wilderness.  Five  days  the  tempest  rages,  and  the  vessel  flies  west- 
ward before  a  furious  gale.  On  the  sixth  day  the  storm  abates.  The 
black  mists  which  have  hung  over  the  deep,  obscuring  the  lights  of 
heaven,  are  dispelled,  and  the  sun  dawns  in  glory  upon  a  cloudless 
sky.  But.  no  land  is  in  sight:  only  '-water,  water  everywhere."  Con- 
sternation reigns,  and  the  ship  is  still  driven  westward.  Finally  a 
mariner  comforts  his  fellow  castaways  by  announcing  that  the 
Almighty  has  revealed  to  him  that  land  is  not  far  off.  and  that  gentle 
breezes  will  soon  waft  them  into  a  safe  harbor  and  to  hospitable 
shores.  Five  days  later  the  prediction  is  fulfilled.  Land  heaves  in 
sight,  and  the  storm-beaten  ship  enters  the  mouth  of  a  spacious  river. 
Sailing  up  many  leagues,  it  arrives  at  a  town  on  the  river's  bank,  the 
home  of  the  king  and  chiefs  of  a  savage  nation,  upon  whose 
domain  the  outcasts  have  entered.  They  are  the  ''Deliwares,"  one 
of  several  tribes  or  nations  inhabiting  the  land.  The  Romans  are 
kindly  received,  and  conclude  to  remain.  The  seven  damsels  of  the 
party  select  husbands  from  their  male  companions,  leaving  the 
residue  to  lead  lives  of  celibacy,  or  choose  mates  from  the  ranks  of 
the  copper-colored  maidens  of  the  land.  Two  years  later  the  white 
colonists  leave  the  country  of  the  "Deliwares,"  and  migrating  to  the 
north-west,  take  up  their  abode  among  the  "Ohons,"  another  native 
tribe  vastly  more  numerous,  powerful  and  civilized. 


The  remainder  of  the  story,  which  is  disjointed  and  incomplete, 
includes  a  series  of  philosophic,  geographic,  and  astronomical 
observations  by  Fabius  ;  descriptions  of  the  religious  teachings  and 
traditions  of  the  natives,  their  social  and  political  customs  and  an 
elaborate  narration  of  their  glorious  antecedents.  Their  great  oracle 
and  law-giver,  a  sort  of  Moses  and  Hiawatha  combined, — though 
there  is  no  allusion  to  Israel  in  all  the  text, — was  one  Lobaska.  an 
illustrious  character,  a  portion  of  whose  biography  is  given.  After 
dwelling  upon  the  manner  in  which  Lobaska  united  all  the  tribes  or 
kingdoms  of  the  land  under  one  government,  gave  them  their  "sacred 
roll""  of  religious . tenets,  and  framed  their  political  constitution,  it 
describes  their  subsequent  wars  and  dissensions,  and  closes  abruptly 
on  the  eve  of  a  great  battle  between  the  hosts  of  the  militant  empires 
of  "  Sciota  '*  and  "  Kentuek." 

The  latter  is  by  far  the  best  written  portion  of  the  narrative,  the 
quality  of  which  differs  so  in  places,  and  descends  so  often  from  the 
half  sublime  to  the  wholly  ridiculous,  as  to  tempt  the  reader  to  believe 
that  more  than  one  pen  was  employed  in  its  composition. 

To  enable  the  reader  to  compare  the  respective  styles  in  which 
the  two  books  are  written,  brief  selections  from  each  are  here 
presented : 


And  now  it  came  I"  pass  after  I.  Nephi,         As    no    alternative  now    remained,    bul 

had  made  an  end  of  teaching  my  brethren,  either  to  make  the  desperate  attempt  in  re- 

our    father,  Lehi,   also  spake  many  things  turn  across  the  wide  boistrous  ocean  or  to 

imlo  them,  how  great   things  the  Lord  had  take    up    our    residence    in    a   country  in- 

done  lor  them,  in  bringing  them  mil  of  the  habitedby  savages  and  wild  ferocious  beasts 

land  of  Jerusalem.  we    did    not    long    hesitate.        We    held     a 

Ami  he  spake  unto  them  concerning  their  solem  treaty  with  the  king  &  all   the  chiefs 

rebellions  upon  the  waters,  and  the  mercies  of  his  nation.     They  agreed  In  cede  in  us  a 

nf  God  in  sparing  their  lives,  that  they  were  tract  of  excellent  Land  mi   the  north  pail  of 

nut  swallowed  up  in  the  sea.  Hie  town    on    which    was    six    wigwams.    & 

And  he  also  spake  unto   them  concerning  engaged  perpetual  amity  &  hospitality  &  the 

the  land  of  promise,  which  they  had  ol>-  protecti if  our  lives  &  property.    *    * 

tained:  how  merciful  the  Lord  had  been  in  Bul  now  a  mosl  singular  &  delicate  subject 

warning  ns  that  we  should  flee  nut   of  the  presented  itself   for  consideration.      Seven 

land  nt  Jerusalem.  young  women  we  had  mi   board,  as  passen- 



iii  which  I  know  that  Jerusalem  is  destroyed: 
and  had  we  remained  in  Jerusalem,  we 
should  also  have  perished. 

But.  said  he,  notwithstanding  our  afflic- 
tions, we  have  obtained  a  land  of  promise. 
a  land  which  is  choice  above  all  other  lands; 
a  land  which  the  Lord  God  hath  covenanted 
with  me  should  be  a  land  for  the  inherit- 
ance of  my  seed.  Yea,  the  Lord  hath  cove- 
nanted this  land  unto  me,  and  to  my  chil- 
dren for  ever ;  and  also  all  those  who 
should  be  led  out  of  other  countries  by  the 
hand  of  the  Lord. 

Wherefore,  I,  Lehi,  prophesy  according  to 
the  workings  of  the  Spirit  which  is  in  me, 
that  there  shall  none  come  into  this  land, 
save  they  shall  be  brought  by  the  hand  of 
the  Lord. 

Wherefore,  this  land  is  consecrated  unto 
him  whom  lie  shall  bring.  And  if  it  so  be 
that  they  shall  serve  him  according  to  the 
commandments  which  he  hath  given,  it 
shall  be  a  land  of  liberty  unto  them  ;  where- 
fore, they  shall  never  be  brought  down  into 
captivity  ;  if  so,  it  shall  be  because  of  in- 
iquity :  for  if  iniquity  shall  abound,  cursed 
shall  be  the  land  for  their  sakes  ;  but  unto 
the  righteous  it  shall  be  blessed  for  ever. 


Britain — Three  of  them  were  ladies  of 
rank,  and  the  rest  were  healthy  bucksom 
Lasses. — Whilst  deliberating  upon  this  sub- 
ject a  mariner  arose  whom  we  called  droll 
Tom — Hark  ye  shipmates  says  he,  Whilst 
tossed  on  the  foming  billows  what  brave 
son  of  neptune  had  any  more  regard  for  a 
woman  than  a  sturgeon,  but  now  we 
are  all  safely  anchored  on  Terra  firma — 
our  sails  furled  &  ship  keeled  up.  I  have 
a  huge  longing  for  some  of  those  rosy 
dames — But  willing  to  take  my  chance  with 
my  shipmates — I  propose  thai  they  should 
make  their  choice  of  husbands.  The  plan 
was  instantly  adopted.  *  *  *  The  Capt. 
A;  myself,  attended  with  our  fair  partners  & 
two  mariners  repaired  to  a  new  habitation 
which  consisted  of  two  convenient  apart- 
ments. After  having  partook  of  an  elligant 
Dinner  &  drank  a  bottle  of  excellent  wine 
our  spirits  were  exhOerated  &  the  deepgloom 
which  beclouded  our  minds  evaporated. 
The  Capt.  assuming  his  wonted  cheerfulness 
made  the  following  address.  My  sweet  good 
soaled  fellows  we  have  now  commenced  a 
new  voige — Not  such  as  brot  us  over  moun- 
tain billows  to  this  butt  end  of  Hie  world. 
No,  no,  our  voyge  is  on  dry  land  &  now 
we  must  lake  care  that  we  have  sufficient 
ballast  for  the  riging — every  hand  on  board 
this  ship  must  clasp  hands  and  condescend  to 
each  others  humour,  this  will  pro-good  cheer 
and  smooth  the  raging  billows  of  life.  Sur- 
rounded by  innumerable  hords  of  human 
lieiir_;s.  who  resemble  in  manners  the 
Ourang  Outang — let  us  keep  aloof  from 
them  &  not  embark  in  (lie  same  matrimon- 
ial ship  (with  them).  At  the  same  time  we 
will  treat  them  with  good  cheer  &  enlighten 
their  dark  souls  with  good  instruction.  By 
continuing  a  distinct  people  &  preserving 
mil  customs,  manners,  religion  &  arts  and 
sciences  another  Italy  will  grow  up  in  this 
wilderness  .V  we  shall  he  celebrated  as  the 
Fathers  of   a  great   &  happy   nation. 



And  it  came  to  pass  thai  Lib  did  pursue 
him  until  he  came  to  the  plains  of  Agosh, 

Ami  Coriantumr  had   taken   all  the  | pie 

with  him,  as  he  fled  before  Lib  in  that 
quarter  of  the  land  whither  he  fled. 

And  when  tie  had  come  to  the  plains  of 
Agosh,  he  gave  battle  unto  Lib,  and  he 
smote  upon  him  until  he  died  ;  nevertheless, 
the  brother  of  Lib  did  come  against  Corian- 
tumr in  the  stead  thereof,  and  the  battle 
became  exceeding  sore,  in  the  which  Co- 
riantumr fled  again  before  the  army  of  the 
brother  of  Lib. 

Now  the  name  of  the  brother  of  Lib  was 
called  Shiz.  And  it  came  to  pass  that  Shiz 
pursued  after  Coriantumr,  and  lie  did  over- 
throw many  cities,  and  he  did  slay  both 
women  and  children,  and  he  did  burn  the 
cities  thereof, 

And  there  went  a  fear  of  Shiz  throughout 
all  the  land:  yea.  a  cry  went  forth  through- 
out the  land,  who  can  stand  before  the  army 
of  Shiz?  Behold  he  sweepeth  the  earth 
before  him ! 

And  il  came  to  pass  that  the  people  began 
to  flock  together  in  armies,  throughout  all 
the  lace  of  the  land. 

And  they  were  divided,  and  a  part  of 
them  fled  to  the  army  of  Shiz.  and  a  part 
of  them  fled  to  the  army  of  Coriantumr. 

And  so  great  and  lasting  had  been  the 
war.  and  SO  long  had  been  the  scene  of 
bloodshed  and  carnage,  thai  the  whole  lace 
of  the  land  was  covered  with  the  bodies  of 

the  dead  : 

And  so    swill    and    speedy    was  Ihe    war, 

thai  there  was  uone  left  to  bury  (be  dead, 
bm  they  did  march  forth  from  the  shedding 
of  bl I   to  the  shedding  of  blood,  leaving 

Ihe  bodies  of  both  men.  women,  and  chil- 
dren. Strewed  upon  the  lace  of  the  land.  In 
become    a  prey    In  the    wnnns    of   Ihe    llesh  : 

And  ihe  scenl  thereof  wenl  forth  upon 
the  face  of  ihe  land,  even  upon  all   the  face 

of   the  land:    wherefore    ,ple    aine 

troubled  by  day  and  hv  [light,  because  of  ihe 

scent  thereof: 

Determined    to  conquer  or   die.    it   was 

would  have  gained  Ihe  victory  had  Ihe  di- 
visions or  bands  in  the  rear  of  each  army 
remained  inactive.  Bui  anxious  lo  engage 
with  the  boldest  warriors.  Ihe  Keninck- 
Bands,  led  on  by  their  heroic  princes,  rushed 
between  Ihe  division  of  the  grand  arm)  & 
made  a  nmsl  furious  charge  upon  Ihe  Scio- 
tans — They  broke  thro'  their  Ranks — polic- 
ing with  deadly  wounds  their  indignanl 
foes — heroes  fell  before  I  hem — &  many  of 
ihe  Sciotans  being  strnck  with  sin-prise  & 
terror  began  to  retire  back — But  Ihe  hands 
in  the  rear  of  their  army  instantly  rushed 
fin  waul  &  met  their  furious  combatants — 
The  battle  was  now  spread  in  every  direc- 
tion. Many  valiant  chiefs  who  commanded 
under  their  respective  Kings  were  over- 
thrown— &  many  thousand  robust  A  brave 
warriors,  whose  names  were  not  dis- 
linguislied  by  office,  were  compeled  lo 
receive  deadly  wounds  &  lo  bite  the  dust. 
— It  was  Elseon  fortune  to  attack  the 
division  led  by  the  valiant  HainolT — He 
broke  his  ranks  A  killed  many  warriors — 
while  driving  them  furiously  before  him — 
he  met  Hamkol  al  the  head  "I'  many 
thousand  Sciotans— Hamkol  beheld  the 
young  Prince  A  knew  him  .V  being  fired 
with 'the  greatesl  rage  &  thirsl  lor  revenge, 
he  urged  on  Ihe  combat  with  the  most 
daring  violence  Now  he  Ihot.  was  a 
favorable  chalice  lo  gain  immortal  renown 
— Elseon  says  he  shall  feel  the  effects  of  m\ 
Conquering  sword — The  warriors  on  both 
side  charged  each  other  with  incredible  fury 
— &  Elseon  &  Hamkol  mel  in  the  center  of 
their  divisions— 1  have  found  you  says 
Hamkol    perliduous    i ster— 1    will    leach 


Hi. hi  I 





rtheless,  Shi/,  did  nol  cease  to  pur-  quick  as  the  lightning  Elseon  darted    his 
iantumr,  for  he  had  sworn  to  avenge  sword  thro1  his  heart — \_IInmkor\  knashed 
upon  Coriantumr  of  the  blood  oi  his  teeth  together  &  \yoith  a  groari]   tumb- 
ling, who  had   been  slain,  and  the  ling  headlong  with  a  groan  expired. — 
r  the   Lord  which  came  to   Ether, 
iriantumr   should    no1    fall    by   the 

A  portion  of  Christ's  prophecy  to  the  Nephrites,  concerning  the 
gathering  of  Israel  and  the  destiny  of  the  Lamanites  in  the  last 
days,  is  also  here  given: 

BOOK    OF    MORMON.    III.    NEPHI,   CHAP.  XXI. 

Ami.  verily,  I  say  unto  you,  I  give  unto  you  a  sign,  that  ye  may  know  the  time 
when  these  things  shall  be  about  to  take  place,  that  I  shall  gather  in  from  their  lung 
dispersion,  my  people,  0  house  of  Israel,  and  shall  establish  again  among  them  my  Zion. 

Therefore  when  these  works,  and  the  works  which  shall  be  wrought  among  you 
hereafter,  shall  come  forth  from  the  Gentiles,  unto  your  seed,  which  shall  dwindle  ill 
unbelief  because  of  iniquity; 

For  thus  il  behoveth  the  Father  thai  it  should  come  forth  from  the  Gentiles,  that  he 
may  show  forth  his  power  unto  the  Gentiles,  for  this  cause,  that  the  Gentiles,  if  they  will 
not  harden  their  hearts,  that  they  may  repent  and  come  unto  me.  and  he  baptized  in  my 
name,  and  know  of  the  true  points  of  my  doctrine,  that  they  may  be  numbered  among 
my  people,  0  house  of  Israel: 

And  when  these  things  come  to  pass,  that  thy  seed  shall  begin  to  know  these  things, 
il  shall  be  a  sign  unto  them,  that  they  may  know  that  the  work  of  the  Father  hath  already 
commenced  unto  the  fulfilling  of  the  covenant  which  he  hath  made  unto  the  people  who 
are  of  the  house  of  Israel. 

And  when  that  day  shall  come,  it  shall  come  to  pass  that  kings  shall  shut  their 
mouths;  lor  thai  which  had  nol  been  told  them  shall  they  see:  and  that  which  they  had 
nol  heard  shall  they  consider. 

For  in  that  day.  for  my  sake  shall  the  Father  work  a  work,  which  shall  he  a  greal 
and  marvellous  work  among  them:  and  there  shall  he  among  them  who  will  not  believe 
it.  although  a  man  shall  declare  il  unto  them. 

Bui  behold,  the  life  of  my  servant  shall  he  in  my  hand:  therefore  they  shall  not 
hurl  him.  although  he  shall  he  marred  because  of  them.  Vet  I  will  heal  him.  lor  I  will 
shew  unto  them  thai  my  wisdom  is  greater  than  the  cunning  of  the  devil. 

Therefore  il  shall  cane  to  pass,  that   whosoever  will   not   believe  in  my  words,  who 

am  JesUS  Christ,  whom  the    Father  shall  cause    him  lo  bring  forth    unto  the    Gentiles,  and 

shall  give  i him  power  that  he  shall  bring  them  forth  unto  the  Gentiles,  (it  shall  he 

done  even  as  Moses    said.)  they  shall    he  cut    oil'   from    among   my  people    who  are   of  the 



Ami  my  people  who  are  a  remnant  of  Jacob,  shall  be  among  the  Gentiles,  yea.  in  the 
midst  of  them  as  a  lion  among  the  beasts  of  the  forest,  as  a  young  lion  among  the  flocks 
of  sheep,  who.  if  he  go  through  both  treadeth  down  and  teareth  in  pieces,  and  none  can 

Their  hand  shall  be  lifted  up  upon  their  adversaries,  and  all  their  enemies  shall  be 
cut  off. 

Yea,  wo  he  unto  the  Gentiles,  except  they  repent,  for  it  shall  come  to  pass  in  that 
day.  saith  the  Father,  that  I  will  cut  off  lhy  horses  out  of  the  midst  of  thee,  and  I  will 
destroy  thy  chariots. 

##  *  *  ■      #  #  *  #  * 

And  1  will  execute  vengeance  and  fury  upon  them,  even  as  upon  the  heathen,  such 
as  they  have  not  heard. 

But  if  they  will  repent,  and  hearken  unto  my  words,  and  harden  not  their  hearts,  I 
will  establish  my  church  among  them,  and  they  shall  come  in  unto  the  covenant,  and  he 
numbered  among  this  the  remnant  of  Jacob,  unto  whom  1  have  given  this  land  for  their 

And  they  shall  assist  my  people,  the  remnant  of  Jacob,  and  also,  as  many  of  the 
house  of  Israel  as  shall  come,  that  they  may  build  a  city,  which  shall  lie  called  the  New 
Jerusalem  ; 

And  then  shall  they  assist  my  people  that  they  may  lie  gathered  in.  who  are  scattered 
upon  all  the  face  of  the  land,  in  unto  the  New7  Jerusalem. 

And  then  shall  the  power  of  heaven  come  down  among  them:  and  I  also  will  he  in 
the  midst: 

And  then  shall  the  work  of  the  Father  commence  at  tliat  day.  even  when  this  gospel 
shall  be  preached  among  the  remnant  of  this  people.  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  at  that  day 
shall  the  work  of  the  Father  commence  among  all  the  dispersed  of  my  people;  yea.  even 
the  tribes  which  have  been  lost,  which  the  Father  hath  led  away  out  of  Jerusalem. 

Yea,  tin-'  work  shall  commence  among  all  the  dispersed  of  my  people,  with  the 
Father,  to  prepare  the  way  whereby  they  may  come  unto  me.  that  they  may  call  on  the 
Father  in  my  name. 

In  a  little  work  called  "The  Myth  of  the  Manuscript  Found,"* 
by  Elder  George  Reynolds  of  Salt  Lake  City,  the  arguments  pro  and 
con  upon  the  question  of  the  alleged  identity  of  the  Book  of  Mor- 
mon and  the  Spaulding  romance,  are  clearly  and  intelligently  set 
forth.  Mr.  Reynolds,  being  a  believer  in  the  Book  of  Mormon, 
devotes  himself  to  the  task  of  puncturing  and  shattering  the 
Hurlburt-Howe  hypothesis,  but  Ibis  does  not  prevent  him  from  doing- 
justice  to  the  other  side  in  the  controversy,  by  stating  fully  and 
fairly  the  position  that  he  assails. 

*  "Manuscript    Found"    is    the    more   generally    known    title   of    the  Spaulding   tale. 


President  James  H.  Fairchild,  in  the  New  York  Observer  of 
February  5th,  1885,  speaking  of  the  discovery  by  Mr.  Rice  of  the 
Spaulding  romance,  says  :  "  The  theory  of  the  origin  of  the  Book  of 
Mormon  in  the  traditional  manuscript  of  Solomon  Spaulding  will 
probably  have  to  be  relinquished.  *  *  *  Mr.  Rice,  myself 
and  others  compared  it  (the  Spaulding  manuscript)  with  the  Book  of 
Mormon,  and  could  detect  no  resemblance  between  the  two.  in  general 
or  detail.  There  seems  to  be  no  name  nor  incident  common  to  the 
two.  The  solemn  style  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  in  imitation  of  the 
English  Scriptures,  does  not  appear  m  the  manuscript.  :;:  *  * 
Some  other  explanation  of  the  origin  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  must 
be  found,  if  any  explanation  is  required." 

Here  we  take  leave  of  the  subject.  Up  to  the  present  time — 
1892 — the  Book  of  Mormon  has  passed  through  no  less  than  thirty 
American  and  English  editions,  aggregating  many  tens  of  thousands 
of  volumes,  scattered  broadcast  upon  both  hemispheres.  It  has  been 
translated  and  published  in  eleven  foreign  vernaculars,  namely : 
English,  Welsh.  French.  Spanish.  Italian.  German.  Dutch.  Danish. 
Swedish.  Hawaiian  and  Maori. — including,  as  seen,  all  the  leading 
languages  of  modern  times.  It  has  also  been  translated,  but  not 
published,  in  Hindoostanee  and  the  Jewish.  A  Russian  translation. 
unauthorized,  is  likewise  reported  to  have  passed  through  the  press. 





Organization  of  the  church  of    jesus    christ  of    latter-day    saints — the    doctrine    of 

common  consent oliver  cowdery  the  first  public  preacher  of  mormonism newel 

knight the  first  conference  of  the    church the   elders    at    colesville joseph 

smith  arrested  for    ''preaching    the    book    of    mormon'" his  trial  and  acquittal 

at  south  bainbridge re-arrested    and    tried    at    colesville another   failure  to 

convict return  to  pennsylvania a*  schism   threatening  the    church revival  of 

opposition  at   harmony the    prophet    removes  with    his    family  to  fayette the 

schism  averted a  mission  to  the  lamanites  announced. 

1g)  ESUMING  from  the  spring  of  1830  the  thread  of  our  his- 
-■■T  torical  narrative.  On  the  6th  of  April  of  that  year,  at  the 
town  of  Fayette,  Seneca  County,  New  York,  was  organized  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Mormonism  at  thai 
time  had  two  score  or  more  disciples, — persons  who  had  embraced 
its  principles  and  been  baptized.  Only  six  of  these,  however. — no 
less  than  that  number  being  required  by  law  to  form  a  religious 
society, — participated  in  the  organization.  They  were  Joseph  Smith, 
junior,  Oliver  Cowdery,  Hyrum  Smith,  Peter  Whitmer.  junior.  Samuel 
H.  Smith  and  David  Whitmer.  Other  believers  were  present  at  this 
initial  meeting,  which  was  held  at  the  house  of  Peter  Whitmer. 

From  the  first  the  doctrine  of  common  consent  was  practically 
exemplified  in  all  the  meetings  and  deliberations  of  the  Latter-day 
Saints:  the  right  of  the  people  to  a  voice  in  the  selection  of  their 
leaders,  and  in  the  establishment  of  the  laws  which  govern  them, 
being  a  cardinal  principle  of  their  religious,  no  less  than  of  their 
political  faith.  Accordingly,  in  this  instance.  Joseph  Smith  and 
Oliver  Cowdery,  who  were  to  be  the  first  and  second  Elders  of  the 
Church,  prior  to  ordaining  each  other  or  proceeding  at  all  with  the 


organization,  called  upon  the  disciples  present  to  manifest  whether 
or  not  they  would  accept  them  as  their  spiritual  teachers,  and  were 
willing  to  be  organized  as  a  religious  body.  Unanimous  consent 
being  given,  the  purpose  of  the  meeting  was  effected.  Joseph 
first  laid  hands  upon  Oliver  and  ordained  him  an  Elder  in 
the  Church  of  Christ.  Oliver  then  ordained  Joseph  in  like  manner. 
The  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  supper  was  administered  to  those 
who  had  been  baptized,  and  they  were  then  confirmed  members  of 
the  Church  by  the  laying  on  of  the  Elders'  hands.  Others  of  the 
brethren — for  the  Saints  were  thenceforth  to  each  other  "brethren 
and  sisters" — were  likewise  ordained  to  various  offices  in  the  Priest- 
hood. While  together  on  this  occasion,  the  Prophet  voiced  to  his 
flock  the  following  revelation  :  :;: 

Behold  there  shall  be  a  record  kept  among  you,  and  in  it  thou  shalt  be  called  a  seer, 
a  translator,  a  prophet,  an  apostle  of  Jesus  Christ,  an  elder  of  the  church  through  the  will 
of  God  the  Father,  and  the  grace  of  your  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

Being  inspired  of  the  Holy  Ghost  to  lay  the  foundation  thereof,  and  to  build  it  up 
unto  the  most  holy  faith, 

Which  church  was  organized  and  established  in  the  year  of  your  Lord  eighteen  hun- 
dred and  thirty,  in  the  fourth  month,  and  on  the  sixth  day  of  the  month,  which  is  called 

Wherefore,  meaning  the  church,  thou  shalt  give  heed  unto  all  his  winds  and  com- 
mandments which  he  shall  give  unto  you  as  he  receiveth  them,  walking  in  all  holiness 
before  me; 

For  his  word  ye  shall  receive,  as  if  from  mine  own  mouth,  in  all  patience  and  faith; 

For  by  doing  these  things  the  gates  of  hell  shall  not  prevail  against  you;  yea.  and 
the  Lord  God  will  disperse  the  powers  of  darkness  from  before  you,  and  cause  the 
heavens  In  shake  for  your  good,  and  his  name's  glory. 

For  thus  saith  the  Lord  God,  him  have  I  inspired  to  move  the  cause  of  Zion  in 
might]  power  for  good,  and  his  diligence  1  know,  and  his  prayers  I  have  heard. 

Yea  his  weeping  for  Zion  I  have  seen,  and  I  will  cause  thai  he  shall  mourn  for  her 
no  longer,  lor  his  days  of  rejoicing  are  come  unto  the  remission  of  his  sins,  and  tin-  man- 
ifestations of  mj  blessings  upon  bis  works. 

For,  behold,  I  will  bless  all  those  who  labor  in  my  vineyard  with  a  mighty  blessing. 
ami  the]  shall  believe  on  his  words,  which  are  given  him  through  me  by  the  Comforter, 
which  iiianifestelh  that  Jesus  was  crucified  by  sinful  men  for  the  sins  of  the  world,  yea. 
for  the-  remission  of  sins  unto  the  contrite  heart. 

Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  xxi. 


Wherefore  it  behoveth  me  that  he  should  be  ordained  by  you.  Oliver  Cowdery, 
mine  apostle ; 

This  being  an  ordinance  unto  you.  that  you  arc  an  elder  under  his  hand,  he  being 
the  first  unto  you,  that  you  might   be  an  elder   unto   this  church  of  Christ,  bearing  my 


And  the  first  preacher  of  this  church  unto  the  church,  and  before  the  world,  yea, 
before  the  Gentiles:  yea.  and  thus  saith  the  Lord  God,  lo.  lo!  to  the  Jews  also.     Amen. 

Thus  was  founded  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints.  Thus  arose,  as  a  system,  what  the  world  terms  Mormon- 
ism. — universally  regarded  as  the  most  remarkable  religious  move- 
ment of  modern  times ;  detested  and  denounced  throughout  Christ- 
endom as  a  dangerous  and  soul-destroying  imposture,  but  revered 
and  defended  by  its  disciples  as  the  wonderful  work  of  the  Almighty, 
the  veritable  "marvelous  work  and  wonder"  foretold  by  Isaiah  and 
other  ancient  seers,  which  was  to  prepare  the  world,  by  the  preach- 
ing of  a  restored  gospel  and  the  founding  of  a  latter-day  Zion  for 
Messiah's  second  coming  and  the  advent  of  the  Millennium. 

Five  days  after  the  organization — Sunday.  April  11th — at  the 
house  of  Peter  Whitmer,  in  Fayette,  Oliver  Cowdery  preached  the 
first  public  sermon  delivered  by  a  Mormon  Elder.  Many  persons 
were  present  besides  the  Saints.  The  seed  sown  took  instant  root, 
and  that  day  several  more  were  added  to  the  Church. 

The  following  paragraphs  of  a  revelation  recorded  about 
this  time  will  give  some  idea  of  the  Church  government  and 
discipline  :* 

The  duty  of  the  elders,  priests,  teachers,  deacons,  and  members  of  the  church  of 
Christ. — An  apostle  is  an  elder,  and  it  is  his  calling  to  baptize, 

And  to  ordain  other  elders,  priests,  teachers,  and  deacons, 

And  lo  administer  bread  and  wine — the  emblems  of  the  flesh  and  blood  of  Christ — 

And  to  confirm  those  who  are  baptized  into  the  church,  by  the  laying  on  of  hands  for 
the  baptism  of  fire  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  according  to  the  scriptures; 

Ami  lo  leach,  expound,  exhort,  baptize,  ami  watch  over  Hie  elnnrli  ; 

And  to  confirm  the  church  by  the  laying  on  of  hands,  and  the  giving  of  the  Holy 

And  lo  lake  the  lead  of  all  meetings. 

*  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  Sec.  xx..  38-59; 


The  elders  are  to  conduct  the  meetings  as  they  are  led  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  according 
to  the  commandments  and  revelations  of  God. 

The  priest's  duty  is  to  preach,  teach,  expound,  exhort,  and  baptize,  and  administer  the 

And  visit  the  house  of  each  member,  and  exhort  them  to  pray  vocally  and  in  secret 
and  attend  to  all  family  duties; 

And  he  may  also  ordain  other  priests,  teachers,  and  deacons. 

And  he  is  to  take  the  lead  of  meetings  when  there  is  no  elder  present ; 

But  when  there  is  an  elder  present,  he  is  only  to  preach,  teach,  expound,  exhort,  and 

And  visit  the  house  of  each  member,  exhorting  them  to  pray  vocally  and  in  secret, 
and  attend  to  all  family  duties. 

In  all  these  duties  the  priest  is  to  assist  the  elder  if  occasion  requires. 

The  teacher's  duty  is  to  watch  over  the  church  always,  and  be  with  and  strengthen 

And  see  that  there  is  no  iniquity  in  the  church — neither  hardness  with  each  other — 
neither  lying,  backbiting,  nor  evil  speaking  ; 

And  see  that  the  church  meet  together  often,  and  also  see  that  all  the  members  do 
their  duty. 

And  he  is  to  take  the  lead  of  meetings  in  the  absence  of  the  elder  or  priest — 

And  is  to  be  assisted  always,  in  all  his  duties  in  the  church,  by  the  deacons,  if  occa- 
sion requires  ; 

But  neither  teachers  nor  deacons  have  authority  to  baptize,  administer  the  sacrament, 
or  lay  on  hands  : 

They  are.  however,  to  warn,  expound,  exhort,  and  teach  and  invite  all  to  come  unto 

During  the  month  of  April  the  Prophet  visited  Colesville,  the 
home  of  Joseph  Knight,  who  had  ministered  to  his  necessities  on  a 
former  occasion.  Mr.  Knight  and  several  members  of  his  family 
were  Universalists.  At  his  home  the  Prophet  held  several  meetings, 
which  subsequently  bore  fruit  in  the  baptism  of  many.  The  first 
miracle  recorded  in  the  Church, — for  it  was  a  gospel  of  "signs" 
following  the  believer,  as  in  days  of  old.  that  was  being  preached  by 
the  Elders, — is  accredited  to  Joseph  Smith  during  tbis  visit.  It 
was  the  casting  out  of  Satan  from  the  person  of  Newel,  son  of 
Joseph  Knight.  Newel  was  baptized  at  Fayette  in  the  latter  part  of 
May.  Martin  Harris,  Joseph  Smith,  senior,  Lucy  Smith.  Orrin  Porter 
Rockwell  and  other  historic  names,  by  this  time  had  also  been  added 
to  the  Church  roll  of  membership. 

The    first    conference   of    the    organized    Church    convened   at 


Fayette  on  the  first  day  of  June.  Thirty  members  were  present  on 
the  opening  day,  besides  many  others  who  were  investigating  tbe 
new  faith.  More  baptisms  followed,  more  Elders,  Priests,  Teachers 
and  Deacons  were  ordained,  and  Mormonism  began  spreading  rapidly. 
As  a  matter  of  course  it  encountered  opposition,  much  excitement 
at  times  prevailing  over  the  preaching  of  its  strange  doctrines  and 
the  exercise  of  its  novel  "  gifts,"  and  its  disciples  suffered  more  or 
less  petty  persecution.  Still  it  spread.  The  smoking  flax  was  every- 
where bursting  into  flame,  and  all  efforts  to  quench  it  proved 

Again  visiting  his  borne  in  Pennsylvania,  Joseph  returned 
bringing  his  wife,  and  in  company  with  her  and  three  Elders  repaired 
to  Colesville.  There  they  found  many  awaiting  baptism.  It  was 
Saturday,  and  the  Elders  constructed  a  dam  in  a  stream,  which  they 
designed  using  next  day  for  baptizing.  That  night  a  party  of  men, 
instigated  it  was  believed  by  ministers  of  other  denominations,  tore 
away  the  dam,  thus  preventing  the  Elders  from  executing  their 
purpose  on  the  Sabbath.  Early  Monday  morning,  however,  before 
their  opponents  could  assemble  in  sufficient  force  to  prevent,  they 
reconstructed  their  dam,  and  Oliver  Cowdery,  entering  the  water, 
immersed  thirteen  converts  to  the  faith  ;  Emma  Smith,  the  Prophet's 
wife,  being  one  of  the  number. 

Fierce  was  the  anger  of  their  foes  when  they  learned  whal  had 
taken  place.  Fifty  strong  they  surrounded  the  house  of  Joseph 
Knight,  to  which  the  Elders  had  retired,  foaming  with  rage  and 
threatening  violence.  But  Joseph  Smith  was  no  coward :  neither  a 
physical  weakling.  Calmly  confronting  the  mob  he  btrove,  though 
in  vain,  to  pacify  them.  Finally  they  withdrew  to  malhre  their 
plans,  and  the  Elders,  deeming  it  prudent,  departed  also,  g^ing  QOW 
to  the  house  of  Newel  Knight. 

That  evening,  just  as  they  were  about  to  confirm  their 
converts,  a  constable  appeared  upon  the  scene  and  arrested  the 
Prophet  on  the  charge  of  being  a  disorderly  person,  for  preaching 
the  Book  of  Mormon  and  setting  the  country  in  an  uproar.     The 


officer,  however,  became  friendly  and  informed  Joseph  that  some 
men  were  in  ambush,  not  far  away,  whose  purpose  was  to  get 
him  into  their  power  and  maltreat  him.  He  added  that  he  was 
determined  to  defend  him  at  all  hazards.  The  statement  proved 
true.  A  crowd  of  men  surrounded  the  wagon  in  which  the  con- 
stable drove  away  with  the  Prophet,  and  would  undoubtedly  have 
taken  him  from  custody  had  not  the  officer  plied  his  whip,  given 
his  horse  full  rein  and  left  them  far  behind.  The  two  drove  on 
rapidly  to  South  Bainbridge,  in  Chenango  County,  where  they  put 
up  at  a  tavern.  The  constable  permitted  his  prisoner  to  occupy 
the  bed  in  their  room,  while  he  slept  with  his  feet  against  the 
door  and  a  loaded  musket  at  his  side,  ready  to  defend  him  against 

At  the  trial,  next  day,  various  charges  were  preferred  against 
the  Prophet.  Some  of  them  were  of  a  very  frivolous  character. 
For  instance,  he  was  accused  of  obtaining  from  Josiah  Stoal,  his 
former  employer,  a  horse,  and  from  one  Jonathan  Thompson  a  yoke 
of  oxen,  by  telling  them  that  he  had  received  revelations  that  he  was 
to  have  them.  Messrs.  Stoal  and  Thompson,  taking  the  witness 
stand,  testified  in  the  prisoners  favor,  and  he  was  promptly 
acquitted.  On  leaving  the  court-room,  however,  he  was  re-arrested 
on  a  warrant  from  Broome  County,  and  taken  back  to  Colesville  for 
trial.  This  time  he  was  in  the  custody  of  an  officer  who  treated  him 
with  great  harshness;  subjecting  him  to  the  insults  of  the  rabble, 
refusing  him  for  many  hours  any  refreshment,  and  finally  allowing 
him  for  his  supper  only  a  diet  of  bread-crusts  and  water. 

At  the  Colesville  trial  Newel  Knight  was  put  upon  the  stand  and 
made  to  testify  concerning  the  miracle  reported  to  have  been  per- 
formed  upon  him. 

" Did  the  prisoner,  Joseph  Smith,  junior,  cast  the  devil  out  of 
you?"  asked  the  prosecuting  attorney  of  the  witness. 

"No,  sir."  replied  Mr.  Knight. 

"Why.  have  not  you  had  the  devil  cast  out  of  you  .'" 

"Yes,  sir." 


•'And  had  not  Joe  Smith  some  hand  in  its  being  done?" 

"Yes,  sir." 

"And  did  not  he  cast  him  out  of  you  ? " 

"  No,  sir.  It  was  done  by  the  power  of  C4od.  and  Joseph  Smith 
was  the  instrument  in  the  hands  of  God  on  the  occasion.  He  com- 
manded him  out  of  me  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ." 

"  And  are  you  sure  that  it  was  the  devil  ?  *' 

••  Yes.  sir." 

"  Did  you  see  him  after  he  was  cast  out  of  you  ? " 

••  Yes,  sir;  I  saw  him." 

"  Pray,  what  did  he  look  like '?  " 

Here  the  prisoner's  counsel  informed  the  witness  that  he  need 
not  answer  the  question.     Mr.  Knight,  however,  replied  : 

"  I  believe  I  need  not  answer  your  last  question,  but  I  will  do  it 
provided  I  be  allowed  to  ask  you  one  question  first,  and  you  answer 
me.  namely :  Do  you,  Mr.  Seymour,  understand  the  things  of  the 
spirit  ? " 

"  No,"  answered  Mr.  Seymour.  "I  do  not  pretend  to  such  big- 

"  Well  then,"  rejoined  Knight,  "  it  would  be  of  no  use  to  tell 
you  what  the  devil  looked  like,  for  it  was  a  spiritual  sight,  and  spir- 
itually discerned ;  and  of  course  you  would  not  understand  it  were  I 
to  tell  you  of  it." 

A  roar  of  laughter,  at  the  lawyer's  expense,  shook  the  court- 
room. Mr.  Seymour  then  arose  and  addressing  the  court  paid  his 
respects  in  no  gentle  terms  to  the  prisoner.  Among  other  things 
he  repeated  the  story  of  his  having  been  a  "money-digger."  The 
defendant,  however,  was  not  on  trial  for  money  digging,  and  his 
counsel  having  returned  the  forensic  fire  of  the  prosecution,  he  was 
again  set  at  liberty. 

In  the  breasts  of  many,  hitherto  hostile,  a  revulsion  of  feeling 
now  took  place.  Even  the  officer  who  had  treated  the  prisoner  so 
harshly  came  forward  and  apologized  for  his  conduct,  and  offered  to 
help  him  evade  a  mob  that  had  assembled  outside  the  court-room,  to 


"  tar  and  feather"  the  Prophet  and  ride  him  on  a  rail.  Taking 
advantage  of  this  opportunity  to  escape,  Joseph,  rejoining  his  anx- 
ious wife,  returned  with  her  to  Pennsylvania. 

A  few  days  later  Joseph  and  Oliver  revisited  Colesville  for  the 
purpose  of  confirming  their  converts ;  but  the  mob,  again  gathering, 
compelled  them  to  forego  their  purpose  and  beat  a  hasty  retreat, 
hotly  pursued  by  the  belligerent  multitude.  A  subsequent  visit  was 
more  successful.  The  inciters  of  this  opposition  were  said  to  be 
prominent  Presbyterians. 

At  his  home  in  Harmony  the  Prophet  now  devoted  some 
time  to  making  a  record  of  and  arranging  in  their  proper  order  the 
revelations  he  had  from  time  to  time  delivered.  At  first  Oliver  Cow- 
dery  assisted  him,  but  he  soon  departed  for  Fayette,  and  Emma 
Smith  then  acted  as  a  scribe  to  her  husband. 

Hitherto  the  relations  between  Joseph  and  Oliver  seem  to  have 
been  of  the  most  friendly  character.  Mutually  helpful, — Oliver  to 
Joseph  by  means  of  a  better  education,  and  Joseph  to  Oliver  by 
reason  of  superior  intelligence  and  strength  of  character, — they  were 
congenial  in  spirit  and  united  in  purpose.  The  first  intimation 
of  a  change  of  heart  in  Oliver  was  contained  in  a  letter  from  him 
to  the  Prophet,  calling  in  question  certain  words  of  one  of  the 
revelations,  and  demanding  that  they  be  changed.  The  First  Elder 
replied  to  the  Second  that  the  revelation  came  from  God,  and  must 
stand  as  it  had  been  delivered  until  God  should  change  it.  A  per- 
sonal visit  to  Fayette  followed,  where  Joseph  found  that  some  of 
the  Whitmer  family  were  in  sympathy  with  Oliver.  It  required 
much  pleading  and  persuasion  on  the  part  of  the  Prophet  to  finally 
convince  them  that  they  were  in  error.  Even  then  the  breach  was 
closed  only  to  be  soon  re-opened. 

During  August  the  persecutive  spirit  revived  at  Harmony,  where 
the  Methodists  now  conspired  to  create  trouble  for  the  hated  founder 
of  the  rapidly  growing  rival  Church.  The  influence  brought  to 
bear  was  such  as  to  alienate  from  Joseph  the  friendship  of  his  father- 
in-law,   Isaac    Hale,    who  joined    the  ranks  of   his  opponents   and 


became  his  bitter  and  relentless  foe.  Life  at  Harmony  for  Joseph 
and  Emma,  was  now  rendered  intolerable.  He  therefore  accepted  a 
second  invitation  from  the  Whitmers  to  remove  to  Fayette,  this  time 
with  his  family,  and  take  up  his  abode  in  their  domicile.  He  arrived 
there  during  the  last  week  in  August. 

Again,  to  his  surprise  and  sorrow,  the  Prophet  found  the  spirit 
of  dissension  among  his  followers.  The  trouble  this  time  was 
over  a  certain  stone  in  the  possession  of  Hiram  Page,  one  of  the 
eight  witnesses.  From  this  stone,  it  was  claimed,  sundry  mys- 
terious communications  had  been  received,  of  a  tenor  and  purport  at 
variance  with  revelations  already  on  record.  These  communications 
Joseph  pronounced  spurious,  but  Elder  Cowdery  and  some  of  the 
Whitmers  still  placed  reliance  in  them.  The  Prophet  then  spoke  to 
them  in  the  name  of  the  Lord.  Oliver  was  reminded  that  while  he 
was  as  Aaron  to  Israel — a  spokesman  to  the  Prophet — Joseph  was 
as  Moses,  the  mouthpiece  of  the  Almighty.  He  alone  had  the  right 
to  voice  revelations  to  the  Church  for  its  guidance.  Oliver  was 
required  to  use  his  influence  with  Hiram  Page  to  induce  him  to  dis- 
card the  stone — the  apple  of  discord — and  was  informed  of  an 
important  mission  in  store  for  him,  a  mission  to  the  Lamanites, 
upon  which  he  should  set  out  as  soon  as  the  differences  then  agitat- 
ing the  Church  had  been  settled.  Allusion  was  made  in  this  revela- 
tion to  a  certain  "city"  that  was  to  be  built  "on  the  borders  by  the 

Subsequently,  at  a  conference  held  early  in  September,  Hiram 
Page  and  his  associates  renounced  the  stone  and  "all  things  con- 
nected therewith,"  and  in  common  with  the  whole  Church  renewed 
their  covenant  of  fealty  to  Joseph,  as  its  supreme  prophet,  seer  and 
revelator.  Thus  was  "the  imminent  deadly  breach"  closed,  and 
what  threatened  to  be  for  Mormonism.  in  its  infancy,  a  serious  it  not 
a  fatal  wound,  healed.  Immediately  afterward  preparations  went  for- 
ward for  the  departure  of  the  mission  to  the  Lamanites. 













HE  significance  of  the  missionary  movement  inaugurated  by 
the  Prophet,  in  sending  forth  Elders  to  evangelize  the 
American  Indians  and  distribute  among  the  dusky  tribes 
copies  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  is  only  to  be  fully  comprehended  by 
those  who  have  made  careful  study  of  the  contents  of  that  record, 
and  of  the  various  revelations  voiced  to  the  world  by  Joseph  Smith. 
Indeed,  the  only  key  to  the  real  history  of  Mormonism,  from 
Cumorah  to  Carthage,  and  from  Carthage  to  Deseret,  is  a  knowledge 
of  the  aims  and  motives  of  its  founders  and  disciples,  as  learned 
from  their  own  lips  or  reflected  from  the  pages  of  the  records 
esteemed  by  them  divine.  Neither  the  enemies  of  a  people,  nor  the 
disinterested,  uninitiated  observers  of  that  people,  however  fair  and 
honest,  are  trustworthy  oracles  and  reliable  exponents  of  their  views 
and  doctrines.  Methodism,  Catholicism,  Mormonism,  or  any  other 
ism.  in  order  to  be  properly  understood,  must  be  permitted,  like  Paul 
before  Agrippa,  to  speak  for  itself.  In  this  light  let  us  take  a  brief 
general  glance  at  Mormonism. 

First  of  all  it  must  be  borne  in  mind,  as  a  basic  fact,  upon 
which  to  found  all  further  argument  or  theory  in   relation   to  the 


Saints  and  their  religion,  that  they  sincerely  believe  themselves 
to  be  literally  of  the  blood  of  Israel;  children  of  Abraham,  Isaac 
and  Jacob, — mostly  of  Joseph  through  the  lineage  of  Ephraim.  The 
loss  of  their  tribal  identity,  and  their  scattered  state  among  the 
nations, — whence  the  gospel,  they  say,  has. begun  to  gather  them, — 
is  explained  to  them  by  the  scriptures,  which  declare  that  Ephraim 
hath  "mixed  himself  with  the  people ;"  that  is,  with  other  nations, 
presumably  from  the  days  of  the  Assyrian  captivity.  They  believe, 
moreover,  that  in  this  age,  ''the  dispensation  of  the  fullness  of 
times. "" — a  figurative  spiritual  ocean,  into  which  all  past  dispensations 
of  divine  power  and  authority  like  rills  and  rivers  run. — it  is  the 
purpose  of  Jehovah,  the  God  of  Israel,  to  gather  His  scattered  people 
from  their  long  dispersion  among  the  nations,  and  weld  in  one  vast 
chain  the  broken  links  of  the  fated  house  of  Abraham.  They  quote 
from  Jeremiah:  "Hear  the  word  of  the  Lord,  0  ye  nations,  and 
declare  it  in  the  isles  afar  off,  and  say,  He  that  scattered  Israel  will 
gather  him.  and  keep  him  as  a  shepherd  doth  his  flock.""  This  gath- 
ering of  Israel,  they  claim,  is  a  step  preparatory  to  the  ''gathering 
together  in  one"  of  "all  things  in  Christ,"  both  in  heaven  and  on 
earth,  as  spoken  of  by  Paul  the  Apostle.  Mormonism.  to  its  disci- 
ples, is  no  more  nor  less  than  primitive  Christianity  restored  ;  and 
Christianity  in  its  primitive  state,  unpaganized,  unapostate,  no  more 
nor  less  than  the  restored  religion  of  Adam,  Enoch,  Noah,  Mel- 
chisedek.  Abraham,  Moses  and  other  ancient  worthies  who  received 
the  same  from  God,  successively,  all  down  the  dispensations. 

Israel's  gathering  in  the  "  last  days," — the  closing  period  of  our 
planet's  mortal  probation, — is  a  cardinal  doctrine  with  the  Latter- 
day  Saints,  accounting  as  it  does  for  their  world-wide  proselytism, 
the  wanderings  abroad  of  their  Apostles  and  Elders  in  quest  of  the 
seed  of  Ephraim,  their  fellows,  and  their  migrations  from  the  ends  of 
the  earth  to  the  American  continent,  believed  by  them  to  be  the 
land  of  Zion.*     Upon  this  land,  winch  they  hold  to  be  the  inherit- 

:  Tli is  in  a  ucnt'ial  sense;  speeilieally  their  "  land  of  Zion  "  is  Jackson  County,  ML 



ance  of  Joseph, — given  him  by  the  Almighty  in  the  blessings  of  Jacob 
and  Moses,*  and  occupied  for  ages  by  his  descendants,  the  Nephites 
and  Lamanites. — is  to  arise  the  latter-day  Zion,-  New  Jerusalem, 
concerning  which  so  many  of  the  prophet-poets  of  antiquity  have 
sung.  It  was  for  this  purpose,  say  the  Saints,  that  the  land 
was  held  in  reserve,  hidden  for  ages  behind  Atlantic's  waves — the 
wall  of  waters  over  which,  in  Lehi  and  his  colony,  climbed  Joseph's 
-fruitful  bough."  Next  came  the  Gentiles,  with  Columbus  in  their 
van,  to  unveil  the  hidden  hemisphere  ;  then  a  Washington,  a  Jeffer- 
son and  other  heaven-inspired  patriots  to  win  and  maintain  the 
liberty  of  the  land, — a  land  destined  to  be  "free  from  bondage." 
And  all  this  that  Zion  might  here  be  established,  and  the  Lord's 
latter-day  work  founded  and  fostered  on  Columbia's  chosen  soil. 
Yes.  these  Latter-day  Saints, — false  and  fanatical  as  the  view  may 
seem  to  most, — actually  believe  that  the  greatest  and  most  liberal  of 
earthly  governments,  that  of  the  United  States,  was  founded  for  the 
express  purpose  of  favoring  the  growth  of  what  the  world  terms 

Ephraim  and  Manasseh,  the  half  tribes  of  Joseph,  are  to  com- 
bine for  the  up-building  of  Zion,  which  is  to  become,  in  due  time, 
"  the  joy  of  the  whole  earth."  the  glorious  head  and  front  of  the 
world's  civilization.  ••And  the  Gentiles  shall  come  to  thy  light,  and 
kings  to  the  brightness  of  thy  rising."  Much  of  the  seed  of  Ephraim 
is  mixed  with  the  Gentiles;  therefore  is  he  to  be  gathered  from 
among  them.  Manasseh  is  largely  to  be  found  among  the  Laman- 
ites. the  American  Indians,  and  the  dark-hued  dwellers  of  the  neigh- 
boring ocean  islands.  Though  cursed  of  God  and  smitten  by  the 
Gentiles,  the  red  men  are  yet  to  be  reclaimed  and  the  curse  lifted 
from  off  them.  Then  will  they  become  ''white  and  delightsome," 
as  of  yore.  ^The  Book  of  Mormon  and  its  believers  declare  that 
these  Lamanites — Manasseh — will  yet  build  the  Zion  of  God,  the 
Jerusalem  of  America,  in  which  work  they  will  lie  .joined — some  say 

*  Genesis  xlix:  22-26.     Deuteronomy  xxxiii:  13-17. 


assisted,  some  directed — by. the  Latter-day  Saints,  the  children  of 

But  the  gathering  of  Israel  is  to  include  the  whole  house  of 
Jacob ;  not  merely  the  half  tribes  of  Ephraim  and  Manasseh.  It 
involves  the  restoration  of  the  Jews  and  the.  re-building  of  old  Jeru- 
salem, prior  to  the  acceptance  by  Judah  of  the  gospel  and  mission 
of  the  crucified  Messiah:  also  the  return  of  the  lost  Ten  Tribes 
from  '"  the  north  country"  and  their  re-establishment  in  Palestine, 
their  ancient  Canaan. 

The  preliminary  work  of  founding  Zion.  as  well  as  a  greater 
spiritual  mission  to  follow,  when  the  Ten  Tribes  from  the  north  will 
receive  in  Zion  their  blessings  under  his  hands,  devolves  upon 
Ephraim.  the  "first-born,"  empowered  by  a  restored  gospel  and 
priesthood  unto  this  very  end  and  purpose.  Hence,  say  the  Sain  Is. 
the  mission  and  calling  of  Joseph  Smith,  the  Prophet  of  Ephraim,  who 
claimed  to  be  a  lineal  descendant  of  Joseph  who  was  sold  into  Egypt. 

Again,  the  message  borne  by  Ephraim  in  the  last  days,  reversing 
the  order  of  ancient-day  evangelism,  is  first  to  the  Gentiles,  and  then, 
when  "the  fullness  of  the  Gentiles"  has  "come  in,"  to  the  whole 
house  of  Israel.  Perhaps  it  was  a  type,  designed  to  foreshadow  the 
anticipated  fulfillment,  this  sending  of  the  Elders,  in  the  fall  of  1830, 
after  several  months  proselyting  among  the  Gentiles  of  New  York 
and  Pennsylvania,  to  Lamanitish  Israel,  mostly  inhabiting  the  wilder- 
ness beyond  the  nation's  western  frontier.  The  mission  of  these 
Elders  was  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the  red  men,  as  contained  in  the 
Bible  and  the  Book  of  Mormon, — the  sticks  of  Judah  and  of  Joseph 
now  •'  in  the  hand  of  Ephraim." — *  deliver  to  them  the  record  of 
their  forefathers,  and  inasmuch  as  they  received  their  teachings  to 
establish  the  Church  of  Christ  among  them.  In  other  words,  to  pre- 
pare Manasseh  for  his  part  of  the  work  of  building  up  Zion.  Such, 
from  a  Mormon  standpoint,  was  the  significance  of  that  Lamanite 
mission,  and  such  in   general   is  the   Mormon   view  of   Mormonism. 

Ezekiel  xxxvn  :  in 


The  Elders  chosen  for  this  service  were  Oliver  Cowdery,  Peter 
Whitmer,  junior,  Parley  P.  Pratt  and  Ziba  Peterson. 

A  word  here  in  relation  to  Parley  P.  Pratt,  the  future  poet- 
Apostle  of  Mormonism,  whose  personal  history  interweaves  at  this 
point  with  several  important  events  of  that  period.  He  was  a  native 
of  the  state  of  New  York,  and  was  now  in  his  twenty-fourth  year. 
Prior  to  his  baptism  by  Oliver  Cowdery  in  Seneca  Lake  about  the 
1st  of  September,  1830,  he  had  been  connected  with  a  religious 
society  called  Reformed  Baptists,  or  Campbellites,  which  he  had 
joined  two  years  before  in  the  wilds  of  northern  Ohio.  In  fact 
he  had  been  a  preacher  of  the  Campbellites,  who  numbered  among 
their  leading  men  Alexander  Campbell,  the  founder  of  the  sect,  and 
Sidney  Rigdon.  the  latter,  like  Parley,  an  eloquent  and  gifted 
expounder  of  the  scriptures.  The  magnet  which  had  drawn  Parley 
into  the  Campbellite  fold  was  the  scriptural  nature  of  their  doctrines, 
which  included  not  only  faith,  repentance  and  baptism  by  immersion, 
— which,  as  a  good  Baptist,  he  believed  in  already, — but  baptism  for 
the  remission  of  sins  and  the  promise  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  tenets  not 
taught  by  the  orthodox  sects  of  Christendom.  These  doctrines  had 
been  preached  by  Sidney  Rigdon  in  Parley's  neighborhood :  he  being 
then  a  colonizer  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Erie.  Soon  after  embracing 
the  Campbellite  faith,  in  August,  1830,  he  resolved  to  devote  himself 
entirely  to  the  work  of  the  ministry.  Selling  out  at  a  sacrifice,  and 
abandoning  his  home  in  the  wilderness,  he  traveled  eastward  to  his 
native  state;  his  young  wife,  nee  Thankful  Halsey,  accompanying 
him.  Near  the  city  of  Rochester,  leaving  his  wife  to  pursue  the 
journey  homeward,  Parley  felt  impelled  to  stop  and  preach,  and 
walked  ten  miles  into  the  country  for  that  purpose.  There,  at  the 
house  of  an  old  Baptist  deacon  named  Hamlin,  he  first  heard  of  and 
first  saw  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Deeply  interested  in  its  perusal. — 
particularly  in  that  part  descriptive  of  the  personal  ministry  of  the 
Savior  to  the  Nephites, — he  decided  to  visit  the  young  man  who 
claimed  to  have  translated  the  record  from  plates  of  gold.  Arriving 
at  Manchester,  the  parental  home  of  the  Smiths,  he  learned  that 






the  Prophet  was  then  living  in  Pennsylvania.  He  met  Hyrum 
Smith,  however,  who  entertained  him  kindly,  presented  him  with  a 
copy  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  and  subsequently  accompanied  him  to 
Fayette.  There,  being  fully  converted  to  the  new  faith,  he  was  bap- 
tized, as  stated,  confirmed  and  ordained  an  Elder.  He  then  revisited 
his  old  home  in  Canaan,  Columbia  County,  where  he  converted  and 
baptized  his  brother  Orson,  then  a  youth  of  nineteen  years;  destined 
like  himself  to  achieve  fame  as  a  Mormon  Apostle,  and  as  one  of  the 
pioneer  founders  of  Utah.  Returning  westward,  Parley  met  for  the 
first  time  Joseph  Smith,  who  had  returned  from  Pennsylvania  and 
was  visiting  his  parents  at  Manchester.  Soon  afterward,  being 
called  to  accompany  Elders  Cowdery,  Whitmer  and  Peterson  upon 
their  mission,  he  set  out  for  the  land  of  the  Lamanites. 

It  was  late  in  October,  1830,  that  the  four  Elders  departed  for 
the  west.  As  was  customary  then  with  itinerants,  unable  to 
afford  a  nag  or  vehicle,  or  to  pay  coach  and  steamboat  fares,  they 
started  afoot,  husbanding  their  scanty  means  and  trusting  in  Provi- 
dence to  "'open  up  the  way."  They  first  visited  the  Catteraugus 
Indians,  near  Buffalo,  New  York.  By  them  they  were  kindly 
received,  much  interest  being  manifested  by  the  red  men  in  the 
strange  things  told  them  by  the  Elders.  Presenting  them  with  copies 
of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  for  the  perusal  of  such  of  the  Indians  as 
could  read,  the  missionaries  bade  them  farewell  and  continued  their 
journey  westward. 

The  scene  now  changes  to  northern  Ohio,  a  region  at  that  time 
almost  if  not  quite  a  wilderness,  in  the  midst  of  which,  among  the 
hills  and  dales  and  glens  and  groves  and  streams  that  beautify  the 
shores  and  give  back  the  echoing  music  of  Erie's  rolling  waves,  not 
only  these  Mormon  Elders, — who  were  merely  the  vanguard  of  a 
general  migratory  movement  haying  westward  as  its  watchword  and 
religion  as  its  guiding  star. — but  Mormonism  itself,  their  parent 
church,  was  destined  soon  to  plant  its  pilgrim  feet. 

Kirtland,  a  few  miles  inland  from  Lake  Erie,  was  a  picturesque 
and  flourishing  little  town  of  one  or  two  thousand  inhabitants,  doing 


business  across  the  lakes  with  the  fur-trapping  regions  of  Michigan 
and  some  of  the  principal  cities  of  the  east.  The  leading  "store''  of 
the  town,  and  indeed  in  all  that  region,  was  owned  and  conducted 
by  Messrs.  Gilbert  and  Whitney,  who  had  formerly  been  in  business 
at  Painesville. 

In  this  vicinity  the  Campbellites,  or  Disciples,  as  they  called 
themselves,  had  made  many  converts.  Among  those  now  associated 
with  them  were  Edward  Partridge,  of  Painesville,  and  Newel  K. 
Whitney,  of  Kirtland.  both  merchants. — the  former  a  native  of  Pitts- 
field.  Berkshire  County.  Massachusetts,  and  the  latter  of  Marlborough, 
Windham  County,  Vermont.  Like  Parley  P.  Pratt,  these  men,  who 
became  the  first  two  Bishops  of  the  Mormon  Church,  were  converts 
in  the  Campbellite  faith  of  Sidney  Rigdon's. 

The  prominent  part  played  by  this  notable  man  in  the  affairs  of 
Mormonism  entitles  his  past  record  to  some  mention.  Sidney  Bigdon 
was  born  in  St.  Clair  Township.  Allegheny  County.  Pennsylvania,  on 
the  19th  of  February,  1793.  Connecting  himself  in  his  twenty-fifth 
year  with  the  regular  Baptist  Church,  he  became,  in  March,  1819.  a 
licensed  preacher  of  that  persuasion.  Two  months  afterward 
he  removed  to  Trumbull  County,  Ohio,  where  he  subsequently  mar- 
ried. Called  in  1821  to  the  pastorate  of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of 
Pittsburg,  he  there  became  a  very  popular  minister.  Less  than  three 
years  later,  becoming  dissatisfied  with  the  doctrines  of  the  Baptists, 
he  conscientiously  resigned  his  pastorate  and  withdrew  from  the 
society.  During  the  next  two  years  he  labored  in  a  tannery  for  a 
livelihood.  Again  removing  to  Ohio, — this  time  to  Bainbridge,  in 
Geauga  County, — he  there  re-entered  the  ministry.  He  now  preached 
the  Campbellite  doctrines.  It  seems  that  the  founder  of  that  sect. 
Alexander  Campbell,  had  been  one  of  Rigdon's  parishioners  at  Pitts- 
burg. Following  his  pastor's  example,  he  had  left  the  Baptist 
Church,  and  with  Mr.  Walter  Scott,  and  warmly  supported  by  Mr. 
Rigdon,  had  founded  the  society  of  Beformed  Baptists,  or  Camp- 
bellites. Rigdon's  success,  always  pronounced,  was  now  remarkable. 
The  fame  of  his  eloquence  and  reasoning  powers  spread  far  and  wide. 


After  a  year's  effective  service  in  and  around  Bainbridge,  he  accepted 
a  call  to  Mentor,  thirty  miles  distant.  There,  in  the  midst  of  much 
persecution,  occasioned  by  his  phenomenal  success,  he  continued  to 
flourish.  He  converted  and  baptized  multitudes,  and  organized 
congregations  in  all  the  country  round.  One  of  these  was  near  the 
mouth  of  Black  River,  where  Parley  P.  Pratt  was  converted.  Sidney 
Rigdon  was  at  the  summit  of  his  fame  and  popularity  as  a  Campbell- 
ite  preacher  when  Oliver  Cowdery  and  his  confreres, — the  first 
missionaries  sent  westward  by  the  Latter-day  Saints  from  the  cradle 
of  their  Church, — set  out  for  the  land  of  the  Lamanites. 

It  was  to  Kirtland,  not  far  from  Mentor,  that  those  Elders  now 
made  their  way ;  Parley  P.  Pratt  being  desirous  of  laying  before  his 
former  friends  and  associates  the  principles  he  had  recently  espoused. 
As  a  reminder  to  the  reader  of  what  those  principles  comprised, 
the  Articles  of  Faith  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints,  as  formulated  a  few  years  later  by  the  Prophet,  are  here 
presented : 

1.  We  believe  in  God,  the  Eternal  Father,  and  in  His  Son  Jesus  Christ,  and  in  the 
Holy  Ghost. 

2.  We  believe  that  men  will  be  punished  for  their  own  sins,  and  not  for  Adam's 

3.  We  believe  that  through  the  atonement  of  Christ  all  men  may  be  saved,  by 
obedience  to  the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  gospel. 

4.  We  believe  that  these  ordinances  are :  First,  faith  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ ;  sec- 
ond, repentance;  third,  baptism  by  immersion  for  the  remission  of  sins;  fourth,  laying 
on  of  hands  for  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

5.  We  believe  that  a  man  must  be  called  of  God  by  ''prophecy,  and  by  the  laying 
on  of  hands,"  by  those  who  are  in  authority,  to  preach  the  Gospel  and  administer  in  the 
ordinances  thereof. 

6.  We  believe  in  the  same  organization  that  existed  in  the  primitive  church,  viz.: 
apostles,  prophets,  pastors,  teachers,  evangelists,  etc. 

7.  We  believe  in  the  gift  of  tongues,  prophecy,  revelation,  visions,  healing,  inter- 
pretation of  tongues,  etc. 

8.  We  believe  the  Bible  to  be  the  word  of  God.  as  far  as  it  is  translated  correetlj ; 
we  also  believe  the  Book  of  Mormon  to  be  the  word  of  God. 

9.  We  believe  all  that  God  has  revealed,  all  that  He  does  now  reveal,  and  we 
believe  llial  He  will  yet  reveal  many  great  and  important  things  pertaining  to  the  Kingdom 
of  God. 

10.     We  believe  in  the  literal  gathering  of  Israel  and  in  the   restoration  of   the  Ten 

6-VOL.   1. 


Tribes.     That  Zion  will  be  built  upon  this  continent.      That  Christ  will  reign  personally 
upon  the  earth,  and  that  the  earth  will  be  renewed  and  receive  its  paradisic  glory. 

11.  We  claim  the  privilege  of  worshiping  Almighty  God  according  to  the  dictates 
of  our  conscience,  and  allow  all  men  the  same  privilege,  let  them  worship  how,  where 
or  what  they  may. 

12.  We  believe  in  being  subject  to  kings,  presidents,  rulers  and  magistrates,  in  obey- 
ing, honoring  and  sustaining  the  law. 

13.  We  believe  in  being  honest,  true,  chaste,  benevolent,  virtuous,  and  in  doing  good 
to  all  men:  indeed  we  may  say  that  we  follow  the  admonition  of  Paul,  ;'  We  believe  all 
things,  we  hope  all  things,"  we  have  endured  many  things,  and  hope  to  be  able  to  endure 
all  things.  If  there  is  anything  virtuous,  lovely  or  of  good  report  or  praiseworthy,  we  seek 
after  these  things. 

Such  were  the  doctrines  that  Parley  P.  Pratt  desired  to  present 
to  his  former  friends  in  and  around  Kirtland.  The  commission  of 
the  Elders  being  to  ''preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature."  regardless 
of  creed  or  color,  they  were  nothing  loth  to  tarry  for  a  season 
within  the  confines  of  civilization  and  "thrust  in  their  sickles 
and  reap,"  wherever  the  field  of  souls  appeared  "  white  unto  the 
harvest."  Calling  on  Mr.  Rigdon,  they  presented  him  with  the  Book 
of  Mormon,  at  the  same  time  relating  to  him  its  history.  This  was 
his  first  knowledge  of  the  record  which,  a  few  years  later,  he  was 
accused  of  assisting  Joseph  Smith  to  create  out  of  the  materials  of 
the  Spaulding  story.  He  entertained  the  Elders  hospitably,  and 
promised  to  read  the  book  carefully.  The  result  was  his  conversion 
to  Mormonism.  After  due  deliberation  he  offered  himself  to  the 
Elders  as  a  candidate  for  baptism.  Many  of  his  flock  were  likewise 
converted.  Within  three  weeks  after  their  arrival  at  Kirtland.  the 
Elders  baptized  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven  souls.  Among  these 
were  Sidney  Rigdon,  Newel  K.  Whitney.  Frederick  G.  Williams.  Isaac 
Morley,  Lyman  Wight,  John  Murdock  and  others  whose  names 
became  more  or  less  notable  in  the  annals  of  Mormonism.  Edward 
Partridge  was  also  converted,  but  was  not  immediately  baptized. 

But  the  Elders  must  not  tarry  too  long  at  Kirtland.  The  season 
is  far  advanced,  the  storms  of  winter  will  soon  burst  forth,  and  a 
vast  journey  still  lies  before  them.  They  now  prepare  for  departure. 
Ordaining  Sidney  Rigdon   and  others  to  the  priesthood,  and   setting 


them  apart  to  minister  for  the  rest,  the  four  Elders  reported  by  letter 
to  the  Prophet,  and  bidding  their  new-found  brethren  and  sisters 
adieu,  resumed  their  westward  pilgrimage.  Frederick  G.  Williams 
accompanied  them. 

Near  the  mouth  of  Black  River,  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Parley  P.  Pratt's  former  home,  they  stopped  one  night  at  the  house 
of  Simeon  Carter.  Here  Parley  was  arrested  on  some  trivial  charge 
and  held  in  durance  till  morning.  Escaping  by  strategy  he  rejoined 
his  companions,  and  they  trudged  on  through  mud  and  rain  toward 
the  interior.  Everywhere  they  found  that  their  fame  had  preceded 
them.  Though  ill-treated  by  some,  they  preached  to  crowded  con- 
gregations, and  sowed  the  seed  broad-cast  of  a  future  bounteous  har- 
vest. Simeon  Carter,  at  whose  home  Parley,  on  the  night  of  his 
arrest,  had  left  a  copy  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  perused  it  carefully, 
was  converted,  and  walked  fifty  miles  to  Kirtland,  where  he  was  bap- 
tized and  ordained  an  Elder.  Returning,  he  began  himself  to 
preach  and  baptize,  and  built  up  a  branch  of  the  Church  in  his 
neighborhood  numbering  sixty  members. 

At  Sandusky,  Elder  Cowdery  and  his  companions  came  upon 
another  Indian  nation,  the  Wyandots,  with  whom  they  spent  several 
days  very  agreeably.  Like  the  Catteraugus  Indians,  they  warmly 
welcomed  the  missionaries,  listened  with  interest  to  their  teachings, 
and  at  parting  gave  them  God-speed.  They  also  requested  the  Elders 
to  write  to  them  regarding  their  success  among  the  tribes  farther 
west.  Proceeding  to  Cincinnati,  the  Elders  tarried  certain  clays, 
preaching,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  December  took  passage  on  a 
steamboat  bound  for  St.  Louis.  The  mouth  of  the  Ohio  River  being- 
blocked  with  ice,  their  boat  could  proceed  no  farther.  At  that  point, 
therefore,  they  landed  and  continued  their  journey  afoot.  Two  hun- 
dred miles  traveled  in  this  manner  brought  them  to  the  vicinity  of 
St.  Louis.  Heavy  storms  of  rain  and  snow  now  detained  them  for 
over  a  week,  during  winch  they  were  kindly  cared  for  by  hospitable 
people  in  that  section. 

With   the   opening    year — 1831 — they   resumed    their  journeyj 


passing  through  St.  Louis  and  St.  Charles.  Then  out  over  the  bleak 
and  storm-swept  prairies,  through  wintry  winds  and  stinging  hail 
and  driving  sleet,  at  times  half  frozen,  often  fatigued,  but  never  dis- 
heartened. Their  frequent  diet  was  frozen  bread  and  raw  pork, 
munched  by  the  wayside,  as  they  trudged  along  weary  and  foot-sore 
through  deep  and  drifting  snows,  looking  in  vain  for  house  or  sign  of 
shelter.  Three  hundred  miles  were  thus  traversed.  Finally,  after 
much  privation  and  some  suffering,  they  reached  Independence. 
Jackson  County,  Missouri,  then  on  the  extreme  western  frontier  of 
the  United  States.  Their  pilgrimage  was  now  practically  ended. 
Beyond  lay  the  trackless  wilderness, — trackless  indeed  save  for  the 
foot-prints  of  wild  beast  or  savage,  hovering  in  friendliness  near  the 
border,  or  roaming  at  will  the  vast  plains  stretching  westward  to  the 
unexplored  regions  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

The  country  in  which  they  found  themselves  was  settled,  or 
partly  settled  by  whites,  mostly  ignorant  and  half  civilized,  with 
Indians  and  negroes  interspersed, — a  typical  frontier  population. 
Renegades  and  refugees  from  justice,  who  had  fled  from  the  older 
states  to  this  out-of-the-way  region,  formed  at  that  time  no  inconsid- 
erable portion  of  the  inhabitants  of  western  Missouri.  Civilization, 
however,  was  advancing;  schools  had  been  introduced  and  were 
beginning  to  thrive,  and  to  offset  the  reckless  criminal  element  many 
intelligent,  upright  and  respectable  people  were  numbered  among  the 
citizens.  The  curse  of  the  country  was  the  political  demagogue, 
playing  as  ever  for  personal  ends  behind  the  mask  of  patriotism. — 
proverbially  "the  last  refuge  of  a  scoundrel."  Missouri,  only  nine 
years  a  state, — having  been  admitted  to  the  Union  under  the  cele- 
brated pro-slavery  compromise  of  1821, —  was  just  the  field  where 
such  characters  might  flourish,  and  flourish  they  did.  to  the  infinite 
sorrow  of  their  betters. 

Jackson  County,  named  for  General  Andrew  Jackson — then 
President  of  the  United  States — was  settled  principally  by  people 
from  Tennessee  and  farther  south.  Clay  County,  immediately  north, 
and  separated    from    Jackson    County  by  the  Missouri  River,   had 


been  named  for  Henry  Clay,  Jackson's  opponent  in  the  presidential 
contest  of  1828.  Its  settlers  were  mostly  Kentuckians.  Indepen- 
dence, the  county  seat  of  Jackson,  was  a  new  town  prettily  situated 
on  a  piece  of  rising  ground,  about  three  miles  south  of  the  river,  and 
twelve  miles  east  of  the  state  boundary  line.  It  contained  a  court- 
house built  of  brick,  two  or  three  merchants'  stores,  and  a  score  or 
more  of  private  dwellings.  The  houses  generally  were  log  cabins, 
without  glass  windows  or  floors,  and  many  of  the  settlers,  women  as 
well  as  men,  dressed  entirely  in  skins.  Their  food  was  also  of  the 
coarsest,  consisting  usually  of  wild  meat,  wild  honey,  pork  and  corn 
bread,  prepared  in  the  most  primitive  manner.  These  conditions 
prevailed  among  the  poor.  The  rich  and  those  well-to-do  of  course 
had  things  in  much  better  style.  The  settlers  of  Jackson  County,  as 
said,  were  mostly  from  the  south,  and  were  either  slaveholders  or 
advocates  of  slavery.  Christian  churches  had  their  representatives 
there,  as  elsewhere,  and  the  general  government  its  Indian  agents 
and  other  functionaries.  West  of  Jackson  County  was  the  Indian 
Territory,  now  the  State  of  Kansas. 

Leaving  their  companions  at  Independence,  where  two  of  them 
obtained  temporary  employment  as  tailors,  Oliver  Cowdery  and 
Parley  P.  Pratt  crossed  over  the  line  into  Indian  Territory,  entering 
the  country  of  the  Shawnees  and  Delawares.  The  Delaware  chief 
was  the  sachem  of  ten  tribes.  He  was  also  a  polygamist,  having 
several  wives.  He  welcomed  his  white  visitors  cordially,  and  though 
averse  to  missionaries  in  general,  after  some  hesitation  called  a 
council  of  his  leading  men  and  permitted  Elder  Cowdery  to  address 
them.  The  Elder  explained  through  an  interpreter  the  import  of 
his  visit,  and  the  mission  of  himself  and  his  brethren  to  that  land ; 
gave  an  account  of  the  coming  forth  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  with  a 
brief  statement  of  its  contents,  and  closing  presented  the  aged  chief 
with  one  of  the  volumes.  The  gift  was  graciously  accepted,  the 
sachem  testifying  his  appreciation  of  the  efforts  of  the  Elders  in 
behalf  of  him  and  his  people,  and  promising  that  in  the  spring  they 
would  build  a  large  council  house  wherein  they  might  be  taughl 


more  fully.  Several  clays  elapsed,  during  which  the  two  Elders 
continued  to  instruct  the  aged  sachem  and  his  people.  They 
lodged  meanwhile  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Pool,  a  blacksmith  employed 
for  the  Indians  by  the  government.  He  became  a  believer  in  the 
Book  of  Mormon,  and  served  the  Elders  as  an  interpreter.  The 
Indians  manifested  great  interest  in  what  was  told  them,  insomuch 
that  considerable  excitement  began  to  prevail  among  them.  This 
coming  to  the  ears  of  Christian  missionaries,  excited  their  jealousy, 
and  inspired  by  them  the  agents  of  the  government  ordered  the 
Elders  to  quit  the  Indian  country.  Threatened  with  the  military  if 
they  failed  to  comply,  Elders  Cowdery  and  Pratt  reluctantly  recrossed 
the  border  and  rejoined  their  companions.  During  the  remainder  of 
their  sojourn  in  that  land,  they  confined  their  proselyting  labors 
mainly  to  the  white  settlers  of  Jackson  County,  some  of  whom  were 
converted  and  baptized.  And  so  ended  this  mission  to  the  Laman- 










EANTIME,  in  Ohio  and  in  the  east  the  cause  of  Mormonism 
J^A-  had  heen  steadily,  even  rapidly  progressing.  The  Prophet 
and  his  co-laborers,  after  the  departure  of  the  Lamanite  mission,  had 
been  kept  busy  preaching,  baptizing  and  building  up  the  Church  in 
the  states  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania.  Among  those  who  had 
recently  become  associated  with  the  Mormon  leader  were  Thomas  B. 
Marsh,  the  future  President  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  and  Orson  Pratt, 
another  member  of  that  council. 

In  December,  1830,  there  came  to  Fayette  on  a  visit  to  the 
Prophet,  Sidney  Rigdon  and  Edward  Partridge,  from  Kirtland,  Ohio. 
Sidney,  as  seen,  had  been  baptized,  and  was  now  an  Elder  of  the 
Church.  His  companion,  though  converted,  had  not  yet  entered  the 
fold,  but  was  baptized  by  Joseph  in  Seneca  River,  a  few  days  after 
his  arrival  at  Fayette.  Both  these  men,  Sidney  Rigdon  and  Edward 
Partridge,  whose  acquaintance  with  the  Mormon  leader  here  began, 
afterwards  attained  high  positions  in  the  Church. 

A  work  now  engaging  the  attention  of  the  Prophet  was  a  revi- 
sion of  the  Scriptures.  In  the  absence  of  Oliver  Cowdery  in  the 
west,  and  of  John  Whitmer,  who  had  been  sent  to  preside  over  I  lie 


Saints  in  Ohio,  he  had  need  of  an  expert  scribe  to  assist  him  in  his 
literary  labors.  Such  an  assistant  he  found  in  Sidney  Piigdon,  who 
now  became  his  secretary  and  near  associate.  In  a  revelation  re- 
corded about  this  time,  Sidney  is  likened  unto  John  the  Baptist, — 
referring  to  his  former  labors  as  a  Campbellite  preacher,  whereby,  he 
was  informed,  he  had  prepared  the  way  unwittingly  for  a  greater  one 
to  follow. 

It  now  became  evident  to  the  Prophet,  whose  mind  had  already 
conceived  the  idea  that  the  west,  and  not  the  east,  was  the  field  of 
Mormonism's  greater  destiny,  that  the  season  was  ripe  for  a  general 
movement  of  his  people  in  the  direction  of  their  promised  Zion. 
The  site  of  the  future  city  had  not  yet  been  definitely  declared, 
though  it  was  understood  in  general  terms  to  be  "on  the  borders  by 
the  Lamanites."  Thither  Oliver  Cowdery  and  his  companions  were 
now  wending  their  way.  But  the  success  of  those  Elders  in  northern 
Ohio  had  indicated  an  eligible  spot  for  the  founding  of  a  "stake  of 
Zion,"  a  temporary  gathering  place,  where,  pending  further  move- 
ments toward  the  building  up  of  their  central  city,  the  Saints  might 
assemble.*  Accordingly,  ere  the  month  of  December  had  expired, 
the  word  went  forth  from  the  Prophet  to  his  followers  in  the  eastern 
states  to  dispose  of  their  possessions,  migrate  westward  and  "assem- 
ble together  at  the  Ohio." 

Not  that  the  east  was  to  be  relinquished  as  a  field  for  prose- 
lytism.  Not  that  the  Prophet  and  his  people,  as  might  be  imagined, 
had  become  dispirited  and  lost  confidence  in  the  cause  with  which 
they  were  identified.  On  the  contrary,  never  had  the  sun  of  hope 
beamed  for  them  more  brightly ;  never  had  their  thorny  pathway 
seemed  so  thickly  bestrewn  with  flowers.  True,  they  were  hated  and 
opposed  on  every  hand,  their  leader's  life  was  threatened,  and 
secret  plots,  he  had  been  warned,  were  even  then  forming  for  his 
destruction.     But  such  had   been   their  experience  heretofore,  and 

*  The  distinction  between  Zion  and  the  Stakes  of  Zion  should   lie  borne  in  mind  by 
be  reader  who  desires  to  properly  understand  Mormon  history. 


these  were  not  the  impelling  causes  of  the  migratory  movement  now 
in  contemplation.  Joseph  Smith's  character  has  not  been  read 
aright,  nor  the  record  of  his  people  from  the  beginning,  if  it  be 
imagined  that  fear  for  his  personal  safety  or  the  hope  of  immunity 
from  further  persecution  were  the  motives  that  then  actuated  them. 
No ;  it  was  to  them  the  beginning  of  Israel's  latter-day  gathering, 
an  initiatory  step  toward  the  building  up  of  Zion ;  and  though  the 
reason  may  have  been,  in  part,  that  Mormonism, — hated,  defamed, 
and  struggling  against  apparently  overwhelming  odds, — might  gain  a 
firmer  foot-hold  for  its  fight  of  faith  than  seemed  possible  amid  the 
warring  spiritual  elements  of  the  more  thickly  populated  portions  of 
the  land,  it  was  far  from  being  the  chief  purpose  and  principal  end 
in  view.  These  Latter-day  Saints  believed  they  were  fulfilling  a 
God-given  destiny  in  thus  flocking  Zionward, — in  fleeing,  as  Isaiah 
had  said  Israel  should,  "upon  the  shoulders  of  the  Philistines 
toward  the  west."  They  were  destined  to  make  literal  these  words 
of  the  ancient  seer  to  an  extent  little  dreamed  of  at  that  time  in 
their  philosophy. 

A  farewell  conference  was  held  at  Fayette  on  the  2nd  of  Jan- 
uary, 1831.  The  affairs  of  the  Church  in  the  eastern  parts  were 
settled,  or  left  in  the  hands  of  trusty  agents  to  wind  up  as  speedily 
as  possible,  and  the  Prophet,  accompanied  by  his  wife,  and  by  Sidney 
Rigdon,  Edward  Partridge,  Ezra  Thayre  and  Newel  Knight,  toward 
the  latter  part  of  the  month  set  out  for  Kirtland. 

They  arrived  there  about  the  1st  of  February.  Driving  his 
sleigh  through  the  streets  of  the  little  town,  the  Prophet  drew  up  at 
the  mercantile  door  of  Messrs.  Gilbert  and  Whitney.  Alighting  from 
his  vehicle  he  entered  the  store  and  introduced  himself  as  "Joseph 
the  Prophet,"  to  Newel  K.  Whitney,  the  junior  partner  of  the  firm. 
By  him  and  his  household,  Joseph  and  his  wife,  pending  other 
arrangements  for  their  reception,  were  cordially  received  and  enter- 

The  first  step  taken  by  the  Prophet,  after  setting  in  order  the 
Church   at   Kirtland, — the  affairs  of  which,  after  the  departure  of 


Elder  Gowdery  and  his  confreres,  had  become  somewhat  demoralized 
spiritually, — was  to  lay  the  foundation  of  what  is  known  to 
Latter-day  Saints  as  the  United  Order.  A  brief  exposition  of  this 
principle  of  their  religion  will  here  be  necessary. 

Some  of  the  views  of  the  Saints  relative  to  the  up-building  of 
Zion  have  already  been  dwelt  upon.  Of  the  United  Order,  or  the 
Order  of  Enoch,  as  it  is  otherwise  named,  it  may  be  said  it  is  a 
religio-social  system  involving  the  methods  whereby  that  "up-build- 
ing" is  to  be  accomplished.  Said  Joseph  Smith:  "It  is  not  given 
that  one  man  should  possess  that  which  is  above  another.*'  This  is 
the  key-note  of  the  United  Order. 

Co-operative  or  communistic  schemes  the  world  had  known 
before.  Saint  Simon  and  Fourier  in  France,  Owen  in  England  and 
in  America,  each  ere  this  had  launched  his  bark  of  philanthropic 
thought  and  theory  upon  the  waters  of  social  reform.  As  early  as 
1825  Robert  Owen  and  his  associates  had  established  industrial 
communities  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic.  There  was  even  at  this 
time,  in  the  vicinity  of  Kirtland — though  not  of  Owen*s  origin — a 
small  community  called  "the  family,"  which,  following  the  example 
of  some  of  the  early  Christians,  held  their  temporal  possessions  in 
common.  But  the  United  Order  introduced  by  Joseph  Smith  proba- 
bly went  further  toward  realizing,  or  foreshadowing,  the  Millennarian 
dream  of  the  prophet,  poet  and  philanthropist,  than  anything  the 
world  had  before  witnessed. 

Nor  are  these  idle  words,  words  of  unmerited  eulogy.  A  Mil- 
lennium without  a  God  is  impossible.  A  communistic  scheme,  a  plan 
for  social  reconstruction,  without  a  religious  basis,  the  love  of  God 
and  man  as  its  central  idea,  is  born  but  to  perish,  howsoever  for  a 
season  it  may  thrive.  And  even  with  religion, — the  highest  and 
strongest  motive  that  can  impel  selfish  humanity. — will  it  not  be 
found  a  stupendous  and  all  but  impossible  task?  Instance  the  fail- 
ures of  those  would-be  social  reformers,  secularists,  who  have 
thought  to  leave  God  and  religion  out  of  their  otherwise  grand 
schemes  for  society's  reconstruction  and  regeneration.     Deity  must 


be  recognized,  must  be  at  the  head  and  helm  of  all  plans  for  man's 
perfecting.  Otherwise  they  cannot  endure.  The  "natural  man"*  is 
too  much  an  enemy  to  God,  too  much  the  enemy  of  his  fellow  man,  to 
conquer  covetousness  and  love  his  neighbor  as  himself,  save  God 
be  with  him.  And  without  self-conquest,  without  love  of  humanity, 
no  Millennium,  no  universal  brotherhood,  no  reign  of  peace  and 
righteousness  is  possible. 

Herein  lay  the  superiority  of  Joseph  Smith's  concept  over  those 
of  the  eminent  social  reformers,  his  predecessors  and  cotempor- 
aries.  The  United  Order  was  not  a  mere  financial  scheme,  not  a 
co-operative,  joint-stock  mercantile  concern;  not  a  mere  plan  for 
social  reconstruction,  involving  only  a  community  of  temporal  inter- 
ests. It  was  all  these  and  more.  It  was  religious,  not  secular  in  its 
character;  spiritual,  not  temporal  in  its  genius;  and  yet,  being  spir- 
itual, it  comprehended  and  circumscribed  the  temporal.  How  and 
where  Joseph  Smith  obtained  it  is  not  the  question  to  be  here  deter- 
mined. He  declared  that  it  was  revealed  to  him  by  the  Almighty. 
Impartial  history  can  neither  affirm  nor  deny  it.  The  province  of 
the  historian  is  the  field  of  facts,  and  it  is  a  fact  that  Joseph  Smith 
so  stated.  At  all  events,  God  was  recognized  as  its  author,  its  laws 
as  His  laws,  its  aim  and  purpose  His.  Its  avowed  object  was  to  glor- 
ify God  by  lifting  up  man,  mentally,  physically,  morally,  spiritually. 
It  was  to  the  Saints  the  Millennial  lever  that  was  to  move  the  world, 
gradually  but  effectually,  toward  the  glorious  goal  of  universal 
brotherhood  and  good  will.  It  was  as  the  voice  of  Elias, — the  voice 
of  one  crying  in  the  wilderness :  "  Prepare  ye  the  way  of  the 
Lord."'  "  Make  His  paths  straight."  "  Every  valley  shall  be  exalted, 
and  every  mountain  and  hill  shall  be  made  low ;  and  the  crooked 
shall  be  made  straight,  and  the  rough  places  plain."  In  other  words, 
it  meant  the  leveling  of  class  distinctions, — the  bringing  down  of 
the  mountains  of  pride,  the  exalting  of  the  valleys  of  humility ;  the 
extirpation  of  fraud  and  crookedness,  and  the  eventual  triumph  of 
true  culture  and  civilization.  By  means  of  it  Zion  was  to  "'arise  and 
shine,"  the  "joy  of  the  whole  earth,"  ere  the  coming  of  Him  whose 


peaceful  and  righteous  reign  has  been  the  theme  of  prophet  tongues 
and  poet  pens  in  all  ages. 

It  was  an  order  of  industry,  too,  and  not  of  idleness ;  a  rule  of 
law  and  not  of  anarchy,  wherein  each  soul,  having  consecrated  his 
all.  and  being  assigned  his  stewardship,  was  to  labor  faithfully  for 
the  common  weal  in  that  field  or  pursuit  for  which  he  proved  best 
fitted  and  designed.  "  Every  man  seeking  the  interest  of  his  neigh- 
bor, and  doing  all  things  with  an  eye  single  to  the  glory  of  God." 
Such  was  the  theory  of  the  United  Order. 

More  practically  speaking,  the  system  meant  that  each  indi- 
vidual, on  entering  the  Order,  was  to  deed  to  the  Church,  or  its 
authorized  representative,  his  or  her  property  in  toto,  utterly  relin- 
quishing  its  possession.  It  might  be  a  farm,  a  workshop  or  a  sum 
of  money,  much  or  little,  that  was  thus  "consecrated."  But  what- 
ever it  was,  it  thenceforth  belonged  to  the  Order,  and  not  to  the  indi- 
vidual. All  would  then  be  owners  alike,  and  equality  in  temporal 
things  be  inaugurated. 

A  deed  would  then  be  given  by  the  Church,  or  its  representa- 
tive, to  each  member  of  the  Order,  conveying  to  him  or  her  a  certain 
portion  of  the  general  property,  probably  the  same  farm  or  work- 
shop that  the  individual  had  before  consecrated.  This  was  a  "  stew- 
ardship," thenceforth  possessed  by  the  individual,  but  to  be  used 
for  the  general  good ;  all  gains  reverting  to  a  common  fund  or  store, 
whence  each  steward  should  derive  his  or  her  support.  All  were 
required  to  labor  diligently — there  were  to  be  no  drones  in  the  hive 
— and  to  deal  fairly  and  justly  with  one  another.  Apostasy  from 
the  Church  was  equivalent  to  withdrawal  from  the  Order.  The 
individual  might  then  retain  his  stewardship,  but  not  reclaim  the 
residue  of  property,  over  and  above  that  portion,  which  he  had  conse- 
crated to  the  common  cause.  Unity  and  equality  were  the  watch- 
words of  the  Order;  man's  salvation  and  God's  glory  the  ends  to  be 
kept  constantly  in  view. 

According  to  the  faith  of  the  Saints,  it  was  just  such  a  system 
as  this  that  sanctified   in  antediluvian  times  the  City  of  Enoch  and 


prepared  it  for  translation,  when,  according  to  the  record,  "  the  Lord 
called  his  people  Zion,  because  they  were  of  one  heart  and  one 
mind  and  dwelt  in  righteousness,  and  there  was  no  poor  among 
them;**  a  system  established  in  after  ages  by  the  Apostles  at  Jerusa- 
lem, when  "the  multitude  of  them  that  believed  were  of  one  heart 
and  of  one  soul, — neither  said  any  of  them  that  ought  of  the  things 
which  he  possessed  was  his  own  ;  but  they  had  all  things  common  ;  "" 
a  system  which,  according  to  the  Book  of  Mormon,  prevailed  upon 
this  land  among  the  Nephites  for  nearly  two  centuries  after  the 
coming  of  Christ.  An  order  of  unity  and  equality,  a  system  of 
consecrations  and  stewardships,  the  abolition  of  fraud  and  monopoly 
in  all  their  phases,  a  sinking  of  individual  interests  into  and  for 
the  purpose  of  the  common  good,  the  sacrifice  of  self  at  the  shrine 
of  principle — of  pure  religion — whose  incense,  call  it  charity,  phil- 
anthropy, or  what  we  will,  is  the  pure  love  of  God  and  humanity. 

It  was  to  the  establishment  of  such  an  order, — one  object  of 
which,  in  the  arcana  of  the  faith,  was  to  pave  the  way  for  the  return 
of  the  Zion  of  Enoch,  which  the  Saints  believe  will  yet  descend  to 
earth,  the  planet  whence  it  was  taken, — that  Joseph  Smith,  as  early 
as  February,  1831,  more  than  fifty  years  before  Edward  Bellamy  and 
his  ingenious  book  "Looking  Backward"  were  heard  of,  directed  his 
thoughts  and  labors. 

A  movement  to  that  end  was  the  organization  of  the  Bishopric, 
representing  the  temporal  wing  of  the  Mormon  Church  government. 
The  Apostleship,  which  pertains  to  the  Priesthood  of  Melchisedek, 
though  possessing  general  powers  has  a  special  calling  to  minister 
in  spiritual  things ;  while  the  Bishopric,  which  is  the  presidency  of 
the  Priesthood  of  Aaron,  administers,  under  the  direction  of  the 
higher  authority,  in  things  temporal. 

The  first  call  to  the  Bishopric  was  that  of  Edward  Partridge, 
who  received  his  appointment  on  the  fourth  day  of  February.  He 
was  required  "  to  leave  his  merchandise  and  spend  all  his  time  in 
the  service  of  the  Church,"  for  which  he  was  to  receive  his  support, 
or   a  just  remuneration.     Two  other  Elders  were  called  to  officiate 


as  his  counselors.     The   duties  of  this  Bishopric  were   outlined  as 
follows :  * 

And  behold,  thou  wilt  remember  the  poor,  and  consecrate  of  thy  properties  for 
their  support,  that  which  thou  hast  to  impart  unto  them  with  a  covenant  and  a  deed  which 
cannot  be  broken. 

And  inasmuch  as  ye  impart  of  your  substance  unto  the  poor,  ye  will  do  it  unto  me, 
and  they  shall  be  laid  before  the  bishop  of  my  church  and  his  counselors,  two  of  the 
Elders,  or  High  Priests,  such  as  he  shall  or  has  appointed  and  set  apart  for  that  purpose. 

And  it  shall  come  to  pass,  that  after  they  are  laid  before  the  bishop  of  my  church, 
and  after  that  he  has  received  these  testimonies  concerning  the  consecration  of  the  pro- 
perties of  my  church,  that  they  cannot  be  taken  from  the  church  agreeable  to  my  com- 
mandments ;  every  man  shall  be  made  accountable  unto  me,  a  steward  over  his  own 
property,  or  that  which  he  has  received  by  consecration,  inasmuch  as  is  sufficient  for 
himself  and  family. 

Wherefore  let  my  servant  Edward  Partridge,  and  those  whom  he  has  chosen,  in 
whom  I  am  well  pleased,  appoint  unto  this  people  their  portion,  every  man  equal  accord- 
ing to  their  families,  according  to  their  circumstances,  and  their  wants  and  needs. 

And  let  my  servant  Edward  Partridge,  when  he  shall  appoint  a  man  his  portion, 
give  until  him  a  writing  that  shall  secure  unto  him  his  portion,  that  he  shall  hold  it,  even 
this  right  and  this  inheritance  in  the  church,  until  he  transgresses  and  is  not  accounted 
worthy  by  the  voice  of  the  church,  according  to  the  laws  and  covenants  of  the  church,  to 
belong  to  the  church ; 

And  if  he  shall  transgress  and  is  not  accounted  worthy  to  belong  to  the  church,  he 
shall  not  have  power  to  claim  that  portion  which  he  has  consecrated  unto  the  bishop  for 
the  poor  and  needy  of  my  church ;  therefore,  he  shall  not  retain  the  gift,  but  shall  only 
have  claim  on  that  portion  that  is  deeded  unto  him. 

And   thus  all   things  shall   be  made  sure,  according  to  the  laws  of  the   land. 

Ami  again,  let  the  bishop  appoint  a  storehouse  unto  this  church,  and  let  all  things 
both  in  money  and  in  meat,  which  is  more  than  is  needful  for  the  want  of  this  people,  be 
kept  in  the  hands  of  the  bishop. 

And  let  him  also  reserve  unto  himself  for  his  own  wants,  and  for  the  wants  of  his 
family,  as  he  shall  be  employed  in  doing  this  business. 

And  thus  1  grant  unto  this  people  a  privilege  of  organizing  themselves  according  to 
my   laws: 

And  1  consecrate  unto  them  this  land  for  a  little  season,  until  I.  the  Lord,  shall  pin- 
vide  for  them  otherwise,  and  command  them  to  go  hence: 

And  the  hour  and  the  day  is  not  given  unto  them,  wherefore  let  them  acl  upon  this 
laud  as  for  yours,  and  this  shall  turn  unto  them  for  their  good. 

■'■'•  Doctrine    and    Covenants,  Sec..  4'_\  verses  30—32;  Sec.  51,  verses  3—6  and  lo-17. 


Such  was  the  general  outline  of  the  United  Order,  which  the 
Mormon  Prophet  sought  to  establish,  and  did  introduce,  among  his 
people  in  Ohio  and  in  Missouri.  That  it  was  not  permanently  estab- 
lished was  clue  partly  to  persecution,  and  partly  to  the  innate  selfish- 
ness of  human  nature.  It  is  still  with  the  Saints  one  of  the  prob- 
lems of  the  future,  as  they  hold  that  Zion  cannot  be  built  up 
without  it. 

The  fourth  general  conference  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ 
of  Latter-day  Saints  convened  at  Kirtland  on  the  6th  of  June,  1831. 
Nearly  two  thousand  Saints  assembled,  including  those  who  had 
followed  the  Prophet  from  New  York  and  Pennsylvania.  Among 
the  Elders  present  was  Parley  P.  Pratt,  who  had  returned  in  Feb- 
ruary to  report  the  labors  of  himself  and  his  confreres  in  Missouri. 
There  Elder  Cowdery  and  the  others  yet  remained.  Several  High 
Priests,  the  first  known  to  the  Church,  were  ordained  at  this  confer- 
ence. Most  of  the  Elders  were  now  commissioned  to  go  forth  two 
by  two,  after  the  manner  of  the  Apostles  anciently,  proclaiming  that 
the  kingdom  of  heaven  was  at  hand,  preaching  and  baptizing. 
The  appointed  destination  of  the  majority  of  them  was  the  Mis- 
souri frontier,  toward  which  they  were  directed  to  travel  by  differ- 
ent routes.  It  was  decided  that  the  next  conference  of  the  Church 
should  be  held  upon  that  land.  The  burden  of  the  message  the 
Elders  were  to  bear  as  they  wended  their  way,  was  as  follows :  * 

Wherefore  I,  the  Lord,  have  said,  gather  ye  out  from  the  eastern  lands,  assemble 
ye  yourselves  together  ye  elders  of  my  church;  go  ye  forth  into  the  western  countries, 
call  upon  the  inhabitants  to  repent,  and  inasmuch  as  they  do  repent,  build  up  churches 
unto  me ; 

And  with  one  heart  and  with  one  mind,  gather  up  your  riches  that  ye  may  purchase 
an  inheritance  which  shall  hereafter  be  appointed  unto  you. 

And  il  shall  he  called  the  New  Jerusalem,  a  land  of  peace,  a  city  of  refuge,  a  place 
of  safety  for  the  saints  of  the  must  High  God  ; 

And  the  glory  of  the  Lord  shall  be  their,  and  the  terror  of  the  Lord  also  shall  be 
there,  insomuch  that  the  wicked  will  not  come  unto  it,  and  il  shall  be  called  Zion. 

And    it    shall  come    lo  pass,  among  the  wicked,  thai    every  man    thai  will  not    take  bis 

sword  againsl  his  neighbor,  must  needs  flee  unto  Zion  for  safety. 

Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Sec.  4.1.  verses  tit- 


And  there  shall  be  gathered  unto  it  out  of  every  nation  under  heaven :  and  it  shall 
be  the  only  people  that  shall  not  be  at  war  one  with  another. 

And  it  shall  be  said  among  the  wicked,  Let  us  not  go  up  to  battle  against  Zion,  for 
the  inhabitants  of  Zion  are  terrible;  wherefore  we  cannot  stand. 

And  it  shall  come  to  pass  that  the  righteous  shall  be  gathered  out  from  among  all 
nations,  and  shall  come  to  Zion,  singing  with  songs  of  everlasting  joy. 

Among  the  Elders  thus  commissioned  were  Joseph  Smith,  junior, 
Sidney  Rigdon,  Lyman  Wight,  John  Corrill,  John  Murdock,  Hyrum 
Smith,  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  Ezra  Thayre,  Isaac  Morley,  Ezra  Booth, 
Edward  Partridge,  Martin  Harris,  David  Whitmer,  Harvey  Whitlock, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  Orson  Pratt,  Solomon  Hancock,  Simeon  Carter,  Edson 
Fuller,  Jacob  Scott,  Levi  Hancock,  Zebedee  Coltrin,  Reynolds  Cahoon. 
Samuel  H.  Smith.  Wheeler  Baldwin,  William  Carter,  Newel  Knight, 
Selah  J.  Griffin,  Joseph  Wakefield,  Solomon  Humphrey,  A.  S.  Gilbert, 
William  W.  Phelps,  and  Joseph  Coe.  Newel  Knight  and  the  Coles- 
ville  branch  of  the  Church,  formerly  of  Broome  County,  New  York, 
but  now  at  Thompson,  Ohio,  were  instructed  to  migrate  in  a  body  to 

On  the  19th  of  June  the  Prophet  set  out  from  Kirtland  on  his 
first  visit  to  Missouri.  He  was  accompanied  by  Sidney  Rigdon, 
Martin  Harris,  Edward  Partridge,  William  W.  Phelps.  Joseph  Coe  and 
A.  S.  Gilbert  and  wife.  Journeying  by  wagon,  stage  and  canal-boat 
to  Cincinnati,  they  there  took  steamer  for  Louisville,  Kentucky; 
whence,  after  a  brief  delay,  they  proceeded  by  water  to  St.  Louis. 
From  that  point  Sidney  Rigdon  and  the  Gilberts  continued  by  steamer 
up  the  Missouri  river,  while  the  Prophet  and  the  rest  of  his  party 
walked  across  the  state  of  Missouri,  reaching  Independence,  Jackson 
County,  about  the  middle  of  July.  The  meeting  with  Elder  Cowdery 
and  his  companions  was  one  of  great  rejoicing. 

Immediately  after  the  Prophet's  arrival  the  site  of  the  City  of 
Zion.  the  central  gathering  place,  where  the  Saints,  according  to  their 
faith,  will  yet  assemble  to  await  Messiah's  coming,  was  for  the  first 
time  definitely  designated.  Independence  and  its  vicinity  was  the 
chosen  spot.  Here  lands  were  to  be  purchased  by  the  Saints,  and  the 
soil  dedicated  for  the  gathering  of  Israel  and  the  building  of  the  New 


Jerusalem.  Here  Bishop  Edward  Partridge  was  to  take  his  stand 
as  "a  judge  in  Israel,"  to  receive  the  consecration  of  properties, 
assign  stewardships  and  apportion  to  the  Saints  their  inheritance. 
Martin  Harris,  who  had  before  contributed  so  generously  for  the 
publication  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  was  selected  as.  "an  example  to 
the  Church,"  in  laying  his  monies  at  the  feet  of  the  Bishop. 

It  may  interest  the  reader  to  know. what  form  of  conveyance 
was  used  in  connection  with  the  consecration  of  properties.  It  was 
as  follows: 

BE  IT  KNOWN,  THAT  I, ,  Of  Jackson  county,  and  state  of  Missouri, 

having  become  a  member  of  the  Church  of  Christ,  organized  according  to  law,  and  estab- 
lished by  the  revelations  of  the  Lord,  on  the  6th  day  of  April,  1830,  do,  of  my  own  free 
will  and  accord,  having  first  paid  my  just  debts,  grant  and  hereby  give  unto  Edward  Partridge 
of  Jackson  county,  and  state  of  Missouri,  bishop  of  said  church,  the  following  described 
property,  viz: — Sundry  articles  of  furniture  valued  fifty  five  dollars  twenty  seven  cents, — 
also  two  beds,  bedding  and  extra  clothing  valued  seventy  three  dollars  twenty  five  cents, — 
also  farming  utensils  valued  forty  one  dollars, — also  one  horse,  two  wagons  two  cows  and 
two  calves  valued  one  hundred  and  forty  seven  dollars. 

For  the  purpose  of  purchasing  lands  in  Jackson  County  Mo.  and  building  up  the  New 
Jerusalem,  even  Zion,  and  for  relieving  the  wants  of  the  poor  and  needy.    For  which  I  the 

said ■  do  covenant  and  bind  myself  and  my  heirs  forever,  to  release  all  my 

right  and  interest  to  the  above  described  property,  unto  him  the  said  Edward  Partridge 
bishop  of  said  church.     And  I  the  said  Edward   Partridge  bishop   of  said  church,  having 

received  the  above  described  property,  of  the  said ■ do  bind  myself,  that   I 

will  cause  the  same  to  be  expended  for  the  above  mentioned  purposes  of  the  said  

to  the  satisfaction  of  said  church ;    and   in  case  I  should  be  removed  from  the 

office  of  bishop  of  said  church,  by  death  or  otherwise,  I  hereby  bind  myself  and  my  heirs 
forever,  to  make  over  to  my  successor  in  office,  for  the  benefit  of  said  church,  all  the  above 
described  property,  which  may  then  be  in  my  possession. 

In  testimony  whereof,  WE  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  seals  this  day   of 

in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty  — 


The  legal  document  securing  to  the  individual  his  stewardship, 
was  in  this  form: 

BE  IT  KNOWN,  THAT  1.  Edward  Partridge  of  Jackson  county,  and  state  of  Mis- 
souri, bishop  of  the  church  of  Christ,  organized  according  to  law,  and  established  by  the 
revelations  of  the  Lord,  on  the  6th  day  of  April,  1830,  have  leased  and  by  these  presents, 

do  lease  unto of  Jackson  county,  and  state  of  Missouri,  a  member  of  -aid 

church,  the  following  described  piece  or  panel  of  land,  being  a  part  of   section  No.  three 

7-VOL.   1. 


township  No.  forty  nine  range  No.  thirty  two  situated  in  Jackson  county,  and  state  of  Mis- 
souri, and  is  bounded  as  follows,  viz: — beginning  eighty  rods  E,  from  the  S.  W.  corner  of 
Sd  Sec,  thence  N.  one  hundred  and  sixty  rods  thence  E.  twenty  seven  rods  25  L,  thence 
S.  one  hundred  and  sixty  rods,  thence  W.  twenty  seven  rods  25  L,  to  the  place  of  begin- 
ning, containing  twenty  seven  &  i  acres  be  the  same  more  or  less  subject  to  roads  and 
highways.  And  also  have  loaned  the  following  described  property,  viz: — Sundry  articles  of 
furniture  valued  fifty  five  dollars  twenty  five  cents, — also  two  beds,  bedding  and  clothing 
valued  seventy  three  dollars  twenty  seven  cents, — also  sundry  farming  utensils  valued  forty 
one  dollars, — also  one  horse,  two  cows,  two  calves  and  two  waggons  valued  one  hundred 
forty  seven  dollars  to  have  and  to  hold  the   above  described  property,  by  him  the  said 

to  be  used  and  occupied  as  to  him  shall  seem  meet  and  proper.     And   as 

a  consideration  for  the  use  of  the    above  described  property,  I  the  said  

do  bind  myself  to  pay  the  taxes,  and  also  to  pay  yearly  unto  the  said  Edward  Partridge 
bishop  of  said  church,  or  his  successor  in  office,  for  the  benefit  of  said  church,  all  that  I 
shall  make  or  accumulate  more  than  is  needful  for  the  support  and  comfort  of  myself  and 
family.     And  it  is  agreed  by  the  parties,  that  this  lease   and  loan  shall  be   binding  during 

the  life  of  the  said unless  he  transgress,  and  is  not  deemed  worthy  by  the 

authority  of  the  Church,  according  to  its  laws,  to  belong  to  the  church.     And  in  that  case 

I  the  said do  acknowledge  that  I  forfeit  all  claim  to  the  above  described 

leased  and  loaned  property,  and  hereby  bind  myself  to  give  back  the  lease,  and  also  pay 
an  equivalent  for  the  loaned,  for  the  benefit  of  said  church,  unto  the  said  Edward 
Partridge  bishop  of  said  church,  or  his  successor  in  office.     And  further,  in  case  that  said 

or  family's  inability  in  consequence  of  infirmity  or  old  age,  to  provide  for 

themselves  while  members  of  this  church,  I  the  said  Edward  Partridge  bishop  of  said 
church,  do  bind  myself  to  administer  to  their  necessities  out  of  any  fund  in  my  hands 
appropriated  for  that  purpose,  not  otherwise   disposed   of,  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  church. 

And  further,  in  case  of  the  death  of  said his  wife  or  widow,  being  at  the 

time  a  member  of  said  church,  has  claim  upon  the  above  described  leased  and  loaned 
property,  upon  precisely  the  same  conditions  that  her  said  husband  had   them,  as  above 

described;  and  the  children   of   said in  case   of  the  death  of  both  their 

parents,  also  have  claim  upon  the  above  described  property,  for  their  support,  until  they 
shall  become  of  age,  and  no  longer;  subject  to  the  same  conditions  yearly  that  their 
parents  were :  provided  however,  should  the  parents  not  be  members  of  said  church,  and 
in  possession  of  the  above  described  property  at  the  time  of  their  deaths,  the  claim  of  the 
children  as  above  described,  is  null  and  void. 

In  testimony  whereof,  WE  have  hereunto   set   our   hands  and  seals  this day  of 

in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty 

In  presence  of  

The  dual  duty  of  dedicating  the  land  of  Zion  and  writing  a 
description  of  ii  for  the  benefit  of  the  Church,  was  devolved  upon 
Sidney  Rigdon.  "William  W.  Phelps,  assisted  by  Oliver  Cowdery.  was 
to  establish  himself   as  the  Church  printer  in  that  land,  and  A.  S. 


Gilbert,  senior  partner  of  the  firm  of  Gilbert  and  Whitney,  was  given 
a  mission  to  open  a  store  at  Independence,  and  act  as  an  agent  for  the 
Church  in  purchasing  lands  in  the  surrounding  region. 

The  first  formal  step  toward  the  founding  of  the  city  of  Zion 
was  taken  on  the  2nd  of  August,  1831.  In  Kaw  Township,  twelve 
miles  west  of  Independence,  in  which  locality  the  newly  arrived 
Colesville  Saints  were  settling,  the  first  log  of  the  first  house  was 
that  day  borne  to  its  place  by  twelve  men,  representing  the  twelve 
tribes  of  Israel.  The  Prophet  was  one  of  the  number.  The  same 
day  Elder  Rigdon  dedicated  the  land  of  Zion.  On  the  day  following, 
the  site  of  the  future  temple,  near  Independence,  was  consecrated  by 
the  Prophet.  Then  came  the  appointed  conference.  It  was  held  at 
the  house  of  Joshua  Lewis,  in  Kaw  Township,  all  or  most  of  the 
Saints  in  that  region  being  present. 

On  the  9th  of  August  the  Prophet  and  ten  other  Elders  set  out 
to  return  to  Kirtland.  From  Independence  Landing  a  fleet  of  sixteen 
canoes  carried  them  and  their  provisions  clown  the  Missouri.  Three 
days  they  rowed  and  drifted.  The  Prophet,  with  Elders  Cowdery  and 
Rigdon,  then  left  the  canoes  in  charge  of  their  companions,  and  con- 
tinued the  journey  by  land.  They  reached  Kirtland  on  the  27th  of 

Having  thus  planted  a  colony  of  his  people  in  their  "land  of 
promise,"  and  set  in  motion  a  migratory  stream  of  the  Saints  in  that 
direction,  the  Prophet  resumed  his  task  of  revising  the  scriptures, — a 
work  suspended  since  the  previous  December.  For  this  purpose  he 
and  Elder  Rigdon  retired  to  the  little  town  of  Hiram,  in  Portage 
County,  thirty  miles  south-east  of  Kirtland,  where,  on  September 
12th.  Joseph  took  up  his  abode  at  the  home  of  John  Johnson,  a 
member  of  the  Church  there  residing.  Emma  Smith  accompanied 
her  husband,  taking  with  her  two  infants,  twins,  the  children  of 
John  Murdock,  which  she  had  adopted  in  lieu  of  twins  of  her  own 
that  had  died.  John  Johnson  was  the  father  of  Luke  S.  and  Lyman 
E.  Johnson,  two  of  the  future  Twelve  Apostles,  and  father-in-law  to 
Orson    Hyde,  who  also  became  one  of   that   council.      Orson    had 


recently  been  a  clerk  in  the  store  of  Gilbert  and  Whitney,  at  Kirtland. 
At  Hiram  the  Prophet  continued  his  literary  labors,  and  from  time  to 
time  took  active  part  in  the  ministry,  attending  frequent  conferences 
and  issuing  verbal  or  written  instructions  to  the  Church  at  large. 
Many  of  these  were  in  the  form  of  revelations,  now  of  record  in  the 
book  of  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  It  was  about  this  time  that 
William  E.  McLellin,  a  prominent  Elder,  lost  some  prestige  with  the 
Saints  by  attempting,  in  a  spirit  of  rivalry,  to  write  revelations  sim- 
ilar to  those  uttered  by  the  Prophet. 

Kirtland  as  a  Stake  of  Zion  continued  to  grow  and  prosper,  her 
numbers  increasing  as  converts  multiplied,  despite  the  constant 
drain  upon  her  population  by  the  Missouri  emigrations.  The  Ohio 
Saints,  like  those  in  Missouri,  being  required  to  enter  "  the  Order,*' 
an  accession  to  the  Bishopric  now  became  necessary.  On  December 
4th,  1831,  Newel  K.  Whitney  was  called  to  be  the  Bishop  of  Kirt- 
land ;  two  counselors  being  chosen  to  assist  him.  The  powers  and 
duties  of  the  Bishopric  of  Kirtland  were  similar  to  those  of  the  Bish- 
opric in  Missouri. 

It  was  during  his  sojourn  at  Hiram  that  the  Prophet  enunciated 
the  doctrine  of  universal  salvation.  He  declared  that  all  men  would 
be  saved  except  a  certain  few  called  "sons  of  perdition," — shedders  of 
innocent  blood  and  sinners  against  the  Holy  Ghost, — but  that  souls 
would  be  saved  upon  principles  of  justice  and  mercy,  according  to 
their  merits,  in  different  degrees  of  glory.  There  was  hope,  he  said, 
for  the  heathen,  who  had  never  heard  the  name  of  Christ ;  hope 
even  for  the  wicked,  who  were  "  thrust  down  to  hell,"  after  they  had 
paid  the  "uttermost  farthing"  and  suffered  sufficiently  for  their  sins* 
No  soul,  he  maintained,  could  escape  merited  punishment,  designed 
to  purge  away  uncleanness,  simply  by  confessing  Christ.  As  for 
little  children,  there  was  no  damnation  for  them.  They  were  irre- 
sponsible   innocents   redeemed    by    the   blood   of    Christ    from   the 

*  Joseph  Sinilli  taught   thai  ••eternal    punishment"  did   not    mean 
ishment,  but  punishment  inflicted  by  Him  who  is  Eternal. 


foundation  of  the  world.  A  few  excerpts  from  the  "Vision"  of 
February  16th,  1832,  wherein  are  set  forth  the  Prophet's  views  relat- 
ing to  the  various  states  of  man  hereafter,  will  here  be  appropriate  :* 

We,  Joseph  Smith,  jun.,  and  Sidney  Rigdon,  being  in  the  Spirit  on  the  sixteenth  of 
February,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-two, 

By  the  power  of  the  Spirit  our  eyes  were  opened  and  our  understandings  were 
enlightened,  so  as  to  see  and  understand  the  things  of  God — 

Even  those  things  which  were  from  the  beginning  before  the  world  was,  which  were 
ordained  of  the  Father,  through  his  Only  Begotten  Son,  who  was  in  the  bosom  of  the 
Father,  even  from  the  beginning, 

Of  whom  we  bear  record,  and  the  record  which  we  bear  is  the  fullness  of  the  gospel 
of  Jesus  Christ,  who  is  the  Son,  whom  we  saw  and  with  whom  we  conversed  in  the 
heavenly  vision; 

And  this  we  saw  also,  and  bear  record,  that  an  angel  of  God  who  was  in  authority 
in  the  presence  of  God,  who  rebelled  against  the  Only  Begotten  Son,  whom  the  Father 
loved,  and  who  was  in  the  bosom  of  the  Father — was  thrust  down  from  the  presence  of 
God  and  the  Son, 

And  was  called  Perdition,  for  the  heavens  wept  over  him — he  was  Lucifer,  a  son  of 
the  morning. 

And  we  saw  a  vision  of  the  sufferings  of  those  with  whom  he  made  war  and  over- 
came, for  thus  came  the  voice  of  the  Lord  unto  us. 

Thus  saith  the  Lord,  concerning  all  those  who  know  my  power,  and  have  been  made 
partakers  thereof,  and  suffered  themselves,  through  the  power  of  the  devil,  to  be  overcome, 
and  to  deny  the  truth  and  defy  my  power — 

They  are  they  who  are  the  sons  of  perdition,  of  whom  I  say  that  it  had  been  better 
for  them  never  to  have  been  born, 

For  they  are  vessels  of  wrath,  doomed  to  suffer  the  wrath  of  God,  with  the  devil 
and  his  angels  in  eternity ; 

And  the  only  ones  on  whom  the  second  deatli  shall  have  any  power; 

Yea,  verily,  the  only  ones  who  shall  not  be  redeemed  in  the  due  time  of  the  Lord, 
after  the  sufferings  of  his  wrath; 

For  all  the  rest  shall  lie  brought  forth  by  the  resurrection  of  the  dead,  through  the 
triumph  and  the  dory  of  the  Lamb,  who  was  slain,  who  was  in  the  bosom  of  the  Father 
before  the  worlds  were  made. 


And  again,  we  bear  record,  for  we  saw  and  heard,  and  this  is  the  testimony  of  the 
gospel  of  Christ,  concerning  them  who  come  forth  in  the  resurrection  of  the  jus! ; 

*  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  Section  70. 


They  are  they  who  received  the  testimony  of  Jesus,  and  believed  on  his  name  and 
were  baptized  after  the  manner  of  his  burial,  being  buried  in  the  water  in  his  name,  and 
this  according  to  the  commandment  which  he  has  given, 

That  by  keeping  the  commandments  they  might  be  washed  and  cleansed  from  all 
their  sins,  and  receive  the  Holy  Spirit  by  the  laying  on  of  the  hands  of  him  who  is 
ordained  and  sealed  unto  this  power, 

And  who  overcome  by  faith,  and  are  sealed  by  the  Holy  Spirit  of  promise,  which 
the  Father  sheds  forth  upon  all  those  who  are  just  and  true. 

They  are  they  who  are  the  church  of  the  first  born. 

They  are  they  into  whose  hands  the  Father  has  given  all  things — 

They  are  they  who  are  Priests  and  Kings,  who  have  received  of  his  fullness,  and  of 
his  glory, 

And  are  Priests  of  the  Most  High,  after  the  order  of  Melchisedek,  which  was  after 
the  order  of  Enoch,  which  was  after  the  order  of  the  Only  Begotten  Son ; 

Wherefore,  as  it  is  written,  they  are  Gods,  even  the  sons  of  God — 

Wherefore  all  things  are  theirs,  whether  life  or  death,  or  things  present,  or  things  to 
come,  all  are  theirs  and  they  are  Christ's  and  Christ  is  God's. 

These  are  they  whose  bodies  are  celestial,  whose  glory  is  that  of  the  sun,  even  the 
glory  of  God,  the  highest  of  all,  whose  glory  the  sun  of  the  firmament  is  written  of  as 
being  typical. 

And  again,  we  saw  the  terrestrial  world,  and  behold  and  lo,  these  are  they  who  are 
of  the  terrestrial,  whose  glory  differs  from  that  of  the  church  of  the  first  born,  who  have 
received  the  fullness  of  the  Father,  even  as  that  of  the  moon  differs  from  the  sun  in  the 

Behold,  these  are  they  who  died  without  law, 

And  also  they  who  are  the  spirits  of  men  kept  in  prison,  whom  the  Son  visited,  and 
preached  the  gospel  unto  them,  that  they  might  be  judged  according  to  men  in  the  flesh, 

Who  received  not  the  testimony  of  Jesus  in  the  flesh,  but  afterwards  received  it. 

These  are  they  who  are  honorable  men  of  the  earth,  who  were  blinded  by  the  crafti- 
ness of  men. 

These  are  they  who  receive  of  his  glory,  but  not  of  his  fullness. 

These  are  they  who  receive  of  the  presence  of  the  Son,  but  not  of  the  fullness  of 
the  Father ; 

Wherefore  they  are  bodies  terrestrial,  and  not  bodies  celestial,  and  differ  in  glory  as 
the  moon  differs  from  the  sun. 

These  are  they  who  are  not  valiant  in  the  testimony  of  Jesus;  wherefore  they  obtain 
not  the  crown  over  the  kingdom  of  our  God. 

:■:  *  *  *  $  *  *  :•:  :•: 

And  again,  we  saw  the  glory  of  the  telestial,  which  glory  is  that  of  the  lesser,  even 
as'tlic  glory  of  the  stars  differs  from  that  of  the  glory  of  the  moon  in  the  firmament. 

These  are  they  who  received  not  the  gospel  of  Christ,  neither  the  testimony  of  Jesus. 
These  are  they  who  deny  not  the  Holy  Spirit. 


These  arc  they  who  are  thrust  down  to  hell. 

These  are  they  who  shall  not  be  redeemed  from  the  devil,  until  the  last  resurrection, 
until  the  Lord,  even  Christ  the  Lamb  shall  have  finished  his  work. 

These  are  they  who  receive  not  of  his  fullness  in  the  eternal  world,  but  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  through  the  ministration  of  the  terrestrial ; 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * 

And  the  glory  of  the  celestial  is  one,  even  as  the  glory  of  the  sun  is  one. 

And  the  glory  of  the  terrestrial  is  one,  even  as  the  glory  of  the  moon  is  one. 

And  the  glory  of  the  telestial  is  one,  even  as  the  glory  of  the  stars  is  one,  for  as  one 
star  differs  from  another  star  in  glory,  even  so  differs  one  from  another  in  glory  in  the 
telestial  world; 


For  they  shall  be  judged  according  to  their  works,  and  every  man  shall  receive 
according  to  his   own. works,  his  own   dominion,  in  the  mansions  which  are  prepared, 

And  they  shall  be  servants  of  the  Most  High,  but  where  God  and  Christ  dwell  they 
cannot  come,  worlds  without  end. 

Joseph  Smith  here  virtually  declares  that  Gocl  is  man  made  per- 
fect, and  that  man  in  his  highest  estate,  resurrected  and  glorified, — 
the  child  developed  to  the  status  of  the  parent, — is  nothing  less  than 
Deity.  The  idea  of  "Lords  many  and  Gods  many,"  a  celestial 
brotherhood,  a  divine  United  Order,  is  also  plainly  set  forth.  What- 
ever may  be  thought  of  such  views,  one  thing  is  certain,  the  charge 
that  Mormonism  teaches  a  narrow  salvation  here  falls  to  the 
ground.  Nor  is  the  thought  that  man  by  development  becomes 
Gocl. — retaining  his  individuality,  while  doffing  his  mortal  nature 
and  blossoming  into  an  eternal  being, — a  groveling  concept  of 
human  destiny.  The  Nirvana  of  Buddhism  pales  before  it,  as  do  the 
mystical  views  of  most  Christian  divines. 

About  the  time  of  the  Prophefs  removal  to  Hiram,  Ezra  Booth, 
one  of  the  Elders  who  had  accompanied  him  to  Missouri,  aposta- 
tized, and  in  a  series  of  letters  published  in  the  Ohio  Star  was  now 
assailing  the  system  and  principles  he  had  once  accepted  and  advo- 
cated as  divine.  He  succeeded  in  creating  considerable  prejudice 
against  the  Prophet,  and  through  his  influence  several  others 
turned  from  the  Church.  A  feeling  of  intense  hostility  was  awak- 
ened at  Hiram,  where,  on  the  night  of  March  25th,  a  violent  assault 
was  committed  upon  the  Prophet  and  Elder  Rigdon.     Joseph  and  his 


wife  had  been  watching  at  the  bedside  of  the  twins,  who  were  dan- 
gerously ill,  and  weary  and  worn  from  loss  of  sleep  he  had  thrown 
himself  down  and  was  slumbering  heavily.  Suddenly  the  door  was 
burst  open,  and  in  rushed  a  mob  of  ten  or  a  dozen  men,  who,  sur- 
rounding the  sleeper,  seized  him  and  attempted  to  drag  him  from 
the  house.  His  wife's  screams  aroused  him,  and  he  struggled  des- 
perately with  his  assailants.  His  hands  being  held,  he  felled  one 
man  to  the  floor  with  a  vigorous  kick.  Enraged  at  bis  resistance, 
they  threatened  to  kill  him  if  he  did  not  desist,  and  suiting  the 
action  to  the  word  seized  him  by  the  throat  and  choked  him  until 
he  was  insensible. 

Father  Johnson,  whom  the  mob  had  locked  in  a  room  prior  to 
attacking  his  guest,  regaining  his  liberty,  pursued  them,  club  in 
hand.  Encountering  another  party  who  had  captured  Elder  Rigdon, 
he  knocked  one  of  them  down,  and  was  about  to  fell  another  when 
the  crowd  turned  upon  him  and  held  him  at  bay. 

Joseph,  recovering  consciousness,  found  himself  lying  upon  the 
ground  surrounded  by  his  captors,  about  a  mile  from  the  house 
where  his  weeping  and  half  frantic  wife  still  watched  beside  the  sick 
babes,  one  of  whom  was  now  death-stricken.  Near  him  lay  the 
motionless  form  of  Elder  Rigdon,  whom  the  mob  had  dragged  by  his 
heels  over  the  hard  frozen  earth  until  life  was  almost  extinct. 
Joseph  supposed  him  dead.  He  himself  was  now  hurried  into  a 
meadow,  a  mile  farther  away,  where  the  mob  stripped  off  his  clothes, 
cursing  and  beating  him  meanwhile,  and  coated  his  naked  form  with 
tar.  They  forced  a  tar  paddle  into  his  mouth,  and  a  phial  contain- 
ing aqua  fortis  between  his  lips.  The  phial  broke  against  his  tightly 
clenched  teeth,  and  the  deadly  acid  was  spilled.  One  of  the  mob 
then  fell  upon  him  like  a  wild-cat.  tearing  his  flesh  and  shrieking  in 
his  ear:  "That's  the  way  the  Holy  Ghost  falls  on  folks."  Having 
sated  their  fury,  they  departed,  leaving  their  bleeding  victim  to  find 
his  way,  as  best  he  might,  through  the  cold  and  darkness  back  to 
Father  Johnson's.  At  sight  of  his  lacerated  form,  covered  with  tar, 
his  wife  screamed  and  fainted,  supposing  him  to  have  been  horribly 


mangled.  He  spent  the  rest  of  the  night  cleansing  the  tar  from  his 
bruised  and  bleeding  body. 

Next  day  was  the  Sabbath,  and  the  Saints  in  that  vicinity 
assembled  for  their  usual  worship.  Methodists.  Baptists,  Campbell- 
ites  and  Mormon  apostates  came  also.  Some  of  them  had  helped 
compose  the  mob  party  of  the  previous  night.  Scarred  and  wounded 
the  Prophet  appeared  before  them,  bore  a  ringing  testimony  to  the 
truth  of  his  mission,  and  that  day  baptized  three  more  into  the 

But  the  mobocratic  spirit  was  now  rampant,  not  only  at  Hiram, 
where  fresh  plots  were  at  once  formed  against  the  Mormon  leader, 
but  also  at  Kirtland,  and  throughout  the  surrounding  region.  Elder 
Rigdon,  after  recovering  from  the  effects  of  the  ill-treatment  he  had 
received,  fled  with  his  family  from  Hiram  to  escape  further  outrage. 

Joseph  and  Emma  remained  another  week,  during  which  one  of 
the  sick  twins  died.  He  then  sent  his  wife  to  Kirtland.  and  set  out 
upon  his  second  visit  to  Missouri.  He  was  accompanied  by  Sidney 
Rigdon,  Bishop  Whitney  and  others,  who  joined  him  at  different 
points  along  the  way.  A  circuitous  route  was  taken,  to  evade  mobo- 
cratic ambush  and  pursuit.  The  party  reached  Independence  late  in 

The  affairs  of  the  Church  in  Missouri  were  found  to  Lie  pros- 
pering, though  some  prejudice  had  been  created  against  the  Saints 
by  certain  persons  who  had  misinterpreted  their  motives  in  settling 
there.  A  series  of  petty  persecutions  had  resulted.  Stones  and 
brick-bats  were  thrown  through  their  windows,  and  they  were  other- 
wise insulted  and  annoyed.  It  was  the  beginning  of  sorrows.  I  lie 
precursor  of  the  coming  storm,  the  first,  faint  sparks  of  a  furious 
conflagration,  destined  ere  many  months  to  burst  forth  as  a  besom 
of  fire,  sweeping  before  it  into  exile  the  whipped  and  plundered 
Saints  of  Jackson  County. 

Early  in  May  the  Prophet  started  back  to  Kirtland,  Elder 
Rigdon  and  Bishop  Whitney  accompanying  him.  Near  Greenville, 
Indiana,  the  Bishop  bad  his  leg  broken,  while  jumping  from   a    run- 


away  stage-coach.  This  delayed  him  and  the  Prophet  for  a  month 
at  a  public  house  in  Greenville.  Elder  Rigdon  meanwhile  proceeding 
on  to  Kirtland.  During  the  stay  at  Greenville  an  attempt  was  made 
to  murder  the  Prophet  by  mixing  poison  with  his  food  at  dinner. 
He  narrowly  escaped  death.  Next  morning  he  and  his  friend 
departed  from  the  dangerous  neighborhood,  and  sometime  in  June 
arrived  at  Kirtland.  The  birth  of  the  Prophet's  son  Joseph,  the 
present  leader  of  the  sect  known  as  Josephites,  or.  as  they  call 
themselves,  the  Reorganized  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints,  occurred  on  November  3rd  of  this  year,  just  prior  to  the 
return  of  his  father  and  Bishop  Whitney  from  a  hasty  trip  to  the 

On  Christmas  Day,  1832,  was  recorded  the  following  "revelation 
and  prophecy  on  war:"* 

Verily,  thus  saith  the  Lord,  concerning  the  wars  that  will  shortly  come  to  pass,  begin- 
ning at  the  rebellion  of  South  Carolina,  which  will  eventually  terminate  in  the  death  and 
misery  of  many  souls. 

The  days  will  come  thai  war  will  be  poured  out  upon  all  nations,  beginning  at  that 
place ; 

For  behold,  the  Southern  States  shall  be  divided  against  the  Northern  States,  and  the 
Southern  States  will  call  on  other  nations,  even  the  nation  of  Great  Britain,  as  it  is  called, 
and  they  shall  also  call  upon  other  nations,  in  order  to  defend  themselves  against  other 
nations;  and  thus  war  shall  be  poured  out  upon  all  nations. 

And  it  shall  come  to  pass,  after  many  days,  slaves  shall  rise  up  against  their  masters, 
who  shall  be  marshalled  and  disciplined  for  war: 

And  it  shall  come  to  pass  also,  that  the  remnants  who  are  left  of  the  land  will 
marshal  themselves,  and  shall  become  exceeding  angry,  and  shall  vex  the  Gentiles  with  a 
sore  vexation ; 

And  thus,  with  the  sword,  and  by  bloodshed,  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  shall 
mourn;  and  with  famine,  and  plague,  and  earthquakes,  and  the  thunder  of  heaven,  and 
the  fierce  and  vivid  lightning  also,  shall  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  be  made  to  feel  the 
wrath,  the  indignation  and  chastening  hand  of  an  Almighty  God.  until  the  consumption 
decreed  hath  made  a  full  end  of  all  nations. 

The  Saints  claim  that  this  prediction  began  to  be  fulfilled  on 
April  12th.  1861.  when  the  Confederate  batteries  at  Charleston.  South 
Carolina,  opened  fire  on  Fort  Sumter. 

Doctrine  and  Covenants.  Section  81 


During  the  winter  of  1832-3,  the  Mormon  leader  organized  at 
Kirtland  the  School  of  the  Prophets,  designed  for  the  instruction  of 
the  Elders  in  the  "things  of  the  Kingdom."  He  also  completed  his 
revision  of  the  scriptures. 

On  the  18th  of  March,  1833,  was  organized  the  First  Presidency, 
the  highest  depository  of  authority  in  the  Church.  This  council 
consists  of  three  High  Priests  after  the  order  of  Melchisedek,  chosen 
and  sustained  by  the  whole  body,  over  which  they  preside.  The 
personnel  of  the  Presidency  at  this  first  organization  was  as  follows : 
Joseph  Smith,  junior,  President;  Sidney  Rigdon,  First  Counselor; 
Frederick  G.  Williams,  Second  Counselor. 

It  was  now  decided  to  purchase  lands  in  and  around  Kirtland, 
surnamed  "the  land  of  Shinehah,"  and  build  up  and  beautify  the 
city  while  awaiting  further  developments  in  Missouri,  "the  land  of 
Zion."  Farms  were  accordingly  purchased,  work-shops  and  mills 
erected,  and  various  industries  established.  During  the  early  part  of 
1833  a  temple  at  Kirtland  was  projected. 












•LwELVE  to  fifteen  hundred  Latter-day  Saints  now  inhabited 
\K  Jackson  County,  Missouri.  They  had  purchased  lands  and 
improved  them,  built  houses — mostly  log-  cabins — and  were 
occupying  them,  sowed  their  farms  and  fields  and  reaped 
repeated  harvests.  A  store  had  been  established  by  them  at  Inde- 
pendence, a  printing  press  and  type  had  been  procured  from  the  east, 
and  a  periodical  called  the  Evening  and  Morning  Star,  edited  by 
William  W.  Phelps,  was  being  issued.  A  school  of  Elders,  number- 
ing sixty  members,  with  Parley  P.  Pratt  as  its  president  and 
preceptor,  had  been  instituted,  and  preaching  to  the  Missourians  was 
continued  with  success. 

Plans  for  the  city  and  temple  of  Zion  had  been  forwarded  by  the 
Prophet  from  Kirtland,  but  so  far  little  had  been  done  toward  the 
building  of  the  New  Jerusalem.  The  Book  of  Commandments,  or 
revelations,  had  also  been  sent  from  Ohio  to  be  published  in 
Missouri.  The  United  Order,  though  still  in  its  incipiency,  was  being 
established  as  fast  as  circumstances  would  allow. 

The  Saints,  as  a  rule,  were  poor,  but  were  sober,  moral,  honest 


and  industrious;  attending  strictly  to  their  own  affairs,  and  not  med- 
dling with  the  concerns  of  their  neighbors.  Indeed,  so  thoroughly 
did  they  "mind  their  own  business"  as  to  lay  themselves  open  to 
the  charge  of  exclusiveness. 

They  were  far  from  being  a  perfect  people — an  ideal  Zion.  On 
the  contrary,  they  manifested  many  of  the  faults  that  are  the  com- 
mon heritage  of  weak  humanity.  But  those  faults  were  chiefly  man- 
ifested among  themselves,  and  were  violative  of  the  precepts  of  their 
religion  rather  than  of  the  laws  of  the  land.  Seldom  were  they 
subversive  of  the  rights  of  the  Missourians.  But  in  an  Order  such 
as  theirs,  demanding  strict  unselfishness  of  its  members,  it  could 
not  be  but  some  would  slip  and  frequently  break  the  rigid  rules  that 
bound  them.  They  were  repeatedly  warned  by  the  Prophet  of  dire 
consequences  that  would  follow  these  infractions,  and  were  especially 
admonished  against  covetousness  and  disunion. 

But  with  the  esoteric  views  of  the  Saints,  as  to  divine  punish- 
ments visited  upon  them  for  transgressing  the  rules  of  their 
Order,  the  historian  has  naught  to  do.  He  has  only  to  consider  here 
their  every-day  dealings  with  their  fellow-men.  So  considering,  it 
must  be  admitted  by  those  cognizant  of  the  truth,  that  not  to  their 
misdeeds  against  the  Missourians — though  some  misdeeds  there  may 
have  been — but  to  their  social  and  religious  peculiarities,  are  we  to 
look  for  the  main  causes  of  the  calamities  that  now  befell  them. 
These  peculiarities,  which  have  ever  rendered  the  Mormons  unpopu- 
lar with  other  sects  and  parties,  were  made  doubly  obnoxious  by 
the  misrepresentations  of  those  politically,  religiously  or  pecuniarily 
interested  in  decrying  them. 

Allusion  has  been  made  to  the  fact  that  the  motives  of  the  Mor- 
mons in  migrating  to  Missouri  had  been  misinterpreted  by  the  older 
settlers.  Some  of  these  actually  supposed,  and  others  affected  to 
believe,  that  it  was  the  purpose  of  the  Prophet's  followers,  when 
they  became  strong  enough,  to  take  forcible  possession  of  the  coun- 
try, unite  with  the  Indians  across  the  border  and  drive  the  Gentiles 
from  the  land.     That  this  fear,  wherever  sincerely   felt,  was  due  in 


part  to  ill-advised  and  vain-glorious  utterances  of  persons  connected 
with  the  Church, — whose  views  were  as  much  at  variance  with  truth 
and  the  teachings  of  authority  as  the  deductions  of  the  ignorant  and 
inflammable  masses  around  them, — is  more  than  probable.  That  it 
was  also  due  to  misrepresentation  by  Mormon  apostates,  political 
and  religious  opponents  of  the  Saints,  bent  upon  furthering  their  own 
ends  and  playing  for  that  purpose  upon  the  credulity  of  the  common 
people,  is  not  only  probable,  but  an  established  fact. 

The  teachings  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  and  the  Church  authori- 
ties upon  these  points  were  as  follows :  That  God  had  given  into 
the  hands  of  the  Gentiles  this  land ;  had  inspired  them  to  discover 
it  and  maintain  it  as  a  land  of  liberty ;  that  the  Gentiles,  such  as 
embraced  the  faith,  were  to  assist  Ephraim  and  Manasseh  in  building 
up  Zion  and  would  share  in  her  glory;  and  that  the  duty  of  the 
Saints  in  relation  to  the  Gentiles  was  to  preach  to  them  the  gospel 
of  peace,  and  honestly  purchase  every  inch  of  ground  to  be  used  or 
occupied  in  the  rearing  of  the  New  Jerusalem. 

True,  the  Book  of  Mormon  contains  certain  prophecies  of  retri- 
bution upon  the  Gentiles,  such  as  rejected  the  Gospel  and  oppressed 
the  Lamanites.  But  the  Lamanites  themselves  were  to  avenge  their 
own  wrongs,  and  that  Avithout  aid  or  instigation  from  Ephraim.  The 
queerest  phase  of  the  subject,  and  it  would  be  extremely  funny  but 
for  the  terrible  tragedy  to  which  it  led,  was  that  the  Missourians. 
who  like  most  people  scoffed  at  the  Book  of  Mormon  and  scouted 
the  idea  of  "Joe  Smith"  being  a  prophet,  should  have  allowed  these 
predictions  to  so  alarm  them.  Perhaps  it  was  their  effect  upon  the 
Saints  that  was  feared.  In  that  event  the  hapless  Mormons  were 
punished,  not  for  crimes  committed,  but  for  crimes  they  were 
expected   to  commit. 

Besides  the  charge  of  "tampering  with  tbe  Indians,"  the  Mor- 
mons were  accused  by  the  Missourians  of  being  abolitionists — anti- 
slavery  advocates — which  charge,  supported  only  by  the  fact  that 
tln\  were  mostly  eastern  and  northern  people,  was  sufficient  at  that 
time,  and  in  that  region,  to  blacken  their  characters  irredeemably. 


Their  United  Order  theories  were  dubbed  "Communism,"  and  were 
said  to  involve  a  community,  not  only  of  goods  and  chattels,  but  of 
wives.  Also, — though  the  reader  may  smile  incredulously  at  the 
statement, — the  fact  that  they  were  poor  was  urged  as  an  accusation 
of  evil  against  them.  This  charge,  unlike  the  rest,  had  the  merit  of 
being  strictly  true. 

A  man  named  Pixley,  local  agent  for  a  Christian  missionary 
society,  took  an  active  and  initiative  part  in  circulating  these  reports, 
which  were  caught  up  by  others  and  sown  broad-cast  until  well-nigh 
all  Jackson  County  with  the  anti-Mormon  spirit  was  aflame.  As 
early  as  April,  1833,  meetings  were  held  to  consider  the  most  effec- 
tive means  of  ridding  the  county  of  the  unpopular  Mormons.  Law- 
ful methods  were  not  considered,  for  obvious  reasons.  The  Mormons 
were  law-abiding  and  peaceable.  Poverty,  superstition,  unity,  unpop- 
ular doctrines, — these  were  their  crimes.  What  law,  in  a  land  of 
civil  and  religious  liberty,  could  reach  them  I  No ;  law  could  not, 
but  mob  violence,  trampling  on  law,  strangling  liberty  in  her  very 
sanctuary,  could  and  would,  and  did. 

Three  hundred  men  assembled  one  day  in  April,  at  Indepen- 
dence, and  endeavored  to  unite  upon  a  plan  for  the  proposed  Mormon 
extirpation.  Too  much  liquor  having  been  imbibed  beforehand,  the 
meeting,  after  much  cursing  and  quarreling,  broke  up  in  confusion. 

Other  attempts,  in  July,  were  more  successful.  On  the  20th  of 
that  month  a  mass  meeting  of  five  hundred  convened,  presided  over 
by  Colonel  Richard  Simpson.  James  H.  Flournay  and  Colonel 
Samuel  D.  Lucas  acted  as  secretaries.  A  declaration  against  the 
Saints,  embodying  charges  similar  to  the  foregoing,  was  unanimously 
adopted,  and  it  was  resolved  that  they  be  required  to  leave  the 
county  forthwith,  and  that  no  Mormon  be  permitted  in  future  to 
settle  there.  It  was  demanded  that  the  publication  of  the  Evening 
and  Morning  Star  be  at  once  suspended.  A  committee  of  thirteen 
was  sent  to  confer  with  the  local  Mormon  leaders,  acquaint  them  with 
the  decision  made  concerning  them  and  their  people,  and  repori  to 
the  mass  meeting  within  two  hours.     The  committee  having  executed 


its  errand  returned,  reporting  that  the  Mormons  requested  sufficient 
time  to  fully  consider  the  matter  and  consult  their  leaders  in  Ohio. 

A  furious  yell  was  the  only  answer  vouchsafed,  and  forth  rushed 
the  mob  to  begin  its  work  of  outrage  and  destruction.  A  red  flag  led 
them  on.  Surrounding  the  house  of  William  W.  Phelps,  editor  of 
the  Star,  they  razed  it  to  the  ground,  confiscating  the  printing  press. 
type  and  other  materials  found  upon  the  premises.  The  editor's 
family,  including  his  wife  with  a  sick  child  in  her  arms,  were  brutally 
thrust  into  the  street,  and  the  household  furniture,  books,  etc., 
destroyed  or  carried  away  by  the  rabble.  The  editor  himself  was 
captured,  but  escaped  through  the  crowd. 

The  Church  store  was  next  assailed,  but  the  mob  soon  desisted 
from  their  work  of  plunder  and  gathered  upon  the  public  square. 
Thither,  Bishop  Edward  Partridge  had  been  dragged  from  his 
fireside.  Refusing  to  at  once  leave  the  county,  he  was  stripped 
of  most  of  his  apparel,  covered  with  tar.  and  feathers  were  thrown 
over  him.  Elder  Charles  Allen  suffered  similar  treatment.  Mixed 
with  the  tar  was  a  powerful  acid  which  severely  burned  their  flesh. 
Other  Mormons  were  threatened  and  abused.  Night  coining  on,  the 
mob  dispersed. 

These  lawless  acts  were  committed,  not  alone  by  the  rabble, 
ignorant,  easily  inflamed,  and  perhaps  not  wholly  accountable  for 
their  frenzy,  but  by  men  of  prominence  and  position.  Clergymen, 
magistrates,  state  and  county  officials,  who  had  sworn  to  honor  and 
sustain  the  law,  looked  on  approvingly  while  the  law  was  being- 
violated,  and  even  participated  in  its  infraction.  It  is  said  that  the 
leaders  of  the  mob,  prior  to  engaging  in  these  acts  of  vandalism,  in 
imitation  of  the  patriot  founders  of  the  nation  pledged  to  each  other 
"  their  bodily  powers,  their  lives,  fortunes  and  sacred  honor." 
Shortly  alter  the  affair.  Lilburn  W.  Boggs,  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Missouri,  said  to  some  of  the  Mormons:  "You  now  know  what  our 
Jackson  boys  can  do.  and  you  must  leave  the  county."' 

Three  days  after  the  assault  upon  Bishop  Partridge  and  his 
brethren,  the  mobocratic  mass-meeting  again  convened,  this  time  in 


greater  numbers  than  before.  The  recent  acts  of  violence  had  seem- 
ingly sated  in  part  their  anger.  At  all  events  they  were  a  little  more 
reasonable  than  before.  A  new  committee  was  appointed  to  confer 
with  the  leading  Mormons,  and  the  result  was  a  mutual  agreement 
between  the  two  parties.  By  the  terms  of  this  compact,  one  half  the 
Saints  were  to  be  permitted  to  remain  in  the  county  until  the  1st  of 
January,  1834,  and  the  other  half  until  the  1st  of  April.  It  was 
agreed  that  the  Star  should  not  again  be  published,  nor  a  printing- 
press  set  up  by  any  Mormon  in  Jackson  County.  Their  immigration 
thither  was  at  once  to  cease.  In  return  for  these  concessions  by  the 
Saints,  the  committee  gave  a  pledge  that  no  further  attacks 
should  be  made  upon  them.  This  agreement  the  mass  meeting 
ratified  and  then  adjourned. 

Oliver  Cowdery  now  carried  to  Kirtland  a  full  account  of  what 
had  taken  place  in  Missouri.  Affairs  in  Ohio  at  that  time  were 
far  from  peaceable.  The  Prophet  was  harassed  with  law-suits,  and 
frequently  threatened  with  violence.  Yet  the  Kirtland  Stake  was 
progressing.  The  corner-stone  of  the  Temple  was  laid  on  the  very 
day  that  the  Jackson  County  mob  issued  its  decree  of  expatriation 
against  the  Saints.  It  was  decided,  after  Elder  Cowdery*s  arrival,  to 
purchase  a  new  printing  press  and  continue  the  publication  of  the 
Evening  and  Morning  Star  at  Kirtland ;  also  that  another  paper 
called  the  Latter-day  Saints'  Messenger  and  Advocate  be  published 
there.     The  latter  was  succeeded  by  the  Elders'  Journal. 

About  the  middle  of  September  the  Prophet  sent  Orson  Hyde 
and  John  Gould  to  Missouri,  with  a  message  of  comfort  and 
instruction  to  his  people  in  that  State.  By  this  time  the  mob 
troubles  in  Jackson  County  had  resumed.  It  was  Punic  faith  in 
which  the  Saints  had  trusted.  The  pledge  given  by  the  mass 
meeting  in  July  had  been  broken.  Two  months  had  not  elapsed 
before  the  mob  renewed  hostilities.  Some  of  the  Saints  then  moved 
into  adjoining  counties,  hoping  thereby  to  allay  excitement  anil 
secure  peace  and  tranquility.  Vain  hope.  They  had  no  sooner 
settled  there  than  they  were  threatened  with  expulsion  from  these 


newly  acquired  homes.  "  The  Mormons  must  go ! "  was  now  the 
prevailing  sentiment  south  of  the  Missouri  river. 

An  appeal  was  next  made  to  the  Executive  of  the  State.  Daniel 
Dunklin  was  then  Governor  of  Missouri.  A  document  setting  forth 
the  wrongs  the  Saints  had  suffered  from  their  fellow-citizens  of 
Jackson  County,  describing  the  situation,  and  asking  for  military  aid 
and  protection  while  seeking  redress  in  the  courts,  was  carried  to 
Jefferson  City  and  delivered  at  the  Governor's  mansion  by  William 
W.  Phelps  and  Orson  Hyde.  This  document  was  dated  September 
28th,  1833.  A  reply  was  received  late  in  October.  The  Governor 
declined  to  give  the  military  aid  requested,  but  advised  the  peti- 
tioners to  make  a  trial  of  the  efficacy  of  the  laws,  and  promised  that 
if  they  failed  to  obtain  a  proper  execution  of  the  same  he  would  then 
take  steps  for  their  relief. 

Pursuant  to  the  Governor's  advice,  though  not  without  some 
apprehension  as  to  the  result,  the  Mormons,  having  secured  for  the 
sum  of  a  thousand  dollars  the  services  of  four  lawyers,  instituted 
legal  proceedings  against  their  oppressors.  It  was  as  the  application 
of  the  lighted  match  to  the  mine.  An  explosion  of  popular  fury  fol- 
lowed, before  which,  like  stones  and  timbers  of  some  huge  building 
blown,  to  atoms,  the  entire  Mormon  community,  men,  women  and 
children,  were  driven  in  every  direction  from  Jackson  County. 

It  was  about  the  last  of  October.  Night  attacks  by  armed  mobs 
were  made  simultaneously  at  several  points.  Beyond  the  Big  Blue 
river,  in  the  western  part  of  the  county,  houses  were  unroofed,  men 
beaten,  and  women  and  children  driven  screaming  into  the  wil- 
derness. Similar  scenes  were  enacted  elsewhere.  For  three  con- 
secutive nights  the  work  of  rapine  and  ruin  went  on.  At  Independ- 
ence houses  were  attacked  and  the  expelled  inmates  whipped  and 
pelted  with  stones.  The  Church  store  was  broken  open  and  plun- 
dered, its  goods  strewing  the  streets.  One  man,  caught  in  the  act  of 
robbing  the  store,  was  taken  before  Justice  of  the  Peace  Samuel 
Weston,  who  refused  to  issue  a  warrant  for  his  arrest.  The  robber 
was   thus  turned  loose  to  rejoin   his  companions.     Later,  the  Mor- 


mons  who  had  arrested  him  were  taken  into  custody,  charged  with 
assaulting  their  prisoner.  Being  fired  at  while  under  arrest,  they 
were  placed  in  jail  to  save  them  from  the  fury  of  the  rabble.  Every 
effort  of  the  Mormons  to  obtain  justice  was  unavailing.  The 
officers  of  the  law  were  either  too  timid  to  come  to  their  rescue,  or 
were  in  league  with  the  mob  against  them.  The  circuit  judge  at 
Lexington,  being  applied  to  for  a  peace  warrant,  refused  to  issue  one, 
but  advised  the  Mormons  to  arm  themselves  and  shoot  down  the 
outlaws  who  came  upon  them. 

To  the  Saints  such  advice  was  most  repugnant.  Their  religion 
forbade  strife,  and  strictly  prohibited  the  needless  shedding  of  blood. 
To  meet  violence  with  violence,  however,  now  seemed  their  only 
recourse.  The  mob,  emboldened  by  their  policy  of  non-resistance, 
were  hourly  becoming  more  aggressive.  The  Mormons  must  either 
defend  themselves,  or  supinely  submit  to  wholesale  outrage,  plun- 
der and  massacre.  Preferring  the  former  course,  they  followed  the 
advice  of  the  Lexington  judge  and  armed  themselves,  and  the  next 
onslaught  of  their  foes  found  them  ready  to  receive  them. 

On  the  4th  of  November  a  marauding  band  fired  upon  some  of 
the  settlers  beyond  the  Big  Blue.  A  battle  ensued.  Several  Mor- 
mons were  wounded,  one  fatally,  and  it  was  found  that  two  of  the 
banditti  had  bitten  the  dust.  The  Mormon  mortally  wounded  was  a 
young  man  named  Barber.  He  died  next  day.  Philo  Dibble,  who 
was  thought  to  be  fatally  shot,  recovered  and  is  still  living,  an  aged 
and   respected  citizen   of  Utah. 

A  "  Mormon  uprising"  was  now  widely  heralded.  The  purpose 
of  the  Missourians  had  been  accomplished.  They  had  goaded  their 
victims  to  desperation,  and  at  length  blood  had  been  shed.  The  rest 
of  the  program  was  comparatively  easy.  On  November  5th  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Boggs  ordered  out  the  militia  to  suppress  the  alleged 
insurrection.  Colonel  Thomas  Pitcher,  a  radical  anti-Mormon,  was 
placed  iu  command.  He  permitted  the  mobocrats,  who  had  caused 
the  trouble,  to  enroll  themselves  among  the  troops  called  out  to  put 
down  the  "uprising."     He  required   the  Mormons  to  lay  down  their 


arms,  and  deliver  up  to  be  tried  for  murder  certain  men  who  had 
taken  part  in  the  previous  day's  battle.  The  rest  of  the  community 
were  required  to  leave  the  county  forthwith. 

The  first  two  behests  being  obeyed,  Colonel  Pitcher,  to  enforce 
speedy  compliance  with  the  other,  turned  loose  his  mob  militia  to 
work  their  will  upon  the  disarmed  and  helpless  Saints.  Scenes  beg- 
garing description  were  now  enacted.  Armed  bands  of  ruffians 
ranged  the  county  in  every  direction,  bursting  into  houses,  terrify- 
ing women  and  children  and  threatening  the  defenseless  people 
with  death  if  they  did  not  instantly  flee.  One  of  these  bands  was 
led  by  a  Christian  minister  heading,  like  another  Peter  the  Hermit, 
this  holy  crusade.  Out  upon  the  bleak  prairies,  along  the  Missouri's 
banks,  chilled  by  November's  winds  and  drenched  by  pouring  rains, 
hungry  and  shelterless,  weeping  and  heart-broken,  wandered  forth 
the  exiles.  Families  scattered  and  divided,  husbands  seeking  wives, 
wives  husbands,  parents  searching  for  their  children,  not  knowing  if 
they  were  yet  alive.  Such  was  the  sorrowful  scene — a  veritable 
Acadian  tableau — enough,  it  might  be  thought,  to  melt  a  heart  of 
stone.  But  alas,  the  human  heart,  inhumanized  by  hate,  is  harder 
than  stone. 

.Most  of  the  refugees,  after  much  suffering  from  hunger  and 
exposure,  found  an  asylum  in  Clay  County,  on  the  opposite  shore, 
where  they  were  kindly  received  and  their  woes  compassionated.  All 
the  other  counties  to  which  the  Mormons  had  fled  followed  the 
example  of  Jackson  and  expelled  them  from  their  borders.  Ten 
settlements  were  now  left  desolate. 

But  the  exiles  did  not  despair.  It  was  a  lawless  mob  that  had 
driven  them  from  their  homes  and  robbed  them  of  their  possessions. 
Surely  in  a  land  of  law  and  order  there  was  recompense  and  redress 
for  such  wrongs.  The  Governor,  Judges  and  other  state  officials 
were  in  turn  appealed  to,  and  even  the  President  of  the  United 
Stales  was  memorialized  in  relation  to  the  Jackson  County  tragedy. 
Courteous  replies  came  back,  deprecating  and  deploring  what  had 
taken  place,  lull    that  was  all.     Governor  Dunklin  held   that  he  could 


not  lawfully  extend  military  aid  to  maintain  the  Mormons  in  posses- 
sion of  their  homes,  and  the  reply  of  the  President,  hy  the  Secretary 
of  War,  was  to  the  same  effect.  The  mob  then  was  supreme.  So 
seemed  it  to  these  homeless  and  plundered  American  citizens,  suing 
in  vain  for  redress  at  the  feet  of  the  highest  civil  and  military 
authority  in  the  land. 

.  President  Jackson,  as  well  as  Governor  Dunklin,  doubtless  sin- 
cerely desired  to  right  the  wrongs  of  the  exiles.  It  was  not  like 
"Old  Hickory,"*  with  his  "anti-nullifying"  record,  to  hesitate  or  falter 
in  the  presence  of  what  he  deemed  a  duty  unperformed.  He  evidently 
thought,  as  most  Democrats  would  think,  that  the  Jackson  County 
episode  was  a  local  wrong  to  be  locally  rectified,  and  that  he  was 
powerless,  unless  requested  by  the  Governor  or  the  Legislature  of  the 
State,  to  interfere  and  take  action  against  the  Missouri  mob,  as  he 
had  formerly  against  the  South  Carolina  nullifiers. 

As  to  Governor  Dunklin,  a  well-meaning  though  rather  weak 
official,  he  perhaps  did  all  that  a  man  of  his  calibre  and  stamina 
could  be  expected  to  do  under  the  circumstances.  At  his  instance  a 
court  of  inquiry  was  held,  and  Colonel  Pitcher  for  his  conduct  was 
court-martialed.  It  was  decided  that  there  had  been  no  Mormon 
uprising,  and  that  the  calling  out  of  the  troops  and  the  enforced  sur- 
render of  arms  by  citizens  defending  themselves  against  unrighteous 
aggression,  was  therefore  unnecessary  and  unlawful.  The  Governor 
commanded  the  officers  of  the  militia  to  restore  to  the  Mormons  their 
arms.  This  order  they  ignored.  Further  efforts  for  the  relief 
of  the  Saints  were  made  by  fair-minded  citizens, — who  regarded  the 
Jackson  County  affair  as  a  grave  crime,  a  stain  upon  the  fair  fame  of 
the  State, — but  owing  to  popular  prejudice,  and  the  difficulty  of 
enforcing  in  a  mobocratic  community  the  edicts  of  law  and  order,  no 
adequate  recompense  was  eVer  given,  and  the  Mormons  remain  dis- 
of  their  lands  in  that  locality  to  this  day. 

Nearly  sixty  years  have  passed  since  then,  yet  Jackson  County, 

*  A  surname  of  Andrew  Jackson's. 


Missouri,  to  the  Latter-day  Saints,  is  still  "the  land  of  Zion."  Stakes 
of  Zion  have  multiplied,  and  the  people  have  flocked  thereto ;  but 
"  the  place  for  the  city "  has  remained  unchanged.  Zion  has  not 
been  "moved  out  of  her  place,  notwithstanding  her  children  are  scat- 
tered." The  generation  which  once  possessed  the  land — whose 
descendants  still  possess  it — after  repeated  mobbings  and  massacres, 
endured  for  conscience-sake,  have  nearly  all  fallen  asleep.  But 
their  aims  and  aspirations  survive  in  the  hearts  of  their  children, 
who  as  confidently  look  forward  as  did  ever  their  exiled  sires,  who 
followed  Joseph  Smith  to  Nauvoo  and  Brigham  Young  into  the 
wilderness,  to  the  eventual  return  of  the  Saints  to  Jackson  County. 
and  the  rearing  upon  its  sacred  soil,  consecrated  by  their  fathers  for 
that  purpose,  of  the  glorious  Zion  of  their  hopes. 



highly  educated, — a  common  school  training,  and  a  limited  amount 
of  that,  being  all  that  either  could  boast, — they  were  men  of  gifted 
minds,  possessing  unusual  intelligence  and  strength  of  character. 

Brigham  Young  was  a  man  of  undoubted  genius, — a  master 
mind,  well  balanced  and  powerful,  thoroughly  practical  in  thought 
and  method,  and  of  Napoleonic  energy  and  intuition.  Heber  C. 
Kimball  was  a  natural  prophet, — a  poet  he  would  have  been,  had 
education  lent  his  genius  wings.  A  deep  spiritual  thinker,  a  great 
yet  simple  soul,  replete  with  eccentricity.  In  religion  Heber,  when 
Mormonism  found  him,  was  a  Baptist ;  while  Brigham,  like  Joseph 
Smith  in  his  boyhood,  leaned  toward  Methodism. 

Brigham  Young  first  saw  the  Book  of  Mormon  in  the  spring  of 
1830,  at  the  home  of  his  brother  Phineas  in  Mendon.  It  had  been 
left  there  by  Samuel  H.  Smith,  brother  to  the  Prophet.  Two  years 
later  a  party  of  Mormon  Elders  from  Pennsylvania  came  preaching 
in  that  neighborhood.  Being  converted  to  the  faith,  Brigham  was 
baptized  by  Eleazer  Miller  on  the  14th  of  April,  1832.  Heber  C. 
Kimball  was  baptized  by  Alpheus  Gifford  on  the  day  following. 
John  Young,  senior,  Phineas  H.,  Joseph  and  Lorenzo  D.  Young, 
John  P.  Greene,  Israel  Barlow  and  a  score  of  others  with  their 
families,  in  and  around  Mendon,  also  embraced  Mormonism  about  the 
same  time.  Ordained  to  the  ministry,  Brigham,  Heber  and  others 
rendered  the  Church  efficient  service  in  that  region. 

Not  long  afterward  Brigham  and  Heber.  accompanied  by  Joseph 
Young,  visited  Kirtland  and  became  acquainted  with  the  Prophet.  It 
was  the  summer  or  fall  of  1832.  This  was  the  first  meeting  of 
Joseph  Smith  with  the  man  who  was  destined  to  be  his  successor. 
It  is  said  that  Joseph  predicted  about  this  time  that  Brigham  Young- 
would  yet  preside  over  the  Church. 

Returning  east  the  three  visiting  Elders  re-engaged  in  the  work 
of  the  ministry,  Brigham  and  Joseph  Young  visiting  Upper  Canada, 
whence  the  former,  in  July,  1833,  led  several  families  of  converts  to 
Kirtland.  Again  returning  to  Mendon.  where  his  wife  had  died  the 
year  before,  Brigham  and  his  two  motherless  daughters  dwelt  for  a 


season  under  the  roof-tree  of  his  friend  Heber,  and  in  the  fall  of  that 
year  accompanied  him  and  his  family  to  Kirtland. 

Other  notable  stars  were  likewise  dawning  or  were  about  to 
dawn  upon  Mormonism's  cloud-hung  horizon.  Wilford  Woodruff, 
afterwards  an  Apostle  and  the  fourth  President  of  the  Church,  was 
baptized  by  Zera  Pulsipher  at  Richland,  Oswego  County,  New  York, 
on  December  31st.  1833.  He  was  a  native  of  Farmington — now 
Avon — Hartford  County,  Connecticut,  and  was  born  March  1st,  1807. 
George  A.  Smith,  a  cousin  of  the  Prophet's,  had  come  to  Kirtland 
with  his  parents  from  Potsdam.  St.  Lawrence  County,  New  York,  in 
May,  1833.  Jedediah  M.  Grant,  of  Broome  County.  New  York,  had 
joined  the  Church  in  March,  and  Erastus  Snow,  in  February,  had 
espoused  the  faith  in  his  native  State  of  Vermont.  George  A.  and 
Jedediah  were  then  youths  of  sixteen  and  seventeen  respectively,  and 
Erastus  only  a  lad  of  fourteen. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  D.  P.  Hurlburt  was  severed  from  the 
Church  for  immoral  conduct.  He  felt  his  disgrace  keenly.  He  first 
threatened  the  Prophet's  life, — for  which  he  was  tried  and  put  under 
bonds  at  Chardon, — and  then  set  diligently  to  work  to  stir  up  strife 
and  prejudice  against  the  Mormons  and  their  leader.  He  was  quite 
successful  in  this,  and  the  Prophet  was  guarded  night  and  day  by 
trusty  friends,  who  feared  his  attempted  assassination.  We  have 
already  seen  how  Hurlburt,  after  his  expulsion  from  the  Church, 
originated  the  theory  identifying  the  Book  of  Mormon  with  the 
Spaulding  story. 

On  the  17th  of  February,  1834,  was  organized  at  Kirtland  the 
fust  High  Council  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints.  It  was  composed  of  twelve  High  Priests,  presided  over  by 
three  of  the  same  order.  A  few  words  here  in  relation  to  High 
Councils  and  Mormon  religious  tribunals  in  general. 

It  is  pretty  well  known  by  this  time  that  the  Mormon  leaders  do 
not  favor  litigation  among  their  followers;  that  ••brother  going  to 
law  against  brother"  is  an  offense  against  the  precepts  and  regula- 
tions of  the  Church.     To  obviate   the  need  of  such  things  there  are 


instituted  among  the  Saints  tribunals  called  Bishops"  Courts  and 
High  Councils,  the  members  of  which  serve  gratuitously  and  -  labor 
much  in  the  capacity  of  peace-makers  ;  adjusting  difficulties  between 
Church  members  in  such  a  way  as  to  save  expense  and  prevent  ill- 
feeling  at  the  same  time. 

The  Teacher  is  the  peace-maker  proper  of  the  Church,  but  if  he 
finds  it  impossible  to  reconcile  the  parties  disagreeing,  it  is  his  duty 
to  report  the  case  to  the  Bishop, — whose  officer  he  is, — together  with 
any  iniquity  he  may  discover  from  time  to  time  in  visiting  among  the 
Saints  of  his  '•district.-*  There  may  be  many  districts  and  many 
teachers, — two  of  whom  usually  act  together, — in  the  "ward"  over 
which  the  Bishop  and  his  two  counselors  as  High  Priests  preside. 

The  Bishop's  Court  hears  evidence  pro  and  con  and  decides 
accordingly.  An  appeal  from  its  decision  may  be  taken,  if  the 
gravity  of  the  case  warrants,  to  the  High  Council  of  the  Stake  in 
which  the  Bishop"s  ward  is  located.  A  Stake  may  have  many 
wards,  as  the  Church  at  large  has  many  Stakes.  Each  Stake  has  its 
High  Council,  consisting  of  twelve  High  Priests,  presided  over  by 
three  other  High  Priests  who  are  known  as  the  Stake  Presidency. 
This  presidency,  to  whom  the  ward  Bishops  are  accountable,  are 
amenable  themselves  to  the  First  Presidency.  The  High  Councils 
are  the  appellate  courts  of  the  Church,  having  also  original  jurisdic- 

Each  party  to  a  case  before  the  High  Council  has  a  right  to  be 
represented  by  half  the  members  of  that  body. — one  or  more  on 
either  side  being  appointed  to  defend  him. — and  the  matter  in 
dispute  having  been  thoroughly  ventilated,  the  President  renders 
his  decision,  which,  if  sustained  by  a  majority  of  the  Council,  is  the 
end  of  controversy,  unless  a  rehearing  is  ordered  by  the  First 
Presidency  on  a  review  of  the  evidence. 

The  greatest  punishment  inflicted  by  the  Bishop's  Court  is  disfel- 
lowshipment, — suspension  from  all  privileges  of  Church  membership.* 

This  applies  to  persons  holding  llio  MelehisenVk  Priesthood.      Members  not  holdi 
that  Priesthood  maj  be  excommunicated  1  >y  llie  Bishop's  Couri. 


The  extreme  penalty  adjudged  by  the  High  Council  is  excommunica- 
tion from  the  Church.  All  its  members  are  amenable  for  transgres- 
sion to  these  tribunals,  one  of  the  main  objects  of  which  is  to  pre- 
vent expensive  and  strife-breeding  litigation  among  the  Saints. 
They  were  not  designed,  though  it  is  often  alleged,  to  supersede  or 
in  any  way  interfere  with  the  operations  of  the  civil  courts.  Accord- 
ing to  Mormon  doctrine,  offenders  against  the  laws  of  the  land 
are  amenable  to  those  laws,  as  interpreted  by  legally  constituted 

The  twelve  High  Priests  composing  the  fmt  High  Council, 
organized  in  February  1834.  were  Oliver  Cowdery,  Joseph  Coe, 
Samuel  H.  Smith.  Luke  Johnson,  John  S.  Carter,  Sylvester  Smith, 
John  Johnson,  Orson  Hyde,  Jared  Carter,  Joseph  Smith,  senior,  John 
Smith  and  Martin  Harris.  The  presidency  of  this  council  was 
identical  with  the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church,  namely :  Joseph 
Smith,  junior,  Sidney  Rigdon  and  Frederick  G.  Williams. 

In  the  latter  part  of  February,  the  Prophet  began  organizing  at 
Rutland,  an  expedition  for  the  relief  of  his  people  in  Missouri.  This 
organization  is  known  in  Mormon  history  as  Zion's  Camp.  It  con- 
sisted when  complete  of  two  hundred  and  five  men,  nearly  all  Elders. 
Priests,  Teachers  and  Deacons,  organized  as  a  military  body,  with 
Joseph  Smith  as  their  general.  They  took  with  them  twenty  wagons, 
well  laden  with  supplies.  The  object  of  the  expedition  was  to 
"redeem  Zion:"  in  other  words  to  regain  possession  of  the  lands  in 
Jackson  County  from  which  the  Saints  had  been  driven.  It  subse- 
quently transpired  that  the  Prophet  had  another  purpose  in  view : 
that  of  proving  the  mettle  of  the  men  who  were  to  be  his  future 

One  hundred  of  the  Camp  left  Kirtland  on  the  5th  of  May, 
1834.  The  remainder  reinforced  them  on  the  way.  They  crossed 
the  Mississippi  early  in  June,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  the  month 
pitched  their  tents  between  two  forks  of  Fishing  River,  Missouri. 
between  Richmond.  Ray  County,  and  Liberty,  the  county  seal  of 
Clay.     There  they  were  joined  by  some  of  their  brethren  of  those 


parts,  and  from  them  learned  particulars  of  further  outrages  upon 
the  few  remaining  Saints  in  Jackson  County. 

The  news  of  the  coming  of  Zion's  Camp,  with  exaggerated 
rumors  concerning  their  numbers  and  the  purpose  of  the  expedition, 
created  considerable  excitement  in  western  Missouri.  Armed  bands 
went  out  to  meet  them,  and  dire  threats  were  uttered  as  to  their 
doom.  They  were  saved  from  attack  one  night  on  Fishing  River  by 
a  terrible  storm  which  beat  back  their  foes  and  rendered  the  raging 
stream  impassable.  Colonel  Sconce,  of  Ray  County,  Sheriff  Gilliam, 
of  Clay,  and  other  prominent  men  of  that  vicinity  then  visited  the 
camp  and  conversed  with  the  Mormon  leader.  Having  learned  from 
him  that  his  design  was  merely  to  secure  an  amicable  adjustment  of 
the  difficulties  between  his  despoiled  disciples  and  the  people  of  Jack- 
son County,  they  were  soon  placated  and  became  friendly. 

Certain  dissensions  had  broken  out  in  Zion*s  Camp  while  on  the 
way  from  Kirtland,  and  the  Prophet,  it  is  said,  severely  reprimanded 
some  of  his  followers  and  predicted  that  a  scourge  would  come  upon 
the  camp  in  consequence.  Certain  it  is  that  a  scourge  did  come,  in 
the  form  of  cholera,  appearing  among  them  about  the  22nd  of  June. 
Sixty-eight  were  attacked  by  the  malady,  and  thirteen  or  fourteen 
died.  Among  those  who  fell  victims  was  Algernon  S.  Gilbert,  who 
had  kept  the  Church  store  at- Independence. 

During  the  plague  the  camp  removed  from  Fishing  River  to 
within  a  few  miles  of  Liberty.  There  they  were  met  by  General 
David  R.  Atchison  and  others,  who  in  a  friendly  spirit  recpuested  that 
they  come  no  nearer  the  town,  as  the  excitement  caused  by  the  sen- 
sational rumors  concerning  them  had  not  yet  abated.  This  request 
was  complied  with,  the  Camp  changing  its  course  to  Rush  Creek, 
where  some  of  the  Mormons  had  settled.  In  order  to  show  still 
further  that  his  motives  were  not  hostile,  the  Prophet  disbanded  his 
force  and  apprised  General  Atchison  of  the  fact,  requesting  him  to 
inform  Governor  Dunklin,  whose  ears  were  being  filled  with  all  sorts 
of  tales  from  Jackson  County   regarding   "Joe  Smith  and  his  army."' 

Negotiations,  already  begun,  now  continued  between  the  Mormon 


leaders  and  the  men  of  Jackson  County.  The  latter  proposed  to  pur- 
chase the  possessions  of  the  Saints  in  that  locality.  To  this  the  Mor- 
mons would  not  listen,  deeming  it  sacrilege  to  sell  their  •'sacred 
inheritance."  On  their  part  they  submitted  a  proposition  to  buy  out 
all  residents  of  Jackson  County  who  did  not  desire  to  dwell  as  their 
near  neighbors.  This  offer  their  opponents  rejected.  It  was  evident 
that  upon  no  condition  would  the  Mormons  be  permitted  to  return. 
Samuel  C.  Owens,  a  prominent  mobocrat,  advised  the  Mormons  to 
"cast  an  eye  back  of  Clinton" — a  distant  county — and  seek  a  new 
home  in  the  wilderness.  Believing  that  further  effort  would  be  vain, 
at  all  events  for  the  present,  the  Prophet  concluded  to  return  to  Kirt- 

Before  starting,  however,  he  organized  a  High  Council  among 
his  followers  in  Clay  County,  and  set  apart  a  presidency  to  take 
charge  of  the  Church  in  Missouri.  David  Whitmer,  William  W, 
Phelps  and  John  Whitmer  were  that  presidency.  The  twelve  high 
councilors  were  as  follows :  Simeon  Carter,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  William 
E.  McLellin,  Calvin  Beebe,  Levi  Jackman.  Solomon  Hancock,  Chris- 
tian Whitmer,  Newel  Knight,  Orson  Pratt,  Lyman  Wight,  Thomas  B. 
Marsh  and  John  Murdock.  This  High  Council  was  organized  early 
in  July,  1834.  On  the  9th  the  Prophet  and  his  friends  set  out  for 
Kirtland.     And  so  ended  the  Zion's  Camp  expedition. 

Work  on  the  Kirtland  Temple  was  now  zealously  prosecuted. 
The  Saints,  as  before  stated,  were  poor,  and  of  late  their  numbers  in 
Ohio  had  been  much  diminished  by  the  Missouri  emigrations.  But 
all  united  with  a  will. — the  Prophet  and  other  Elders  setting  the 
example  by  laboring  in  the  quarry  or  upon  the  building,  while  the 
women  sewed,  knit,  spun  and  made  clothing  for  the  workmen.  The 
walls  of  the  edifice,  which  were  only  partly  reared  when  the  Missouri 
expedition  took  from  Kirtland  nearly  all  the  bone  and  sinew  of  the 
Church,  now  that  the  laborers  had  returned  climbed  rapidly  toward 

The  next  notable  event  in  Mormon  history  was  the  choosing  of 
the  Twelve  Apostles,  the  council  next  in  authority  to  the  Firsl  Presi- 



dency.  It  took  place  at  Kirtland  on  Saturday,  February  14th,  1835. 
The  survivors  of  Zion's  Camp  were  that  day  called  to  assemble,  and 
the  Twelve  were  selected  from  their  numbers.  The  choosing  was 
done  by  the  Three  Witnesses  to  the  Book  of  Mormon,  after  which 
each  Apostle  was  blessed    and   set  apart  by  the   First    Presidency. 

The  Twelve  Apostles  were  equal  in  authority,  but  the  order  of 
precedence  in  council  was  determined  by  their  ages.  According  to 
seniority  they  ranged  as  follows:  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  David  W.  Pat- 
ten, Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Orson  Hyde.  William  E. 
McLellin,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Luke  Johnson,  William  Smith,  Orson  Pratt, 
John  F.  Boynton,  Lyman  E.  Johnson. 

The  same  month  witnessed  the  selection  of  the  Seventies — 
assistant  Apostles — who  were  likewise  chosen  from  the  ranks  of  the 
survivors  of  Zion's  Camp.  Two  quorums  of  Seventies  were  ordained. 
Their  names  are  here  given  : 


Hazen  Aldrich, 

Joseph  Young, 
Levi  W.  Hancock. 
Leonard  Rich, 
Zebedee  Coltrin, 

Lyman  Sherman. 
Sylvester  Smith. 


Elias  Hutchings 
Cyrus  Smalling, 
Levi  Gilford. 
Stephen  Winchester, 
Roger  Orton. 
Peter  Buchanan, 
John  D.  Parker, 
David  Elliot. 
Samuel  Brown. 
Salmon  Warner, 
Jacob  Chapman, 
Charles  Kelley, 
Edmund  Fisher, 
Warren  Parrish, 
Joseph  Hancock, 

Alden  Burdick, 
Hiram  Winters. 
Hiram  Blackmail, 
William  D.  Pratt, 
Zera  S.  Cole. 
Jesse  Huntsman, 
Solomon  Angell, 
Henry  Herriinan, 
Israel  Barlow. 
Jenkins  Salisbury. 
Nelson  Higgins, 
Harry  Brown. 
Jezaniah  B.  Smith, 
Lorenzo  Booth, 
Alexander  Badlam. 
Zerubbabel  Snow, 
1  Lupin  RiggS, 
Edson  Bail  icy, 
Joseph  B.  Noble, 
Henry  Benner. 
David  Evans, 
Nathan  B.  Baldwin 
Burr  Riggs, 
Lewis  Bobbins. 

Alex.  Whitesides, 
George  W.  Brooks, 
Michael  Griffith, 
Royal  Barney. 
Libbeus  T.  Coons, 
Willard  Snow, 
Jesse  D.  Harmon, 
Heman  T.  Hyde. 
Lorenzo  D.  Barnes, 
Hiram  Stratton, 
Moses  Martin, 
Lyman  Smith, 
Harvey  Stanley. 
Almon  W.  Babbitt, 
William  F.  Cahoon, 
Darwin  Richardson, 
Milo  Andrus, 
True  Glidden, 
Henry  Shiblcy. 
Harrison  Burgess, 
Jedediab  M.  Giant. 
Daniel  Stevens. 
Amasa  M.  Lyman, 
Crm-r  A.  Smith, 



Elijah  Fordham, 
Hyrum  Dayton, 
Joel  H.  Johnson, 
Daniel  Wood, 
Reuben  McBride, 
Jonathan  Holmes, 
Lorenzo  D.  Young, 
Wilford  Woodruff, 
Jonathan  Crosby, 
Truman  0.  Angell, 
Chauncey  G.  Webb, 
Solon  Foster, 
Erastus  Snow, 
Nathan  Tanner, 
John  Gould, 
Stephen  Starks, 
Levi  Woodruff, 
William  Carpenter. 
Francis  G.  Bishop, 
William  Gould. 
Sherman  A.  Gilbert. 
William  Redfield, 
John  Herrit, 
Jonathan  Hampton. 


Samuel  Phelps, 
Joel  McWithy, 
Selah  J.  Griffin, 
Shadrach  Rouudy, 
Zera  Pulsipher, 
King  Follett, 
Joseph  Rose, 
Robert  Culbertson, 
John  Young, 
James  Foster. 
Salmon  Gee, 
Nathaniel  Millikin. 
Gad  Yale. 
Josiah  Butterfield, 
Elias  Benner, 
Ariel  Stephens, 
William  Perry, 
Milton  Holmes, 
James  Dalay, 
Arvin  A.  Avery, 
Charles  Thompson, 
Joshua  Grant, 
Andrew  J.  Squires, 

Bobert  Rathburn, 
Giles  Cook, 
John  E.  Page, 
William  Tenney, 
Edmund  Marvin. 
Marvel  C.  Davis, 
Almon  Shearman, 
Isaac  H.  Bishop, 
Elijah  Beed, 
Bums  Fisher, 
Dexter  Stillman, 
Thomas  Gates, 
Uriah  B.  Powell. 
Amasa  Bonney, 
Ebenezer  Page, 
Loren  Babbitt, 
Levi  S.  Nickerson, 
Edmund  Durfee,  jr 
Henry  Wilcox. 
Edmund  M.  Webb. 
William  Miller, 
Stephen  Post, 
William  Bosley, 

From  the  following  paragraphs  of  a  revelation  on  Priesthood  the 
reader  may  derive  all  desired  information  regarding  the  duties  and 
powers  of  the  various  councils  and  quorums  in  the  Church:  * 

There  are,  in  the  church,  two  Priesthoods,  namely,  the  Melchisedek,  and  Aaronic 
including  the  Levitical  priesthood. 

Why  the  first  is  called  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  is  because  Melchisedek  was  such 
a  great  High  Priest. 

Before  his  day  it  was  (ailed  the  Holy  Priesthood,  after  the  order  of  the  Son  of  God. 

Hut  mil  of  respect  or  reverence  In  the  name  of  the  Supreme  Being,  to  avoid  the  too 
frequent  repetition  of  his  name,  they,  the  church,  in  ancient  days,  called  that  Priesthood 
after  Melchisedek.  or  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood. 

All  other  authorities  <>r  offices  in  the  church  are  appendages  to  this  Priesthood; 

But  there  arc  two  divisions  or  grand  heads — one  is  the  .Melchisedek  Priesthood,  and 
the  other  is  the  Aaronic,  or  Levitical  priesthood. 

( lovenants,  Se 


The  office  of  an  elder  comes  under  the  Priesthood  of  Melchisedek. 

The  Melchisedek  Priesthood  holds  the  right  of  Presidency,  and  1ms  power  and 
authority  over  all  the  offices  in  the  church  in  all  ages  of  the  world,  to  administer  in  spirit- 
ual things. 

The  Presidency  of  the  High  Priesthood,  alter  the  order  of  Melchisedek.  have  a  right 
to  officiate  in  all  the  offices  of  the  church. 

High  Priests  after  the  order  of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  have  a  right  to  officiate  in 
their  own  standing,  under  the  direction  of  the  Presidency,  in  administering  spiritual 
things:  and  also  in  the  office  of  an  elder,  priest,  (of  the  Levitical  order.)  teacher,  dea- 
con and  member. 

An  elder  has  a  right  to  officiate  in  his  stead  when  the  High  Priest  is  not  present. 

The  High  Priest  and  elder  are  to  administer  in  spiritual  things,  agreeable  to  the  cove- 
nants and  commandments  of  the  church;  and  they  have  a  right  to  officiate  in  all  these 
offices  of  the  church  when  there  are  no  higher  authorities  present. 

The  second  priesthood  is  called  the  priesthood  of  Aaron,  because  it  was  conferred 
upon  Aaron  and  his  seed,  throughout  all  their  generations. 

Why  it  is  called  the  lesser  priesthood,  is  because  it  is  an  appendage  to  the  greater  or 
the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  and  has  power  in  administering  outward  ordinances. 

The  bishopric  is  the  presidency  of  this  priesthood  and  holds  the  keys  or  authority  of 
the  same. 

No  man  has  a  legal  right  to  this  office,  to  hold  the  keys  of  this  priesthood,  except  he 
lie  a  I i lend  descendant  of  Aaron. 

But  as  a  High  Priest  of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood  has  authority  to  officiate  in  all 
the  lesser  offices,  he  may  officiate  in  the  office  of  bishop  when  no  literal  descend. ml  ..I 
Aaron  can  be  found,  provided  he  is  called  and  set  apart  and  ordained  unto  this  power  by 
the  hands  of  the  Presidency  of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood. 

The  power  and  authority  of  the  Higher  or  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  is  to  hold  the  keys 
of  all  the  spiritual  blessings  of  the  church — 

To  have  the  privilege  of  receiving  tin'  mysteries  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven — to  have 
the  heavens  opened  lo  them — to  Commune  with  the  general  assembly  and  church  of  the 
first  horn,  anil  to  enjoy  the  communion  and  presence  of  God  the  Father,  and  .lesus  the 
Mediator  of  the  new  covenant. 

The  power  and  authority  of  tin/  lesser,  or  Aaronic  priesthood,  is  to  hold  the  keys  of 
the  ministering  of  angels,  and  to  administer  in  outward  ordinances,  the  letter  of  the  gospel 
— the  baptism  of  repentance  for  the  remission  of  sins,  agreeable  to  the  covenants  and 

Of  necessity  there  are  presidents,  or  presiding  offices  growing  out  of,  or  appointed  of 
or  from  among  those  who  are  ordained  to  the  several  offices  in  those  two  priesthoods. 

Of  the  Melchisedek  Priesthood,  three  Presiding  High  Priests,  chosen  by  the  body, 
appointed  and  ordained  to  thai  office,  and  upheld  by  the  confidence,  faith,  and  prayer  of 
the  church,  form  a  quorum  of  the  Presidency  of  the  church. 

The  Twelve  traveling  counselors  are  called  lo  be  the  Twelve  apostles,  or  special  wit- 
nesses of  the  name  of  Christ  in  all  the  world;  thus  differing  from  other  officers  in  the 
church  in  the  duties  of  their  calling. 


And  they  form  a  quorum,  equal  in  authority  and  power  to  the  three  Presidents  pre- 
viously mentioned. 

The  seventy  are  also  called  to  preach  the  gospel,  and  to  be  especial  witnesses  unto 
the  Gentiles  and  in  all  the  world.  Thus  differing  from  other  officers  in  the  church  in  the 
duties  of  their  callings ; 

And  they  form  a  quorum  equal  in  authority  to  that  of  the  Twelve  special  witnesses 
or  apostles  just  named. 

And  every  decision  made  by  either  of  these  quorums,  must  be  by  the  unanimous 
voice  of  the  same :  that  is,  every  member  in  each  quorum  must  be  agreed  to  its  decisions, 
in  order  to  make  their  decisions  of  the  same  power  or  validity  one  with  the  other. 

(A  majority  may  form  a  quorum,  when  circumstances  render  it  impossible  to  be 

The  Twelve  are  a  traveling  presiding  High  Council,  to  officiate  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord,  under  the  direction  of  the  Presidency  of  the  church,  agreeable  to  the  institution  of 
heaven;  to  build  up  the  church,  and  regulate  all  the  affairs  of  the  same  in  all  nations  : 
first  unto  the  Gentiles,  and  secondly  unto  the  Jews. 

The  seventy  are  to  act  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  under  the  direction  of  the  Twelve  or 
the  traveling  High  Council,  in  building  up  the  Church  and  regulating  all  the  affairs  of  the 
same  in  all  nations — first  unto  the  Gentiles  and  then  unto  the  Jews  ; 

The  Twelve  being  sent  out,  holding  the  keys,  to  open  the  door  by  the  proclamation  of 
the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ — and  first  unto  the  Gentiles  and  then  unto  the  Jews. 

Verily,  I  say  unto  you,  says  the  Lord  of  hosts,  there  must  needs  be  presiding  elders 
In  preside  over  those  who  are  of  the  office  of  an  elder; 

And  also  priests  to  preside  over  those  who  are  of  the  office  of  a  priest ; 

Ami  also  teachers  to  preside  over  those  who  are  of  the  office  of  a  teacher:  in  like 
manner,  and  also  the  deacons ; 

Wherefore,  from  deacon  to  teacher,  and  from  teacher  to  priest,  and  from  priest  to 
elder,  severally  as  they  are  appointed,  according  to  the  covenants  and  commandments  of 
the  church. 

Then  comes  the  High  Priesthood,  which  is  the  greatest  of  all: 

Wherefore  it  must  needs  be  that  one  be  appointed  of  the  High  Priesthood  to  preside 
over  the  Priesthood,  and  he  shall  be  called  President  of  the  High  Priesthood  of  the 
church  ; 

Or.  in  other  words,  the  Presiding  High  Priest  over  the  High  Priesthood  of  the 

From  the  same  comes  the  administering  of  ordinances  and  blessings  upon  the  church, 
by  the  laying  on  of  the  hands. 

Wherefore  the  ol'liee  of  a  bishop  is  nol  equal  unto  il  :  for  the  office  of  a  bishop  is  in 
administering  all  temporal  things; 

Nevertheless  a  bishop  must  be  chosen  from  the  High  Priesthood, unless  he  is  a  literal 
descendant  of  Aaron  ; 


For  unless  he  is  a  literal  descendant  of  Aaron  he  cannot  hold  the  keys  of  that  priest- 

Nevertheless,  a  High  Priest  that  is  after  the  order  of  Melchisedek,  may  be  set  apart 
unto  the  ministering  of  temporal  things,  having  a  knowledge  of  them  by  the  Spirit  of 

And  also  to  be  a  judge  in  Israel,  to  do  the  business  of  the  church,  to  sit  in  judgment 
upon  transgressors  upon  testimony  as  it  shall  be  laid  before  him  according  to  the  laws,  by 
the  assistance  of  bis  counselors,  whom  he  has  chosen,  or  will  choose  among  the  elders  of 
the  church. 

This  is  the  duty  of  a  bishop  who  is  not  a  literal  descendant  of  Aaron,  but  has  been 
ordained  to  the  High  Priesthood  after  the  order  of  Melchisedek. 

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * 

But  a  literal  descendant  of  Aaron  has  a  legal  right  to  the  presidency  of  this  priest- 
hood, to  the  keys  of  this  ministry,  to  act  in  the  office  of  bishop  independently,  without 
counselors,  except  in  a  case  where  a  President  of  the  High  Priesthood,  after  the  order  of 
Melchisedek,  is  tried,  to  sit  as  a  judge  in  Israel. 

And  again,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  the  duty  of  a  president  over  the  office  of  a  deacon 
is  to  preside  over  twelve  deacons,  to  sit  in  council  with  them,  and  to  teach  them  their  duty 
— edifying  one  another,  as  it  is  given  according  to  the  covenants. 

And  also  the  duty  of  the  president  over  the  office  of  the  teachers  is  to  preside  over 
twenty-four  of  the  teachers,  and  to  sit  in  council  with  them,  teaching  them  the  duties  of 
their  office,  as  given  in  the  covenants. 

Also  the  duty  of  the  presMent  over  the  priesthood  of  Aaron  is  to  preside  over  forty- 
eight  priests,  and  sit  in  council  with  them,  to  teach  them  the  duties  of  their  office,  as  is 
given  in  the  covenants. 

This  president  is  to  be  a  bishop;  for  this  is  one  of  the  duties  of  this  priesthood. 

Again,  the  duty  of  the  president  over  the  office  of  elders  is  to  preside  over  ninety-six 
elders,  and  to  sit  in  council  with  them,  and  to  teach  them  according  to  the  covenants. 

This  presidency  is  a  distinct  one  from  that  of  the  seventy,  and  is  designed  for  those 
who  do  not  travel  into  all  the  world. 

And  again,  the  duty  of  the  President  of  the  office  of  the  High  Priesthood  is  to  pre- 
side over  the  whole  church,  and  to  be  like  unto  Moses. 


And  it  is  according  to  the  vision,  showing  the  order  of  the  seventy,  that  they  should 
have  seven  presidents  to  preside  over  them,  chosen  out  of  the  number  of  the  seventy; 

And  the  seventh  president  of  these  presidents  is  to  preside  over  the  six; 

And  these  seven  presidents  are  to  choose  other  seventy  besides  the  first  seventy,  to 
whom  they  belong,  and  are  to  preside  over  them; 

And  also  other  seventy,  until  seven  times  seventy,  if  the  labor  in  the  vineyard  of 
necessity  requires  it. 

And  these  seventy  are  to  be  traveling  ministers  unto  the  Gentiles  first,  and  also  unto 
the  .lews; 

Whereas  other  officers  of  the  church,  who  belong  not  unto  the  Twelve,  neither  to  the 


seventy,  are  not  under  the  responsibility  to  travel  among  all  nations,  but  are  to  travel  as 
their  circumstances  shall  allow,  notwithstanding  they  may  hold  as  high  and  responsible 
offices  in  the  church. 

Early  in  May  the  Twelve  Apostles  started  upon  their  first  mis- 
sion. They  traveled  through  the  Eastern  States  and  Upper  Canada, 
preaching,  baptizing,  advising  the  scattered  Saints  to  gather  west- 
ward, and  collecting  means  for  the  purchase  of  lands  in  Missouri  and 
the  completion  of  the  Kirtland  Temple.  They  went  two  by  two, 
but  met  together  in  councils  and  conferences  at  various  points.  Late 
in  September  they  returned  to  Kirtland. 

It  is  often  asserted  by  opponents  of  Mormonism  that  the 
founders  of  the  Church  were  coarse  and  illiterate  men,  and  that  the 
system  itself  fosters  ignorance  and  is  opposed  to  education.  The 
assertion  is  for  the  greater  part  groundless.  That  many  of  the  early 
Elders  were  at  the  outset  of  their  careers  uncultured  and  unlearned, 
is  true.  No  Latter-day  Saint  disputes  it.  But  that  Mormonism 
fosters  or  favors  ignorance,  or  in  any  Avay  opposes  education,  they 
emphatically  deny.  •'It  is  impossible  to  be  saved  in  ignorance." 
"A  man  is  saved  no  faster  than  he  gets  knowledge."  "  The  glory  of 
God  is  intelligence."  "Seek  ye  out  of  the  best  books  words  of  wis- 
dom ;  seek  learning  even  by  study  and  also  by  faith."  Sample 
precepts,  these,  of  Joseph  Smith's.  No  teacher  ever  taught  more 
plainly  that  knowledge  in  any  sphere,  in  or  out  of  the  world,  is 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  establishment  of  the 
School  of  the  Prophets  at  Kirtland,  and  its  counterpart  the  School  of 
Elders  in  Missouri.  These  were  instituted  mainly  for  spiritual 
culture.  Other  schools  were  founded  by  the  Prophet  for  secular 
instruction.  A  grammar  school  at  Kirtland.  taught  by  Sidney 
Rigdon  and  William  E.  McLellin,  was  supplemented  by  a  school  of 
science  and  languages,  presided  over  by  learned  preceptors  engaged 
for  that  purpose.  Professor  Seixas,  a  finished  scholar,  was  one  of 
these.     The  Prophet  and  many  other  Elders  attended  these  schools. 

At  the  age  of  thirty  Joseph  Smith  was  no  longer  an  illiterate 


youth,  but  had  become,  if  not  a  ripe  and  rounded  scholar,  at  least  a 
proficient  student,  uniting  with  the  lore  of  ancient  languages  the 
far-seeing  wisdom  of  a  statesman  and  a  social  philosopher.  Later  he 
added  to  these  acquirements  a  knowledge  of  law.  It  was  about  this 
time  that  he  translated,  from  papyrus  found  upon  some  mummies 
brought  from  the  catacombs  of  Egypt,  the  record  known  as  the  Book 
of  Abraham. 

The  views  of  the  Prophet  and  his  people  on  civil  government 
and  its  relationship  with  religion  are  set  forth  in  the  following  pro- 
nunciamento  of  August,  1835 :  * 

We  believe  that  governments  were  instituted  of  God  for  the  benefit  of  man,  and  that 
he  holds  men  accountable  for  their  acts  in  relation  to  them,  either  in  making  laws  or 
administering  them,  for  the  good  and  safety  of  society. 

We  believe  that  no  government  can  exist  in  peace,  except  such  laws  are  framed  and 
held  inviolate  as  will  secure  to  each  individual  the  free  exercise  of  conscience,  the  right 
and  control  of  property,  and  the  protection  of  life. 

We  believe  that  all  governments  necessarily  require  civil  officers  and  magistrates  to 
enforce  the  laws  of  the  same,  and  that  such  as  will  administer  the  law  in  equity  and 
justice,  should  be  sought  for  and  upheld  by  the  voice  of  the  people  (if  a  republic,)  or  the 
will  of  the  sovereign. 

We  believe  that  religion  is  instituted  of  God,  and  that  men  are  amenable  to  him,  and 
to  him' only,  for  the  exercise  of  it,  unless  their  religious  opinions  prompt  them  to  infringe 
upon  the  rights  and  liberties  of  others ;  but  we  do  not  believe  that  human  law  has  a  right 
to  interfere  in  prescribing  rules  of  worship  to  bind  the  consciences  of  men,  nor  dictate 
forms  for  public  or  private  devotion  ;  that  the  civil  magistrate  should  restrain  crime,  but 
never  control  conscience;  should  punish  guilt,  but  never  suppress  the  freedom  of  the 

We  believe  that  all  men  are  bound  to  sustain  and  uphold  the  respective  governments 
in  which  they  reside,  while  protected  in  their  inherent  and  inalienable  rights  by  the  laws 
ut  -mil  governments;  and  that  sedition  and  rebellion  are  unbecoming  every  citizen  thus 
protected,  and  should  be  punished  accordingly;  and  that  all  governments  have  a  right  to 
enact  such  laws  as  in  their  own  judgment  are  best  calculated  to  secure  the  public  interest, 
.ii  the  same  time,  however,  holding  sacred  the  freedom  of  conscience. 

We  believe  that  every  man  should  he  honored  in  his  station:  rulers  and  magistrates 
as  such,  being  placed  for  the  protection  of  the  innocent,  and  the  punishment  of  the  guilty  : 

mill  that  In  Mie  laws,  nil  ii  owe  respect  and  deference,  as  without  them  peace  and  harmony 

would  he  supplanted  by  anarchy  and  terror:  human  laws  being  instituted  for  the  express 
purpose  of  regulating  our  interests  as  individuals  and  nations,  between  man  and  man.  and 

*  I  (octrine  and  <  lovenants,  Se< 


divine  laws  given  of  heaven,  prescribing  rules  on  spiritual  concerns,  for  faith  and  worship, 
both  to  be  answered  by  man  to  his  Maker. 

We  believe  that  riders,  states,  and  governments,  have  a  right,  and  are  bound  to  enact 
laws  for  the  protection  of  all  citizens  in  the  free  exercise  of  their  religious  belief;  but  we 
do  not  believe  that  they  have  a  right  in  justice,  to  deprive  citizens  of  this  privilege,  or 
proscribe  them  in  their  opinions,  so  long  as  a  regard  and  reverence  are  shown  to  the  laws, 
and  such  religious  opinions  do  not  justify  sedition  nor  conspiracy. 

We  believe  that  the  commission  of  crime  should  be  punished  according  to  the  nature 
of  the  offence;  that  murder,  treason,  robbery,  theft,  and  the  breach  of  the  general  peace, 
in  all  respects,  should  be  punished  according  to  their  criminality,  and  their  tendency  to 
evil  among  men,  by  the  laws  of  that  government  in  which  the  offence  is  committed  ;  and 
for  the  public  peace  and  tranquility,  all  men  should  step  forward  and  use  their  ability  in 
bringing  offenders  against  good  laws  to  punishment. 

We  do  not  believe  it  just  to  mingle  religious  influence  with  civil  government,  whereby 
one  religious  society  is  fostered,  and  another  proscribed  in  its  spiritual  privileges,  and  the 
individual  rights  of  its  members  as  citizens,  denied. 

We  believe  that  all  religious  societies  have  a  right  to  deal  with  their  members  for  dis- 
orderly conduct  according  to  the  rules  and  regulations  of  such  societies,  provided  that  such 
dealings  be  for  fellowship  and  good  standing  ;  but  we  do  not  believe  that  any  religious 
society  has  authority  to  try  men  on  the  right  of  property  or  life,  to  take  from  them  this 
world's  goods,  or  to  put  them  in  jeopardy  of  either  life  or  limb,  neither  to  inflict  any  physi- 
cal punishment  upon  them,  they  can  only  excommunicate  them  from  their  society,  and 
withdraw  from  them  their  fellowship. 

We  believe  that  men  should  appeal  to  the  civil  law  for  redress  of  all  wrongs  and 
grievances,  where  personal  abuse  is  inflicted,  or  the  right  of  property  or  character  infringed, 
where  such  laws  exist  as  will  protect  the  same  ;  but  we  believe  that  all  men  are  justified 
in  defending  themselves,  their  friends,  and  property,  and  the  government,  from  the  unlaw- 
ful assaults  and  encroachments  of  all  persons,  in  times  of  exigency,  where  immediate 
appeal  cannot  be  made  to  the  laws,  and  relief  afforded. 

We  believe  it  just  to  preach  the  gospel  to  the  nations  of  the  earth,  and  warn 
the  righteous  to  save  themselves  from  the  corruption  of  the  world  ;  but  we  do  not 
believe  it  right  to  interfere  with  bond  servants,  neither  preach  the  gospel  to,  nor  baptize 
them,  contrary  to  the  will  and  wish  of  their  masters,  nor  to  meddle  with  or  influence 
them  in  the  least,  to  cause  them  to  be  dissatisfied  with  their  situations  in  this  life,  thereby 
jeopardizing  the  lives  of  men  ;  such  interference  we  believe  to  be  unlawful  and  unjust, 
and  dangerous  to  the  peace  of  every  government  allowing  human  beings  to  be  held  in 

The  Kirtland  Temple  was  dedicated  on  the  27th  of  March,  1836. 
Part  of  the  interior  at  the  time  was  in  an  unfinished  state.  It  had 
occupied  three  years  in  construction,  and  had  cost  between  sixty  and 
seventy  thousand  dollars.  The  dimensions  of  the  edifice  were  eighty 
by  sixty  feet;  the  walls  being  fifty-seven  feet  high  to  the  eaves.     It 


comprised  two  stories  and  an  attic ;  the  whole  surmounted  by  a 
tower.  The  building,  which  was  chiefly  of  stone,  stood  upon  a  hill, 
and  was  the  most  conspicuous  object  visible  for  miles. 

The  main  purpose  of  the  temple  was  the  administration  of  relig- 
ious ordinances,  but  it  was  also  designed  and  used  for  schools,  meet- 
ings and  councils  of  the  Priesthood.  Unlike  all  temples  since 
erected  by  the  Saints,  there  was  no  baptismal  font  in  this  building ; 
the  ordinance  of  baptism  for  the  dead — for  which  such  fonts  are 
principally  used — not  yet  being  practiced  in  the  Church.  We  will 
here  state,  for  the  benefit  of  the  uninformed,  that  the  Mormons 
believe  that  vicarious  work,  such  as  baptisms,  confirmations,  ordina- 
tions, marriages,  etc.,  may  be  performed  by  the  living  for  the  dead ; 
for  their  friends  and  progenitors  who  died  without  a  knowledge  of 
the  gospel.     This  is  one  of  their  chief  objects  in  temple  building. 

Accounts  of  many  miraculous  manifestations  are  recorded  in 
connection  with  the  Kirtland  Temple ;  among  them  the  following  by 
Joseph  Smith  and  Oliver  Cowdery,  dated  April  3rd,  1836 :  * 

The  vail  was  taken  from  our  minds,  and  the  eyes  of  our  understanding  were  opened. 

We  saw  the  Lord  standing  upon  the  hreastwork  of  the  pulpit,  before  us,  and  under 
his  feet  was  a  paved  work  of  pure  gold  in  color  like  amber. 

His  eyes  were  as  a  flame  of  fire,  the  hair  of  his  head  was  white  like  the  pure  snow, 
his  countenance  shone  above  the  brightness  of  the  sun,  and  his  voice  was  as  the  sound  of 
the  rushing  of  great  waters,  even  the  voice  of  Jehovah,  saying — 

I  am  the  first  and  the  last,  I  am  he  who  liveth,  I  am  he  who  was  slain,  I  am  your 
advocate  with  the  Father. 

Behold,  your  sins  are  forgiven  you,  you  are  clean  before  me,  therefore  lift  up  your 
heads  and  rejoice, 

Let  the  hearts  of  your  brethren  rejoice,  and  let  the  hearts  of  all  my  people  rejoice, 
who  have,  with  their  might,  built  this  house  to  my  name, 

For  behold,  I  have  accepted  this  house,  and  my  name  shall  be  here,  and  I  will  man- 
ifest myself  to  my  people  in  mercy  in  this  house, 

Yea,  1  will  appear  unto  my  servants,  and  speak  unto  them  with  mine  own  voice,  if 
my  people  will  keep  my  commandments,  and  do  not  pollute  this  holy  house, 

Yea  tin'  hearts  of  thousands  and  tens  of  thousands  shall  greatly  rejoice  in  conse- 
quence  <>l  the  blessings  which  shall  be  poured  out,  and  the  endowment  with  which  my 
servants  have  been  endowed  in  this  house; 

*  Dnclrine  and  (lovcnanls.  Section  110. 


And  (lie  feme  of  this  house  shall  spread  to  foreign  lands,  anil  this  is  the  beginning  of 
the  blessing  which  shall  be  poured  out  upon  the  heads  of  my  people.     Even  so.     Amen. 

After  this  vision  closed,  the  heavens  were  again  opened  unto  us,  and  Moses  appeared 
before  us,  and  committed  unto  us  the  keys  of  the  gathering  of  Israel  from  the  four  parts 
of  the  earth,  and  the  leading  of  the  ten  tribes  from  the  land  of  the  north. 

After  this,  Elias  appeared,  and  committed  the  dispensation  of  the  gospel  of  Abraham, 
saying,  that  in  us,  and  our  seed,  all  generations  after  us  should  be  blessed. 

After  this  vision  had  closed,  another  great  and  glorious  vision  burst  upon  us,  for 
Elijah  the  prophet,  who  was  taken  to  heaven  without  tasting  death,  stood  before  us,  and 
said — 

Behold,  the  time  has  fully  come,  which  was  spoken  of  by  the  mouth  of  Malachi,  tes- 
tifying that  he  (Elijah)  should  be  sent  before  the  great  and  dreadful  day  of  the  Lord  come, 

To  turn  the  hearts  of  the  fathers  to  the  children,  and  the  children  to  the  fathers,  lest 
the  whole  earth  be  smitten  with  a  curse. 

Therefore  the  keys  of  this  dispensation  are  committed  into  your  hands,  and  by  this 
ye  may  know  that  the  great  and  dreadful  day  of  the  Lord  is  near,  even  at  the  doors. 

Among  those  who  came  to  Kirtland  during  this  period,  attracted 
thither  not  by  the  religion  of  the  Saints,  but  by  the  advantages  for 
lingual  training  in  the  Hebrew  school  founded  by  the  Prophet,  was 
Lorenzo  Snow,  a  native  of  Mantua,  Portage  County,  in  that  State,  who 
had  been  pursuing  his  studies  at  Oberlin  College.  Lorenzo  was  then 
a  youth  of  twenty-two.  His  sister,  Eliza  R.  Snow,  the  poetess,  had 
joined  the  Church  in  April,  1835,  and  at  the  time  that  her  brother 
came  to  Kirtland  was  living  in  the  Prophet's  household.  Lorenzo 
was  baptized  in  June,  1836,  by  Apostle  John  F.  Boynton. 

Returning  now  to  the  Mormons  in  Missouri.  Expelled  with  fire 
and  sword  from  Jackson  County  in  the  fall  of  1833,  they  had  dwelt 
since  then  among  the  hospitable  and  kindly  disposed  people  of  Clay 
County.  Nearly  three  years  they  had  dwelt  there  in  peace  and  amity. 
Though  that  section  was  regarded  by  them  as  only  a  temporary  abid- 
ing place,  where  they  awaited  the  day  when  law  and  justice  should 
restore  them  to  their  former  homes,  they  had  nevertheless  secured 
lands,  purchased  or  erected  dwellings,  workshops,  etc.,  and  were  re- 
ceiving constant  accessions  to  their  numbers  by  immigration.  With 
these  peaceful  and  legitimate  pursuits  little  or  no  fault  had  hitherto 
been  found. 

But  now  a  change  had  come.     The  people  of  Clay  County  had 


partaken  in  a  measure  of  the  anti-Mormon  spirit  which  reigned  in 
Jackson.  The  Saints  were  on  the  eve  of  another  exodus,  another 
general  abandonment  of  their  homes;  though  not  threatened,  as 
before,  with  "fire  and  brand  and  hostile  hand."  with  robbery  and 
expulsion  from  the  roofs  which  of  late  had  sheltered  them.  They 
had  been  recraestecl,  however,  to  remove  as  a  community  from  Clay 
County,  and  "seek  some  other  abiding  place,  where  the  manners,  the 
habits  and  customs  of  the  people  would  be  more  consonant  with  their 
own."  Such  was  the  action  taken  regarding  them  by  a  mass  meet- 
ing of  reputable  citizens  which  convened  at  Liberty  on  the  29th  of 
June,  1836. 

No  charge  of  crime  had  been  preferred  against  the  Mormons. 
It  was  not  claimed  that  they  had  infringed  upon  the  rights  of  their 
fellow  citizens,  broken  the  laws  of  the  land,  or  been  wanting  in 
respect  and  loyalty  to  the  local  or  the  general  government.  True, 
the  old  charges  were  afloat  of  what  they  intended  doing,  what  their 
opinions  were  on  the  negro  and  Indian  questions,  etc.,  and  these, 
with  their  continuous  immigrations  into  the  county,  were  doubtless 
among  the  chief  reasons  for  the  change  of  sentiment  concerning 
them.  The  men  of  Jackson  County  too,  were  constantly  sowing  the 
seeds  of  ill-will  between  the  old  settlers  of  Clay  County  and  the  Mor- 
mons. Doubtless  some  of  the  latter, — for  there  are  cranks  and 
criminals  among  all  peoples, — warranted  the  adverse  opinions 
formed  respecting  them.  But  this,  despite  the  fly-in-the-ointment 
proverb,  ought  not  to  have  condemned  the  whole  community. 

Yet  they  were  not  accused  of  crime,  of  any  overt  act  against 
peace  and  good  order.  It  was  argued  merely  that  "  they  were  east- 
ern men,  whose  manners,  habits,  customs  and  even  dialect,  were 
essentially  different*'  from  those  of  the  Missourians;  that  they  were 
"non-slaveholders,  and  opposed  to  slavery ;  "  and  that  their  religious 
tenets  were  "so  different  from  the  present  churches  of  the  age"  that 
they  "always  had,  and  always  would,  excite  deep  prejudices  against 
them  in  any  populous  country  where  they  might  locate."  Such  a 
prejudice,  it  was  claimed,  had  taken  root  in  Clay  County,  and  had 


grown  into  "a  feeling  of  hostility  that  the  first  spark  might  ignite 
into  all  the  horrors  and  desolations  of  a  civil  war." 

Hence,  in  the  spirit  of  mediation,  with  an  earnest  desire  to 
avert  such  a  calamity  for  the  sake  of  all,  had  the  mass  meeting 
spoken.  Such  was  its  candid  and  no  doubt  truthful  claim.  "We 
do  not  contend,"  said  these  citizens  of  Clay  County,  "  that  we  have 
the  least  right,  under  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  country  to 
expel  them  (the  Mormons)  by  force.  *  *  *  We  only  ask 
them,  for  their  own  safety  and  for  ours,  to  take  the  least  of  the  two 
evils."  The  "  least  evil "  in  question  was  that  no  more  Mormons 
should  settle  in  Clay  County,  and  that  those  already  there  should 
remove  to  some  other  place  at  as  early  a  period  as  possible. 

Though  perfectly  aware  that  in  complying  with  this  request  they 
would  surrender  some  of  their  dearest  rights  as  American  citizens, 
and  that  if  they  saw  fit  they  might  entrench  themselves  behind  the 
bulwark  of  the  Constitution  and  defy  their  opponents  to  legally  dis- 
lodge them,  for  the  sake  of  peace  and  through  a  sense  of  gratitude 
for  former  kindness,  the  Mormons  decided  to  make  the  required  sac- 
rifice and  leave  the  county.  First,  however,  they  determined  to  put 
upon  record  their  denial  of  the  charges  afloat  concerning  them. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  July  1st,  presided  over  by  William  W. 
Phelps,  a  preamble  and  resolutions  were  reported  by  a  committee 
previously  appointed  for  the  purpose.  Therein  the  Mormons 
expressed  gratitude  and  good  will  toward  the  people  of  Clay  County 
for  past  kindness;  denied  having  any  claim  to  lands  further  than 
they  purchased  with  money,  or  more  than  they  were  allowed  to  pos- 
sess under  the  Constitution  and  laws  of  the  country;  denied  being 
abolitionists,  or  that  they  were  holding  communications  with  the 
Indians,  and  affirmed  their  fealty  to  the  government,  its  laws  and 
institutions.  They  agreed,  however,  for  the  sake  of  peace  and 
friendship,  to  comply  with  the  requisitions  of  the  mass  meeting  held 
in  June. 

Within  three  months  they  were  on  their  way,  migrating,  after 
selling  out  at  a  sacrifice,  to  the  spot  selected  as  the  site  of  their  new 


home.  It  was  known  as  the  Shoal  Creek  region,  comprising  the 
upper  part  of  Ray  County,  north  and  east  of  Clay.  It  was  a  wilder- 
ness, almost  entirely  unoccupied,  seven  men  only  inhabiting  its 
solitudes.  These  were  bee-hunters.  The  Mormons  purchased  their 
possessions,  pre-empted  other  lands  in  the  vicinity,  and  were  left  the 
sole  occupants  of  that  region.  Here,  in  this  isolated  spot,  where  the 
question  of  social  and  religious  differences  could  not  well  arise,  at 
least  for  the  present,  they  hoped  to  dwell  unmolested,  worshiping 
God  in  their  own  way, — in  the  way  that  they  believed  He  bad  com- 

In  December,  1836,  in  response  to  their  petition,  the  Legislature 
of  Missouri  incorporated  the  Shoal  Creek  region  and  some  adjoining- 
lands  containing  a  few  settlers,  as  a  separate  county,  to  which  was 
given  the  name  of  Caldwell.  The  Mormons  were  permitted  to  organ- 
ize the  county  government  and  select  its  officers.  Here  the  Saints 
settled  in  large  numbers,  and  founded  during  the  winter  of  1836-7 
the  city  of  Far  West. 




The     kirtland     apostasy — the     temporal     at     war     with     the     spiritual — financial 

disasters "  something  new   must  be  done  to  save  the  church" opening    of   the 

british   mission heber   c.   kimball  and   his  confreres    in  lancashire marvelous 

success   of   mormonism   abroad affairs  at   kirtland   continued a   dark    hour 

brigham  young's  fidelity john  taylor setting  in  order  the  church flight  of 

the  prophet  and   his   friends  from    kirtland the   church  removes  to  missouri 

excommunications new  calls  to  the  apostleship the    law  of  tithing  instituted. 

HILE  the  events  last  narrated  were  occurring  in  Missouri, 
affairs  at  Kirtland  had  bee"n  hastening  to  a  crisis.  A  spirit 
essentially  antagonistic  to  the  genius  of  religion, — opposed  to  the 
success  of  any  great  spiritual  movement  such  as  Mormonism,  had 
crept  into  the  Church  and  was  playing  havoc  with  the  faith  and  once 
fervent  zeal  of  many  of  its  members. 

The  spirit  of  speculation,  then  so  prevalent  throughout  the 
nation;  the  greed  of  worldly  gain,  so  fatal  to  religious  enthusiasm 
in  all  ages,  was  rapidly  permeating  the  Mormon  community  at 
Kirtland,  cooling  the  spiritual  ardor  of  the  Saints,  and  diverting 
the  minds  of  many  followers  of  the  Prophet  from  the  aims  and 
purposes  for  which  they  had  renounced  "the  world"  to  become  his 
associates  and  disciples. 

Even  some  of  the  leading  Elders,— Apostles.  High  Priests  and 
Seventies, — whose  especial  mission,  unless  otherwise  directed  by 
their  superiors,  was  to  administer  in  spiritual  things,  were  neglecting 
the  duties  enjoined  upon  them  and  plucking  greedily  the  golden  fruit 
that  hang  so  temptingly  from  the  tree  of  mammon.  Reproved  for 
their  remissness   by  the    Prophet,  they   became   angry,  and  falling 


away  from  their  fealty  to  Joseph,  sowed  the  seeds  of  disaffection 
among  their  friends  and  sympathizers. 

Thus  occurred  the  first  serious  apostasy  in  the  Church.  Before 
it  was  over,  about  half  the  council  of  the  Apostles,  one  of  the  First 
Presidency  and  many  other  prominent  Elders  had  become  disaffected, 
and  some  of  them  bitterly  hostile  to  the  Prophet  and  all  who  adhered 
to  him.  Outside  enemies  were  not  slow  to  take  advantage  of  this 
situation,  and  unite  with  the  Church's  internal  foes  in  various 
schemes  for  its  destruction. 

The  Kirtland  '-boom** — as  it  would  now  be  styled — began  in  the 
summer  or  fall  of  1836.  and  during  the  following  winter  and  spring 
went  rushing  and  roaring  on  toward  the  whirlpool  of  financial  ruin 
that  soon  swallowed  it.  The  all-prevailing  desire  to  amass  wealth 
did  not  confine  itself  to  mercantile  pursuits,  real  estate  dealings,  and 
other  branches  of  business  of  a  legitimate  if  much  inflated  character, 
but  was  productive  of  "wild-cat"  schemes  of  every  description, 
enterprises  in  every  respect  fraudulent,  designed  as  traps  for  the 

An  effort  was  made  by  the  Prophet,  who  foresaw  the  inevitable 
disaster  that  awaited,  to  stem  the  tide  of  recklessness  and  cor- 
ruption now  threatening  to  sweep  everything  before  it.  For  this 
purpose  the  Kirtland  Safety  Society  was  organized,  the  main  object  of 
which  was  to  control  the  prevailing  sentiment  and  direct  it  in  legiti- 
mate channels.  The  Prophet  and  some  of  his  staunches!  supporters 
became  officers  and  members  of  this  association. 

The  career  of  the  Kirtland  Bank  was  very  brief.  Unable  to  col- 
lect its  loans,  victimized  by  counterfeiters,  and  robbed  by  some  of  its 
own  officials — subordinates  having  charge  of  the  funds — it  soon  col- 
lapsed. A  heroic  effort  was  made  to  save  it.  Well-to-do  members  of 
the  Church  beggared  themselves  to  buy  up  the  bank's  floating  paper 
and  preserve  its  credit.*  But  in  vain.  In  common  with  many  other 
banks  and  business  houses  throughout  the  country, — for  it  was  a 

Isaac  Decker,  a  prosperous  farmer,  was  one  of  these. 


year  of  general  financial  disaster, — it  went  down  in  the  ruinous 
crash  of  1837. 

Another  opportunity  was  thus  given  to  heap  censure  upon  the 
Prophet ;  an  opportunity  of  which  his  enemies,  in  and  out  of  the 
Church,  cphckly  availed  themselves.  As  a  matter  of  fact  Joseph  had 
withdrawn  from  the  Society  some  time  before,  not  being  satisfied 
with  the  way  events  were  shaping.  It  mattered  not.  Someone  had 
done  wrong,  and  someone  must  be  blamed.  As  usual  the  most  promi- 
nent target  was  the  one  fired  at.  Before  this,  however,  so  intense 
had  become  the  feeling  against  the  Prophet  at  Kirtland,  that  it  was 
almost  as  much  as  one's  life  was  worth  to  defend  him  against  his 
accusers.  Affairs  with  Mormonism  had  reached  a  culminating  point, 
where  it  was  evident — to  use  the  Prophet's  own  words — that  '-some- 
thing new  must  be  done  for  the  salvation  of  the  Church." 

Joseph  Smith  believed, — as  all  men  must,  into  whose  ideas  the 
philosophy  of  the  divine  Nazarene  enters, — that  the  spiritual  must 
save  the  temporal ;  that  life  alone  can  redeem  from  death.  Conse- 
quently, he  kneAV  that  in  the  crisis  now  reached, — a  stagnation  of  the 
spiritual  life-blood  of  the  Church, — a  strong  reactionary  movement 
was  essential  to  its  resuscitation.  Too  much  care  for  the  temporal, 
with  a  corresponding  neglect  of  the  spiritual,  had  nearly  proved  the 
ruin  of  Mormonism.  The  supremacy  of  the  spiritual  over  the  tem- 
poral,— the  basic  and  crowning  principle  of  the  salvation  offered  by 
Jesus  Christ, — must  needs  be  emphasized  and  reasserted.  At  this 
period,  therefore,  the  Prophet  planned  and  executed  a  project  as  a 
measure  of  rescue  from  the  ruin  which  seemed  impending.  It  was 
to  send  his  Apostles  across  the  sea  and  plant  the  standard  of  Mor- 
monism upon  the  shores  of  Europe. 

Hitherto  the  labors  of  the  Elders  had  been  confined  to  various 
parts  of  the  United  States  and  Upper  Canada.  Into  that  province 
such  men  as  Brigham  and  Joseph  Young,  Orson  Pratt.  Parley  P. 
Pratt  and  even  the  Prophet  himself  had  penetrated  and  made  many 
converts.  Parley  P.  Pratt's  missions  to  Canada  had  been  especially 
productive.      Among  his  converts  in   the  city  of  Toronto,    in   the 


spring  or  summer  of  1836,  was  John  Taylor,  afterwards  an  Apostle, 
and  the  third  President  of  the  Church.  But  as  yet  no  foreign 
mission  had  been  attempted.  Indeed,  at  that  time,  when  the  age  of 
steamships  and  railways  was  in  its  infancy,  and  months  instead  of 
days  were  consumed  in  crossing  the  Atlantic,  the  idea  of  a  voyage 
over  the  ocean  was  to  ordinary  minds  little  less  awe-inspiring  and 
miraculous  than  a  projected  flight  to  the  moon.  To  send  the  Elders 
to  Great  Britain,  however,  and  "open  the  door  of  salvation  to  that 
nation,"  was  the  plan  conceived  by  the  Prophet  early  in  the  summer 
of  1837. 

The  Apostle  chosen  to  stand  at  the  head  of  this  important 
mission  was  Heber  C.  Kimball,  a  staunch  friend  of  Joseph's,  a  man 
unlettered,  but  possessed  of  much  native  ability  and  mental  and 
physical  force.  Hifc  companion  Apostle  was  Orson  Hyde,  better 
educated  and  considerable  of  an  orator.  Orson  was  a  native  of 
Oxford,  New  Haven  County,  Connecticut,  where  he  was  born  on  the 
8th  of  January,  1805.  Another  of  the  party  was  Elder  Willard 
Richards,  a  cousin  to  Brigham  Young,  late  of  Berkshire  County. 
Massachusetts,  who  had  but  recently  joined  the  Church.  Willard 
was  the  pioneer  of  the  numerous  and  distinguished  Richards  family 
in  Mormonism. 

The  other  members  of  the  mission  were  Joseph  Fielding,  a 
Canadian  convert,  Isaac  Russell,  John  Goodson  and  John  Snider. 
The  last  three  were  now  in  Canada. 

Apostle  Kimball  and  the  others  left  Kirtland  on  the  13th  of  June. 
Being  joined  by  the  Canadian  party  in  New  York,  they  sailed  from 
that  port  July  1st,  on  board  the  packet  Grarrick  bound  for  Liverpool. 

It  is  not  our  purpose  in  these  pages  to  give  a  detailed  account  of 
the  rise  and  progress  of  the  British  Mission, — the  first  and  so  far 
greatest  foreign  mission  established  by  the  Latter-day  Saints. — 
nor  of  the  various  missions  which  radiated  from  and  grew  out  of  it. 
Such  a  work  would  necessarily  fill  volumes.  Only  the  main  incidents 
of  that  wonderfully  successful  missionary  movement. — which  was 
destined  to  bring   into  the   Church  and   emigrate  to  America,  from 


Great  Britain  alone,  between  fifty  and  seventy-five  thousand  souls, — 
can  here  be  touched  upon. 

Landing  at  Liverpool  on  July  20th,  1837,  the  day  that  Queen 
Victoria  ascended  the  throne,  Apostle  Kimball  and  his  confreres 
tarried  two  days  in  that  city,  and  then  repaired  by  coach  to  Preston, 
thirty  miles  distant.  There  Joseph  Fielding  had  a  brother,  the 
pastor  of  a  church,  who  had  previously  been  informed  by  letter  from 
Joseph  and  other  relatives  in  Canada,  of  the  rise  and  spread  of  Mor- 
monism  in  America.  He  opened  his  church— Vauxhall  Chapel — to 
the  Elders,  who,  the  day  after  their  arrival  at  Preston,  it  being  the 
Sabbath,  preached  from  his  pulpit  the  first  sermons  delivered  by 
Mormon  Elders  on  the  eastern  hemisphere. 

Baptisms  soon  followed,  then  the  usual  opposition, — though  of 
a  much  less  violent  character  than  had  been  experienced  in  some 
parts  of  America.  The  Reverend  James  Fielding,  the  first  to  wel- 
come the  Elders  and  extend  to  them  ministerial  courtesy,  was  also 
the  first  to  withdraw  from  them  the  hand  of  friendship.  Learning 
that  some  of  his  flock  had  been  converted  by  their  preaching,  and 
had  applied  to  them  for  baptism,  he  quickly  closed  his  pulpit  against 
the  Elders  and  was  thenceforth  their  bitter  opponent.  Later,  the 
Reverend  Robert  Aitken,  a  famous  minister  of  that  period,  entered 
the  lists  against  them.  Nothing  daunted,  for  they  were  inured  to 
such  treatment,  the  Elders  betook  themselves  to  the  streets  and 
public  squares,  preaching  in  the  open  air  to  vast  crowds — tradesmen, 
laborers,  factory  hands,  farmers,  etc., — that  thronged  from  all  sides 
to  hear  them.  They  also  addressed  audiences  in  private  houses,  thai 
were  opened  for  their  accommodation.  More  opposition  ensued,  and 
greater  success  followed. 

From  Preston,  having  there  gained  a  foothold,  the  missionaries. 
separating,  passed  into  other  counties.  Richards  and  Goodson  went 
to  the  city  of  Bedford,  Russell  and  Snider  to  Alston,  in  Cumberland, 
while  the  two  Apostles  with  Joseph  Fielding  remained  to  spread  the 
work  in  Preston  and  introduce  it  into  other  towns  and  villages  of 


Everywhere  success  attended  them. — success  nothing  short  of 
marvelous.  Whole  villages  were  converted  at  a  sweep,  and  fresh 
friends  flocked  round  them  almost  daily.  The  people  as  a  rule  were 
very  poor,  and  the  Elders,  themselves  penniless,  preaching  "without 
purse  or  scrip,"  and  most  of  the  time  laboring  arduously,  suffered 
many  privations.  But  there  was  no  dearth  of  warm  hearts  and 
willing  hands,  and  though  the  fare  was  often  less  than  frugal,  the 
shelter  never  so  scant,  the  guests  whom  these  poor  people  delighted 
to  honor  were  ever  welcome  to  the  best  and  most  of  it. 

Sunday.  July  30th.  1837— the  tenth  day  of  the  Elders  on 
British  soil — witnessed  their  first  baptisms,  nine  in  number,  in  the 
river  Babble,  which  runs  through  Preston.  Sunday,  April  8th,  1838, 
a  little  over  eight  months  afterward,  at  a  conference  held  there  prior 
to  the  return  of  the  Apostles  to  America,  their  total  following  in  that 
land  was  reported  at  about  two  thousand  souls.  Three-fourths  of 
these  had  been  converted  by  one  man. — the  unlettered  but  magnetic 
Apostle,  Heber  C.  Kimball.  Twenty-six  branches  of  the  Church  were 
represented.     Thus  was  laid  the  foundation  of  the  British  Mission. 

Apostles  Kimball  and  Hyde  with  Elder  Bussell  on  the  20th  of 
April  sailed  from  Liverpool  aboard  the  Garrick,  homeward  bound. 
Joseph  Fielding  was  left  to  preside  over  the  British  Mission,  with 
Willard  Richards  and  William  Clayton  as  his  counselors.  Clayton 
was  an  English  convert.  Goodson  and  Snider — the  former  being 
disaffected — had  returned  to  America  some  months  before. 

On  the  12th  of  May  the  returning  Apostles  landed  at  New  York. 
There  they  met  Orson  Pratt,  who.  with  his  brother  Parley,  had  suc- 
ceeded after  much  labor  in  raising  up  a  branch  of  the  Church  in 
that  city.  Parley's  celebrated  work,  the  Voice  of  Warning,  which 
was  destined  to  convert  thousands  to  Mormonism.  had  been  pub- 
lished there  the  year  before.  Two  days  after  landing,  the  Kimball 
party  proceeded  on  to  Kirtland,  arriving  there  on  the  22nd  of  May. 

Returning  now  to  the  summer  of  1837.  While  Mormonism  had 
been  prospering  abroad,  what  had  been  its  fortunes  in  America  '. 
The  tidal  wave  of  disaffection  still  swept  over  Kirtland.       The  Mor- 


mon  leader  was  denounced  as  "a  fallen  prophet"  by  men  who 
had  been  his  trusted  friends  and  associates.  A  plot  was  formed 
to  depose  him  from  the  Presidency  and  put  another  in  his 
stead.  Concerned  in  this  conspiracy  were  several  of  the  Apostles 
and  some  of  the  witnesses  to  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Their  choice 
for  Joseph's  successor  was  David  Whitmer,  one  of  the  Three 

Heber  C.  Kimball,  when  appointed  to  his  foreign  mission,  had 
asked  the  Prophet  if  Brigharn  Young  might  go  with  him.  The 
answer  was  :  "No;  I  want  him  to  stay  with  me.  I  have  something 
else  for  him  to  do." 

Doubtless  it  was  well  for  Joseph  and  for  Mormonism  in  general 
that  he  decided  to  keep  by  him  a't  that  time  the  lion  heart  and 
intrepid  soul  of  Brigharn  Young.  Firm  as  a  rock  in  his  fealty  to  his 
chief,  he  combined  sound  judgment,  keen  perception,  with  courage 
unfaltering  and  sublime.  Like  lightning  were  his  intuitions,  his 
decisions  between  right  and  wrong;  like  thunder  his  denuncia- 
tions of  what  his  soul  conceived  was  error.  A  man  for  emergencies, 
far-sighted  and  inspirational ;  a  master  spirit  and  natural  leader  of 

Well  might  Joseph, — brave  almost  to  rashness, — whose  genius, 
though  lofty  and  general  in  its  scope,  was  pre-eminently  spiritual, 
while  Brigham's  was  pronouncedly  practical,  wish  to  have  near  him 
at  such  a  time,  just  such  a  man.  In  that  dark  hour, — the  darkest 
perhaps  that  Mormonism  has  seen, — when  its  very  foundations 
seemed  crumbling,  when  men  supposed  to  be  its  pillars  were  weaken- 
ing and  falling  away,  joining  hands  secretly  or  openly  with  ils 
enemies,  the  man  Brigharn  never  faltered,  never  failed  in  his 
allegiance  to  his  leader,  never  ceased  defending  him  againsl  his 
accusers,  and  as  boldly  denouncing  them  betimes  for  falsehood, 
selfishness  and  treachery.  His  life  was  imperilled  by  his  boldness. 
He  heeded  not.  but  steadily  held  on  his  way,  an  example  of  valor 
and  fidelity,  a  faithful  friend,  sans  pair  et  sans  reproche. 

Among  others  who  stood  loyal  to   the  Prophet  was  John  Taylor, 

10-VOL.    1. 


the  future  Apostle  and  President,  who  arrived  at  Kirtland  from  his 
home  in  Canada  in  the  latter  part  of  1837.  It  was  in  Toronto,  dur- 
ing August  of  that  year,  that  Joseph  Smith  and  John  Taylor  had  first 
met.  Seven  years  later  they  stood  side  by  side  in  an  Illinois 
dungeon,  facing  an  infuriate  mob,  together  receiving  the  bullets. — 
fatal  to  Joseph,  well-nigh  fatal  to  John, — which  reddened  with  their 
mingled  life-blood  the  floor  of  Carthage  jail. 

Soon  after  the  Prophet's  return  from  Canada,  a  return  rendered 
barely  possible  by  mobs  lying  in  wait  to  attack  him,  a  conference  was 
held  at  Kirtland  and  steps  taken  to  purge  the  disaffected  element 
from  the  various  councils  of  the  Priesthood.  It  was  Sunday. 
September  3rd,  1837.  On  that  day  the  Church  voted  with  uplifted 
hands  to  sustain  in  office  the  following  named  Elders:  Joseph  Smith, 
junior,  as  President  of  the  Church;  Sidney  Rigdon  as  his  first 
counselor;  Oliver  Cowdery,  Joseph  Smith,  senior,  Hyrum  Smith  and 
John  Smith,  as  assistant  counselors;  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  David  W. 
Patten,  Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Orson  Hyde,  Parley  P. 
Pratt,  Orson  Pratt,  William  Smith  and  William  E.  McLellin  as 
members  of  the  council  of  the  Apostles ;  John  Gaylord,  James 
Foster,  Salmon  Gee,  Daniel  S.  Miles,  Joseph  Young,  Josiah  Butter- 
field  and  Levi  Hancock,  as  Presidents  of  Seventies,  and  Newel  K. 
Whitney  as  Bishop  of  Kirtland,  with  Reynolds  Cahoon  and  Jared 
Carter  as  his  counselors. 

Frederick  G.  Williams,  one  of  the  First  Presidency ;  Luke  S.  and 
Lyman  E.  Johnson  and  John  F.  Boynton,  three  of  the  Apostles,  and 
John  Gould,  one  of  the  Presidents  of  Seventies,  were  rejected.  Five 
members  of  the  High  Council  were  also  objected  to  by  the  people, 
and  new  ones  appointed  in  their  stead. 

Affairs  of  a  similar  nature,  with  other  business  pertaining  to  the 
settlement  of  the  Saints  in  their  new  gathering  place,  now  sum- 
moned the  Prophet  to  Missouri.  In  company  with  Elder  Rigdon  and 
others  he  left  Kirtland  on  September  27th.  and  reached  Far  West 
about  the  1st  of  November.  On  the  7th  of  that  month  a  conference 
was  held  there,  at  which  the  general  and  local  Church  authorities 


were  presented,  as  usual,  to  the  congregation.  Frederick  G. 
Williams,  being  rejected  as  one  of  the  First  Presidency,  Hyrum 
Smith,  the  Prophet's  brother,  was  chosen  in  his  stead.  The  local 
presidency,  David  Whitmer,  John  Whitmer  and  William  W.  Phelps, 
after  some  consideration  were  retained  in  office,  as  were  also  the 
members  of  the  High  Council.  Bishop  Edward  Partridge  and  his 
counselors,  Isaac  Morley  and  Titus  Billings,  were  likewise  sustained. 
It  was  decided,  during  the  Prophet's  stay,  to  enlarge  the  plat  of  Far 
West  to  two  miles  square.  About  the  10th  of  November  he 
started  back  to  Kirtland,  arriving  there  a  month  later. 

During  his  absence  Warren  Parrish,  John  F.  Boynton,  Joseph 
Coe  and  others  had  dissented  from  the  Church,  and  aided  and 
abetted  by  prominent  Elders  in  Missouri,  were  now  conspiring  for 
its  overthrow.  In  every  way  possible  they  sought  to  induce  others 
to  join  them.  Brigham  Young's  only  reply  was  to  denounce 
them.  Wilford  Woodruff,  likewise  approached,  remained  immovable. 
John  Taylor  stood  staunchly  by  Joseph.  As  for  Heber  C.  Kimball. 
Orson  Hyde  and  Willard  Richards,  they  had  given  their  answer  in 
June,  when  they  accepted  a  call  to  cross  the  Atlantic  and  herald  on 
Europe's  shores  the  advent  of  a  restored  Gospel,  and  a  latter-day 
Prophet  in  the  person  of  Joseph  Smith.  The  Pratt  brothers,  Bishop 
Whitney  and  many  more  threw  in  their  lot  with  the  Prophet,  while 
others  equally  prominent  forsook  him. 

Soon  after  his  return  from  Missouri,  the  dissenters  at  Kirtland 
boldly  came  out.  proclaiming  themselves  the  Church  of  Christ,  "the 
old  standard."  and  denouncing  Joseph  and  his  followers  as  heretics. 
Then  came  the  climax.  Threatened  with  assassination,  their  lives 
in  imminent  jeopardy,  the  Church  leaders  were  finally  compelled  hi 
tlee.  Brigham  Young,  to  escape  the  fury  of  a  mob  which  had 
sworn  to  kill  him,  left  Kirtland  on  the  22nd  of  December.  Ke 
directed  his  course  toward  Missouri.  Less  than  three  weeks  later 
the  Prophet  and  Elder  Bigdon  fled  also.  Their  flight  being  discov- 
ered, they  were  pursued  by  armed  men  a  distance  of  two  hundred 
miles,    narrowly    escaping    capture.       The   Prophet    and    his    party, 


including  Brig-ham  Young  and  others  who  had  joined  him,  reached 
Far  West  about  the  middle  of  March,  1838. 

Several  weeks  before,  a  general  assembly  of  the  Saints  had  con- 
vened there  for  the  purpose  of  setting  in  order  the  Church  in  Mis- 
souri. David  Whitmer,  John  Whitmer  and  William  W.  Phelps,  the 
local  presidency,  whose  conduct  for  some  time  had  not  been  satisfac- 
tory to  the  people,  were  now  suspended  from  office.  Subsecpuently  they 
were  severed  from  the  Church.  William  W.  Phelps  soon  returned, 
but  the  Whitmer  brothers  were  never  again  connected  with  the  cause. 

The  Prophet  having  arrived,  the  work  of  "setting  in  order"  con- 
tinued. Evidently  a  clean  sweep  had  been  determined  on.  The 
Church,  so  nearly  brought  to  ruin  by  apostates  in  Ohio,  insomuch 
that  a  general  exodus  of  the  Saints  from  that  state  was  now  neces- 
sary, could  no  longer  afford  to  harbor  within  its  fold  the  disaffected 
element,  indifferent  to  or  bent  upon  its  destruction.  The  tree,  in 
order  to  live,  must  be  pruned  of  its  dead  branches. 

Doubtless  this  end  was  in  view  when,  at  the  April  conference  of 
1838.  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  Brigham  Young  and  David  W.  Patten  were 
chosen  to  preside  over  the  Church  in  Missouri.  Under  their  admin- 
istration the  work  of  pruning  went  vigorously  on.  Neither  high  nor 
low  were  spared,  except  they  speedily  brought  forth  "fruits  of  repent- 
ance.*' The  excommunicating  axe  even  lopped  some  of  the  loftiest 
limbs.  Oliver  Cowdery,  David  Whitmer.  Martin  Harris,  Luke  S.  and 
Lyman  E.  Johnson,  John  F.  Boynton  and  William  E.  McLellin  were 
all  deprived  of  membership  in  the  Church  during  this  period.  Luke 
Johnson  afterwards  returned,  and  became  one  of  the  Utah  pioneers 
of  1847.  Oliver  Cowdery  and  Martin  Harris  also  rejoined  the 
Church  many  years  later,  but  the  others  were  never  again  identified 
with  Mormonism.  The  vacancies  in  the  council  of  the  Twelve 
caused  by  the  excommunication  of  Elders  Boynton,  McLellin  and  the 
Johnson  brothers,  were  filled  by  the  calling  of  John  Taylor,  John  E. 
Page,  Wilford  Woodruff  and  Willard  Richards  to  the  Apostleship. 

The  departure  of  the  Church  leaders  from  Kirtland  had  been 
the  sunal    foi   a   general    migration  of  the  Mormons  from   Ohio  to 


Missouri.  Far  West  was  now  their  gathering  place, — not  their  Zion, 
but  only  a  stake  of  Zion,  as  Kirtland  had  been  before.  All  during 
the  spring  and  summer  of  1838  the  exodus  continued,  until  the 
Saints  remaining  at  Kirtland  were  very  few.  Apostles  Kimball  and 
Hyde,  arriving  there  from  Europe  in  May,  tarried  only  long  enough 
to  arrange  their  affairs  and  make  suitable  preparations  for  their  jour- 
ney to  Missouri.  About  the  1st  of  July  the  two  Apostles,  accompan- 
ied by  Erastus  Snow,  Winslow  Farr  and  others,  with  their  families, 
set  out  for  Far  West.  Among  those  remaining  at  Kirtland  were 
Bishop  N.  K.  Whitney  and  Oliver  Granger,  who  had  charge  of  the 
Church  property  in  Ohio. 

At  Far  West,  on  the  8th  of  July,  the  law  of  tithing  was  insti- 
tuted as  a  standing  law  of  the  Church.  Hitherto  it  had  been  prac- 
ticed only  by  individuals.  Its  observance  was  now  obligatory  upon 
all,  officers  as  well  as  members. 

This  event  signalized  the  discontinuance  of  the  United  Order, 
which  had  practically  been  dissolved  some  time  before.  According  to 
that  system,  which,  as  has  been  shown,  the  Saints  yet  hope  to  estab- 
lish, the  members  of  the  community  consecrated  their  all,  and  each, 
being  given  a  stewardship,  with  his  or  her  support,  labored  unitedly 
for  the  common  weal.  The  law  of  tithing,  which  bears  about  the 
same  relation  to  the  Order  of  Enoch  as  the  Mosaic  law  to  the  gospel 
of  Christ,  required  of  them  as  individual  possessors,  (1)  all  their  su^ 
plus  property,  to  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Bishop  and  by* 
him  cared  and  accounted  for;  (2)  one  tenth  of  all  their  interest 

The  fund  thus  created  was  for  the  support  of  the  Priesthood. — 
such  as  devoted  their  whole  time  to  the  service  of  the  Church. — the 
building  of  temples  and  for  public  purposes  in  general.  From  the 
first,  however,  much  of  the  tithing  fund,  together  with  special  offer- 
ings for  that  purpose,  was  expended  to  support  the  helpless  poor. 
Such  was  and  is  the  law  of  tithing,  instituted  in  July,  1838.  and 
observed  by  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  to  this 




The  mormons    in    Missouri — far  west,    diahman  and  dewitt — a    slumbering    volcano — 

celebrating     the    nation's    birthday the    state     election attempt    to     prevent 

mormons  from  voting — the  gallatin  riot the  volcano  awakes daviess  county  in 

arms joseph    smith    and     lyman    wight     arrested the     mob     army     threatens 

diahman the   mormons  arm  in  self-defense generals  atchison.  parks    and  doni- 
phan  the  saints  exonerated siege  and   bombardment  of  dewitt governor  boggs 

appealed    to he    declines    to    interfere dewitt    evacuated    and    diahman    again 

threatened gilliam's   guerillas the  mormon    militia    make  war    upon  the  mob 

the   danites battle    of    crooked    river death    of  david    w.    patten governor 

boggs  espouses  the  cause    of  the  mobocrats the   mormons  to   be   "  exterminated 



•L  HE  Mormons  in  Missouri  in  the  summer  of  1838  numbered  in 

Nr     the  neighborhood  of  twelve  thousand  souls.      All  were  not 


located  in  Caldwell  County.      Lands  had  been  purchased  or 

pre-empted  by  them  in  other  places  as  well.     In  two  of  the  counties 

contiguous  to  Caldwell,  namely :    Daviess  on  the  north,  and  Carroll 

on  the  east,  in  parts  previously  unoccupied  or  but  thinly  peopled, 

they  had  founded  flourishing  settlements.     In  Daviess  County,  as  in 

Caldwell,  a  stake  of  Zion  was  organized. 

Their  chief  settlement  in  Daviess  County  was  Adam-ondi-Ahman,* 

— abbreviated  to  Diahman ;  the  one  in  Carroll  County,  Dewitt.     Good 

order,  sobriety  and  industry  prevailed,  and  peace  and  prosperity  were 

everywhere  manifest.     "Heaven  smiles  upon  the  Saints  in  Caldwell," 

wrote  the  Prophet  at  the  time,  and  even  in  parts  where  they  were 

*  So  named,  said  Hie  Prophet,  because  Adam,  who  dwell  there  after  being  drivei 
from  Eden,  would  there  sit,  as  Ancient  of  Days,  fulfilling  the  vision  of  Daniel.  Th 
Garden  of  Eden,  Joseph  Smith  declared,  was  in  Jackson  County, 


not,  as  there,  politically  dominant,  they  were  thriving  and  dwelling 
in  amity  with  their  neighbors. 

But  all  this  must  soon  change.  The  old  fires  were  but  smoul- 
dering. The  volcano  only  slept.  Beneath  the  fair  frail  crust  of  out- 
side seeming  lurked  the  burning  lava  streams, — the  pitiless  torrent  of 
human  hate, — about  to  be  belched  forth  in  whelming  ruin  upon  the 
hapless  Saints.  Missouri,  in  spite  of  every  promise  and  fair  pros- 
pect,— whatever  the  far  future  might  develop, — was  not  yet  to  be 
their  permanent  abiding  place.  Inexorable  fate  with  iron  finger 
pointed  elsewhere.  Destiny,  for  these  sons  and  daughters  of  the 
Pilgrims,  had  other  fortunes  in  store.  History. — the  history  of 
religion  in  quest  of  liberty,  wading  in  its  search  through  rivers  of 
blood  and  tears, — for  the  hundredth  time  was  preparing  to  repeat 

July  4th,  that  day  of  days,  in  the  year  1838  was  celebrated  at 
Far  West  with  great  rejoicings.  Thousands  of  the  Saints  assembled 
from  the  surrounding  districts  to  witness  and  participate  in  the  pro- 
ceedings in  honor  of  the  nation's  birthday.  Yes.  these  "disloyal" 
Mormons, — for  disloyal  even  then  they  were  deemed, — many  of 
whom  might  trace  their  life-stream  back  to  its  parent  lake  in  the 
bosom  of  patriots  of  the  Revolution,  came  together,  erected  a  liberty- 
pole,  unfurled  the  stars  and  stripes,  sacred  emblem  of  the  success 
and  sufferings  of  their  heroic  ancestors,  and  worshiped  gratefully 
beneath  its  glorious  folds  the  God  of  truth  and  freedom. 

True,  it  was  but  their  custom  so  to  do,  as  it  has  continued  their 
custom  ever  since.  But  such  had  been  their  past  experience, 
deprived  as  many  of  them  had  been  of  that  liberty  for  which  their 
forefathers  contended,  and  such  was  their  present  situation,  as  to 
render  the  occasion  one  of  peculiar  interest.  Robbed  of  their  rights, 
despoiled  and  trampled  on,  for  daring  to  believe  as  conscience 
dictated,  and  exercise  as  American  freemen  the  privileges  guaran- 
teed by  a  Constitution  which  they  believed  to  be  God-inspired, 
instituted  for  their  especial  protection,  small  wonder  that  some  of  the 
sentiments  uttered  that  day.  a  day  on   which  patriotism  is   prone  to 


take  unusual  and  oft-times  extravagant  flights,  did  not  smack  entirely 
of  saintly  meekness. 

"We  take  God  to  witness,"  cried  Sidney  Rigdon,  in  a  burst  of 
heated  eloquence,  "and  the  holy  angels  to  witness  this  day,  that  we 
warn  all  men  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  to  come  on  us  no  more  for- 
ever. The  man  or  the  set  of  men  who  attempt  it  do  it  at  the  expense 
of  their  lives ;  and  the  mob  that  comes  on  us  to  disturb  us,  there 
shall  be  between  us  and  them  a  war  of  extermination,  for  we  will 
follow  them  till  the  last  drop  of  their  blood  is  spilled,  or  else  they 
will  have  to  exterminate  us." 

Censure  such  sentiments,  Christian  reader,  if  you  will.  Fault- 
finding is  easy,  and  human  nature,  the  world  over,  weak  and  cen- 
surable. But  the  provocation,  in  such  ;cases,  should  in  all  fairness 
be  considered. 

The  foundations  of  a  temple  at  Far  West  were  likewise  laid  that 
day;  the  Saints  thus  emphasizing  their  determination  to  establish  in 
that  place  a  permanent  stake  of  Zion.  Why  that  temple  was  not 
built,  nor  another  temple,  projected  at  Diahman,  we  have  yet  in 
detail  to  explain. 

Among  the  numerous  charges  preferred  against  the  Mormon 
people,  by  those  who  seek  to  justify  or  extenuate  the  harsh  treatment 
to  which  they  have  at  various  times  been  subjected,  is  that  of  "med- 
dling in  politics."  Parallel  with  this  runs  the  charge  of  "voting 
solidly"  for  the  candidates  of  their  choice. 

If  by  meddling  in  politics  is  meant — as  we  assume  it  must  mean 
— practicing  or  participating  in  politics,  the  science  of  government, 
there  is  little  doubt  that  the  defendant  community,  if  arraigned  on 
such  a  charge,  would  promptly  plead  guilty.  Moreover,  they  would 
very  likely  inquire  if  the  right  of  any  class  of  American  citizens,  no 
matter  to  what  creed  or  church  attached,  to  wield  the  ballot  and 
peacefully  strive  to  put  in  office  the  persons  of  their  choice,  could 
legally  or  morally  be  called  in  question?  As  to  "voting  solidly,"  they 
would  probably  plead  guilty  again,  but  they  might  ask  who  was 
responsible  for  it  in  their  case, — for  the  unity  and  compactness  of  an 


oppressed  people  at  the  polls  ?  Outside  pressure,  they  would  main- 
tain,— the  principle  that  even  in  an  urchin's  hands  forms  from  a  few 
loose  feathery  flakes  the  snow-ball  and  moulds  it  into  a  lump  of 
ice, — was  so  responsible.  A  common  peril,  they  would  argue,  will 
unite  and  ought  to  unite  any  people,  any  nation,  savage  or  civilized. 

To  this  extent  the  Mormons  would  admit  having  "meddled  in 
politics."  They  would  doubtless  freely  concede  that  they  had  gener- 
ally "voted  solid"  to  insure  the  election  of  their  friends  and  the 
defeat  of  their  enemies. 

But,  some  will  say,  it  is  not  the  right  of  the  Mormon  people,  as 
American  citizens,  to  engage  in  politics  that  is  questioned.  It  is  the 
right  of  their  leaders  to  control  their  political  actions  that  is  disputed. 
It  is  believed  that  their  Apostles  and  Bishops  wield  undue  influence 
over  them  in  such  matters;  that  there  is  a  union  of  Church  and  State 
among  them,  and  that  the  people  are  not  left  free  to  vote  as  they 

These  allegations  the  Mormons  emphatically  deny.  They  main- 
tain that  their  leaders  have  never  sought  to  wield  more  influence  over 
them  in  political  affairs  than  prominent  men  in  every  community 
exercise  over  the  masses  who  naturally  look  to  them  for  guidance 
and  instruction.  They  deny  that  a  union  of  Church  and  State  has 
ever  existed  among  them,  but  they  affirm  that  it  has  practically 
existed  among  those  who  find  fault  with  them  on  that  score. — the 
priests  and  politicians  who  have  repeatedly  joined  hands,  on  the 
stump,  and  even  in  the  halls  of  Congress,  to  create  anti-Mormon 

They  admit  that  their  Apostles  and  Bishops  have  sometimes 
given  political  advice,  though  not  as  Apostles  and  Bishops,  but  as 
American  citizens,  with  a  free  opinion  and  the  right  to  voice  that 
opinion.  They  admit,  too.  that  in  Mormon  communities  Church 
officials  have  often  been  elected  to  civil  offices;  yet  not  because  they 
were  Church  officials,  but  simply  the  best  men  that  could  be  found  in 
whom  the  people  had  confidence;  men  who  knew  how  to  be  just  and 
fair,  and  would  separate  their  civil  from  their  ecclesiastical  functions. 


In  the  Mormon  Church,  it  should  he  remembered,  nearly  every  man 
is  an  Elder,  and  it  would  be  next  to  impossible  to  nominate  from 
among  them  a  man  who  did  not  hold  some  order  of  priesthood. 

They  claim  that  while  in  communities  strictly  Mormon.  Mor- 
mons have  necessarily  held  all  the  offices,  that  in  mixed  communi- 
ties where  they  predominated  they  have  allowed  the  minority  a  fair 
representation.  They  admit  that  in  places  where  they  themselves 
were  in  the  minority  they  have  asked  the  same  privilege,  demanding 
it  as  a  right,  and  when  necessary  have  banded  together  to  secure 
that  right.  They  admit  having  used  the  balance  of  power,  which  at 
times  they  have  found  themselves  possessed  of,  to  put  in  office, 
regardless  of  party  affiliations,  men  of  capacity  and  integrity,  their 
friends  in  lieu  of  their  enemies. 

If  this  be  "meddling  in  politics"'  the  Mormons,  like  all  other 
American  citizens,  have  undoubtedly  so  meddled ;  and  they  do  not 
deny  it. 

It  was  just  such  an  event  as  this, — their  voting  or  trying  to  vote 
for  their  friends  and  against  their  foes, — that  formed  the  prologue 
to  the  appalling  tragedy,  which,  beginning  with  outrage,  robbery  and 
rapine,  ended  in  murder,  massacre,  and  the  eventual  expulsion — a 
mid-winter  exodus — of  the  entire  Mormon  community  from  Missouri. 

It  was  the  6th  of  August,  1838.  and  the  state  election  was  in 
progress.  To  Gallatin,  the  principal  town  of  Daviess  County,  went 
twelve  Mormon  citizens  for  the  purpose  of  casting  their  ballots.  Colo- 
nel William  P.  Peniston  was  a  candidate  in  that  district  for  represen- 
tative to  the  Legislature.  Having  been  prominent  in  the  anti-Mormon 
agitation,  preceding  the  moderate  action  of  the  mediators,  in  Clay 
County,  he  had  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  people  whom  he 
would  have  driven  from  their  homes  did  not  design  aiding  him  with 
their  suffrages.  He  had  therefore  organized  a  mob,  and  now  haran- 
gued them  at  the  polls,  to  prevent  the  Mormons  from  voting. 
Mounting  a  barrel,  he  poured  out  upon  them  a  torrent  of  abuse, 
styling  them  "  horse-thieves  and  robbers"  and  proclaiming  his  oppo- 
sition to  their  settling  in  that  region  or  being  allowed  to  vote.      He 


admitted  having  headed  a  mob  to  drive  them  from  Clay  County,  and 
declared  that  he  would  not  now  interfere  to  prevent  a  similar  fate 
befalling  them.     He  also  attacked  their  religion,  denouncing  as  "a 

d d  lie"'  their  profession  of  healing  the  sick  by  the  laying  on  of 


What  all  this  had  to  do  with  the  right  of  the  Mormons  to  vote, 
and  to  vote  if  they  wished  against  William  P.  Peniston,  is  not  very 
apparent  at  this  time,  nor  was  it,  we  opine,  even  then.  But  the 
tirade  had  its  desired  and  designed  effect.  The  Mormons,  pronounc- 
ing his  charges  false,  insisted  upon  their  right  to  vote.  Immediately 
Peniston*s  party,  crazed  with  drink  and  furious  with  rage,  set  upon 
them.  The  twelve  Mormons,  attacked  by  over  a  hundred  men. 
stoutly  defended  themselves.  Clubs,  stones  and  fists  were  freely 
used,  and  even  knives  were  unsheathed  by  some  of  the  assailants. 
In  the  melee,  though  no  lives  were  lost,  some  on  both  sides  were 
wounded,  and  several  mobocratic  heads  were  broken.  The  Mormons 
withdrew  from  the  scene,  and  the  election  proceeded. 

This  event,  supplemented  by  incendiary  speeches  and  articles  in 
the  local  press,  caused  a  general  anti-Mormon  uprising.  All 
Daviess  County  was  aroused,  and  even  in  parts  adjacent,  as  ran  the 
exaggerated  rumor  of  the  riot  at  Gallatin,  the  Missourians  began 
arming  and  organizing.  For  what?  They  scarcely  knew, — ignorant 
dupes  as  most  of  them  were,  tools  of  designing  demagogues,  of  men 
without  principle,  who  saw,  as  such  characters  quickly  see,  in  a  pop- 
ular movement  against  an  unpopular  people,  opportunities  for  plun- 
der and  promotion. 

Social  and  religious  as  well  as  political  lines  were  sharply  drawn. 
Old  charges,  oft-denied,  were  reiterated,  and  new  ones  brought  forth 
and  made  to  do  yeoman  service  in  the  cause  of  the  coming  crusade. 
The  priest,  the  politician  and  the  apostate  again  joined  hands,  like 
the  three  weird  sisters  in  Macbeth,  each  putting  in  his  quota  of  terri- 
ble tales  to  make  the  cauldron  of  the  people's  hatred  "boil  and 

As  the   excitement  grew  and  hostilities   began,  hordes  of  red- 

148  HISTORY    OF  UTAH. 

handed  desperadoes,  refugees  from  justice, — a  class  commonly  found 
on  the  frontier, — scenting  the  conflict  from  afar,  came  pouring  into 
Daviess  and  Caldwell  counties,  like  vultures  flocking  to  the  shambles. 
Some  of  these  painted  and  disguised  themselves  as  Indians, — the 
better,  no  doubt,  to  escape  detection  for  past  and  future  crimes.  The 
leader  of  these  pseudo  savages  was  Cornelius  Gilliam,  formerly 
sheriff  of  Clay  County,  who  styled  himself   "the  Delaware  chief." 

Efforts  were  early  made  to  avert  the  bloody  crisis  that  was  felt 
to  be  approaching.  Good  and  wise  men  on  both  sides  met  and 
signed  a  covenant  of  peace,  agreeing  to  maintain  the  right  and  use 
their  influence  to  allay  the  unwarrantable  agitation.  Among  these 
were  Lyman  Wight,  John  Smith,  Vinson  Knight  and  Reynolds 
Cahoon,  who  signed  for  the  Mormons  of  Daviess  County ;  and  Joseph 
Morin,  senator-elect,  John  Williams,  representative-elect,  James  P. 
Turner,  clerk  of  the  circuit  court,  and  others  representing  the  older 

But  all  in  vain.  The  Missourians.  misled  and  thoroughly  preju- 
diced, were  for  war,  not  peace.  The  excitement  continued  to  increase, 
until  finally  nothing  but  bloodshed  or  the  banishment  of  the  hated 
Mormons  would  suffice. 

Adam  Black,  an  illiterate  politician,  though  a  justice  of  the 
peace  for  Daviess  County,  was  visited  on  the  8th  of  August,  two 
days  after  the  election,  by  Joseph  Smith  and  Lyman  Wight,  and 
requested,  as  other  prominent  men  had  been,  to  sign  an  agreement 
of  peace.  He  acceded  to  their  request,  writing  and  signing  a  docu- 
ment amicable  in  tone,  if  well-nigh  illegible  in  character,  and  imme- 
diately afterwards  circulated  the  report  that  his  signature  had  been 
secured  by  threats  of  violence. 

On  the  complaint  of  Colonel  Peniston,  the  mob  leader  at  Galla- 
tin. Joseph  Smith  and  Lyman  Wight  were  arrested,  charged  not  only 
with  intimidating  Judge  Black,  but  with  collecting  a  large  body  of 
armed  men  in  Daviess  County,  to  drive  out  the  older  settlers  and 
despoil  them  of  their  lands.  Tried  before  Judge  Austin  A.  King,  at 
Gallatin,   early    in    September,    nothing    was    proven    against    the 


two  defendants.  Judge  King,  they  claimed,  admitted  as  much  to 
them  in  private,  but  deemed  it  politic  to  bind  them  over  in  the  sum 
of  $500. 

That  the  Mormons  in  Daviess  County  had  been  arming  them- 
selves, was  doubtless  true.  True  also  that  they  had  been  receiving 
reinforcements  from  other  places.  The  Missourians,  their  neighbors, 
had  been  doing  precisely  the  same  things,  and  threatening  them  daily 
with  attack.  Already  had  they  driven  some  Mormons  from  their 
homes  and  compelled  them  to  seek  safety  with  their  friends  at  Diah- 
man.  Remembering  their  experience  in  Jackson  County,  when, 
being  unarmed,  they  were  trampled  on  without  mercy  by  the  mob, 
the  Saints,  as  Sidney  Rigdon  had  declared,  did  not  propose  to  tamely 
submit  to  a  repetition  of  such  outrages.  They  were  determined  to 
maintain  their  rights,  and  defend  to  the  death,  if  need  be,  their  hard 
earned  homes  and  the  peace  and  safety  of  their  families. 

But  this  was  their  only  purpose — self-defense ;  a  fact  subse- 
cpiently  affirmed  by  the  chief  officers  of  the  State  militia,  sent  to  sup- 
press the  insurrection.  To  say  that  the  Mormons  contemplated 
wholesale  robbery  and  expulsion — the  infliction  upon  their  fellow 
settlers  of  wrongs  similar  to  what  they  themselves  had  suffered  in 
Jackson  County,  and  for  which  they  were  still  hoping  redress,  and 
that  too,  at  a  time  when  confronted  by  foes  eager  for  an  excuse  to 
attack  and  annihilate  them,  is  to  accuse  them,  not  of  criminal  intent, 
but  of  madness,  sheer  idiocy. 

Lilburn  W.  Boggs  was  now  governor  of  Missouri.  He  was 
Lieutenant-Governor,  the  reader  will  remember,  during  the  troubles 
of  1833,  at  which  time  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  mob  which  drove 
the  Saints  from  Jackson  County.  He  was  a  rank  Mormon-hater,  as 
were  nearly  all  the  residents  of  that  county,  and  probably  owed  to 
that,  in  part,  his  elevation  to  the  executive  chair.  Learning  of  the 
situation  in  Daviess  County,  the  Governor  directed  Major-General 
Atchison  and  other  officers  of  militia  to  muster  and  equip  men 
to  put  down  the  insurrection. 

While  this  order  was  being  executed,  the  mob  army  was  making 


ready  to  attack  Diahman.  For  this  purpose  reinforcements  and  sup- 
plies were  being  forwarded  to  them  from  other  points.  On  the  9th 
of  September  a  wagon  load  of  guns  and  ammunition,  on  its  way  from 
Richmond,  Ray  County,  to  the  mobocratic  camp,  was  captured  with 
those  in  charge  of  it  by  Captain  William  Allred  and  his  men. — Mor- 
mons belonging  to  the  State  militia. 

Notifying  Judge  King  of  his  capture,  and  asking  what  disposi- 
tion should  be  made  of  the  prisoners.  Captain  Allred  was  ordered  by 
that  official  to  treat  them  kindly  and  set  them  at  liberty.  Whether  or 
not  they  were  promptly  released  does  not  appear.  The  probability 
is  that  Captain  Allred,  surprised  at  receiving  such  an  order,  still  held 
them.  At  any  rate  Judge  King,  on  the  same  day,  wrote  to  General 
Atchison  to  send  two  hundred  or  more  men  to  force  the  Mormons  to 

The  militia  of  Ray  and  Clay  Counties,  commanded  by  Brigadier- 
Generals  Parks  and  Doniphan,  now  came  upon  the  scene.  Parks 
proceeded  to  Gallatin,  the  county  seat  of  Daviess,  to  survey  the  sit- 
uation, while  Doniphan  went  via  Far  West  to  Millport  and  Diahman. 
At  Far  West,  which  place  he  visited  with  a  single  aide,  leaving  his 
troops  on  Crooked  River,  General  Doniphan  was  the  guest  of  the 
Prophet,  who  was  favorably  impressed  with  his  frank  and  friendly 
manner.  This  was  the  same  General  Doniphan  who  subsequently 
played  a  notable  part  in  the  Mexican  War.  He  and  his  superior, 
General  Atchison,  were  Joseph  Smith's  attorneys  in  the  legal  troubles 
following  the  military  episode  of  the  autumn  of  1838.  Under  them 
also  the  Prophet  and  Elder  Rigdon  studied  law. 

Marching  to  the  camp  of  the  inobocrats  near  Millport.  Doniphan 
ordered  them  to  disperse.  They  protested  that  they  were  merely  act- 
ing in  self-defense.  He  then  went  to  Diahman  and  conferred  with 
Colonel  Wight,  commanding  the  Mormon  force,  '-Host  of  Israel." 
He  found  them  willing  to  disband,  provided  the  enemy  threatening 
them  would  disperse,  and  willing  also  to  surrender  any  of  their  num- 
ber accused  of  offenses  against  the  laws  to  be  dealt  with  by  legal 
authority.     The  prisoners  and   weapons  taken  by  Hie  Mormons  were 


delivered  up  at  the  demand  of  General  Doniphan,  who,  on  the  loth 
of  September  joined  Generals  Atchison  and  Parks  at  Gallatin. 

The  report  of  these  officers  to  the  Governor  was  substantially  as 
follows :  that  affairs  in  Daviess  County  were  not  so  bad  as  rumor 
had  represented,  and  that  his  Excellency  had  been  deceived  by 
designing  or  half-crazy  men ;  that  the  Mormons,  so  far  as  could  be 
learned,  had  been  acting  on  the  defensive,  showing  no  hostile  intent, 
and  evincing  no  disposition  to  resist  the  laws ;  that  the  officers,  on 
their  arrival  there,  had  found  a  large  body  of  men  from  other 
counties,  armed  and  in  the  field,  to  assist  the  people  of  Daviess 
against  the  Mormons,  without  being  called  out  by  the  proper  authori- 
ties ;  and  that  the  Daviess  County  men  were  still  threatening,  in  the 
event  of  the  failure  of  a  certain  committee  on  compromise  to  agree, 
to  drive  the  Mormons  with  powder  and  lead. 

Colonel  Wight  and  a  score  of  others,  accused  of  various  offenses, 
had  previously  given  themselves  up  and  been  pledged  to  appear  for 
trial  on  the  29th  of  September.  It  is  noticeable  that  no  Missourians 
were  arrested,  though  many  of  them  were  guilty  of  riot  and  moboc- 
racy,  and  that  even  those  captured  by  the  Mormons  had  been  set  at 
liberty.  During  the  excitement  of  the  past  several  weeks  overt  acts 
had  doubtless  been  committed  on  both  sides.  The  wonder  is  not 
that  such  was  the  case,  but  that  the  Mormons  were  the  only  ones 
called  to  account. 

Most  of  the  troops  were  now  disbanded,  it  being  supposed  that 
the  trouble  was  over.  Only  a  few  companies  remained  under  arms 
to  quell,  if  necessary,  any  further  demonstrations  of  disorder. 

The  scene  now  changes  to  Dewitt,  in  Carroll  County.  Enraged 
at  being  thwarted  in  their  designs  upon  Diahman,  the  mob  army,  a 
portion  of  which  had  previously  threatened  Dewitt.  appeared  in 
force  before  that  place,  and  in  the  beginning  of  October  began  In 
bombard  the  town.  A  party  from  Jackson  County,  with  a  six- 
pounder,  assisted  in  the  assault.  The  besieged,  compared  with  the 
besiegers,  woe  a  mere  handful.  Colonel  George  M.  Hinkle  was  their 
commander.     The  leaders  of  the   attacking  force — which  was  parity 


composed  of  militia  men  lately  disbanded — were  a  Doctor  Austin, 
Major  Ashley,  a  member  of  the  Legislature,  and  Sashiel  Woods,  a 
Presbyterian  clergyman.  Later  came  Captains  Bogart  and  Houston, 
the  former  a  Methodist  preacher,  with  two  companies  of  militia. 
These,  instead  of  operating  against  the  mob,  united  with  them 
against  the  Mormons.  General  Parks  came  also,  but  did  nothing  to 
restore  order  remaining  a  silent  and  apparently  a  helpless  spectator 
of  the  scene.     His  troops  were  evidently  in  sympathy  with  the  mob. 

The  first  gun  was  fired  upon  Dewitt  on  the  2nd  of  October. 
Colonel  Hinkle  waited  forty-eight  hours,  and  then  ordered  the  fire 
returned.  The  bombardment  continued  at  intervals  for  nine  days. 
During  its  progress  the  Prophet  made  his  way  through  much  diffi- 
culty and  clanger  from  Far  West  to  the  beleaguered  settlement.  He 
found  his  people  there  hemmed  in  by  their  foes',  their  provisions 
exhausted,  their  cattle  and  horses  stolen,  their  houses  burned,  and 
themselves  threatened  with  death  if  they  attempted  to  leave  the 

Through  the  agency  of  non-Mormon  friends  in  that  vicinity  an 
appeal  was  made  to  Governor  Boggs,  in  behalf  of  the  beleaguered 
Saints.  He  replied  that  the  quarrel  was  between  the  Mormons 
and  the  mob,  and  that  they  might  "  fight  it  out." 

Finally  the  Mormons  were  permitted  to  evacuate  Dewitt,  which 
they  did  on  the  11th  of  October.  Under  the  treacherous  fire  of 
their  foes  the  homeless  and  plundered  refugees  fled  to  Far  West. 

Eight  hundred  strong  the  mob  army  now  marched  upon  Diah- 
man.  General  Doniphan  informed  the  Prophet  of  this  movement, 
and  stated  that  no  protection  could  be  hoped  for  from  the  militia. 

Said  he  :  "  They  are  d d  rotten  hearted."     They  were  certainly  in 

sympathy  if  not  in  league  with  the  lawless  element  that  now  concen- 
trated from  every  direction  against  Diahman.  It  was  under  these 
circumstances  that  General  Doniphan  advised  the  Mormon  militia  at 
Far  West  to  organize  and  march  to  the  relief  of  their  friends  in 
Daviess  County.  His  advice  was  taken,  the  command  of  the  Cald- 
well regiment  being  given  to  Colonel  George  M.  Hinkle. 


About  this  time  was  brought  to  Diahman  the  news  of  house- 
burnings,  drivings  and  other  depredations  committed  by  Gilliam's 
guerillas  upon  some  scattered  families  of  Saints  beyond  Grand  River. 
Women,  children  and  even  the  sick  were  dragged  from  their  beds 
and  thrust  out  into  the  night,  some  wandering  for  days  through  a 
pitiless  storm  that  prevailed  in  that  region  about  the  middle  of 
October.  One  of  these  refugees  was  Agnes,  wife  of  Don  Carlos 
Smith,  the  Prophet's  brother,  who  was  then  absent  in  Tennessee. 
Her  house  being  burned  she  had  fled  with  two  babes  in  her  arms 
and  waded  Grand  River  to  get  beyond  the  reach  of  her  ruffian 

The  Mormon  blood  was  now  thoroughly  up.  The  Prophet 
no  longer  counseled  peace  and  submission.  He  bade  his  followers 
arm  and  defend  themselves ;  to  die,  if  need  be,  protecting  their 
homes,  the  virtue  of  their  wives  and  daughters,  and  the  lives  of 
their  little  ones.  General  Parks,  arriving  at  Diahman,  against 
which  the  mob  was  fast  gathering,  permitted  Colonel  Wight,  who 
held  a  commission  under  him  in  the  59th  regiment  of  the  militia,  to 
organize  his  command  and  proceed  against  the  robbers  and  house- 

Here  apparently  was  the  beginning  of  retaliative  measures  on 
the  part  of  the  Mormons  in  Missouri.  Smarting  under  their  wrongs 
they  made  vigorous  war  upon  the  marauding  bands  that  now  fled 
precipitately  before  them,  and  ceased  not  their  efforts  until  Daviess 
County  was  well  clear  of  them.  If  they  went  further,  as  alleged  by 
the  Missourians,  and  burned  the  towns — or  hamlets — of  Millport 
and  Gallatin,  it  was  not  to  be  wondered  at  after  the  provocation 

The  Mormons,  however,  do  not  admit  having  burned  the 
property  of  the  Missourians ;  but  allege  that  the  mob  set  fire 
to  the  houses  of  their  own  friends,  and  then  fled,  scattering 
the  false  report  that  the  Mormons  were  the  incendiaries.  Be 
this  as  it  may,  there  is  at  least  one  Missourian  now  living  who. 
while  claiming  that   the  Mormons  did  the  burning,  concedes  thai 


they  were  justified  in  what  they  did,  as  the  Missourians  had  set  the 

It  was  asserted  by  those  who  spread  these  reports  that  the 
design  of  the  Mormons  was  next  to  sack  and  burn  the  town  of  Rich- 
mond. This  rumor,  being  generally  believed,  or  feared, — all  the  more 
readily  since  the  Mormons  had  suffered  just  such  outrages,  and  the 
law  of  retaliation  is  a  recognized  rule  of  human  nature, — served  to 
augment  the  reigning  agitation  and  swell  the  discord  of  the  hour. 

About  this  time  the  rumor  become  current  at  Far  West  of  a 
secret  organization  called  Danites,  or  Destroying  Angels,  whose 
alleged  purpose  was  to  prey  upon  the  Gentiles  and  avenge  the  Saints 
of  their  enemies.f  The  origin  of  the  movement  was  accredited  to 
the  chiefs  of  the  Church,  especially  Sidney  Rigdon,  who,  it  was  said, 
had  authorized  the  organization.  It  transpired,  however,  that  the 
originator  of  the  movement,  which  was  indeed  attempted,  was  Dr. 
Sampson  Avard,  a  characterless  fanatic  then  numbered  among  the 
Saints,  whose  scheme  for  blood  and  plunder,  becoming  known  to  the 
First  Presidency,  was  repudiated  and  its  author  severed  from  the 
Church.  In  revenge  for  the  exposure  of  his  villainy,  Avard  declared 
that  the  Church  leaders  had  authorized  him  to  organize  the  death- 
dealing  society  called  Danites. 

The  story  of  these  preyers  and  avengers,  which,  barring  the 
above,  is  a  pure  myth, — Joaquin  Miller  and  other  less  reputable 
romancers  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding, — is  still  perpetuated  by 
anti-Mormon  writers  and  speakers,  and  has  probably  done  the 
Saints  more  harm  than  any  other  of  the  numerous  tales  uttered 

*  Messrs.  Andrew  Jensen  and  Edward  Stevenson,  of  Salt  Lake  City,  state  that  dur- 
ing a  visit  to  Daviess  County,  Missouri,  in  September,  1888,  they  conversed  witli  one 
Major  McGee,  an  old  resident  of  Gallatin,  who  spoke  to  that  effect.  He  said  that  he 
thought  some  of  the  Mormons  were  to  blame  for  teasing  the  other  inhabitants  with  the 
doctrine  that  they — the  Saints — were  the  heirs  to  the  whole  country,  hut  that  he  knew  of 
no  lawlessness  committed  by  the  Mormons  prior  to  the  troubles  in  1838.  He  also  stated 
that  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Mormons  during  those  troubles  and  treated  kindly. 
According  to  Major  McGee,  Gallatin  at  that  lime  consisted  of  abotil  four  houses. 

f  Genesis  xlix — 17. 


against  them.  The  Danite  Society,  according  to  all  but  anti-Mor- 
mon authors,  whose  assertions  against  the  Saints  should  be  taken 
cum  gram  salis,  was  nipped  in  the  bud,  and  had  no  after  existence. 

The  battle  of  Crooked  River  was  fought  on  the  25th  of  October. 
Captain  David  W.  Patten,  of  the  Far  West  militia,  had  been  directed 
by  Colonel  Hinkle  to  proceed  with  a  company  of  men  to  the  ford  of 
the  river  and  disperse  a  band  of  marauders  under  Captain  Bogart, 
who  were  committing  depredations  in  that  vicinity.  They  had 
captured  three  Mormons, — Nathan  Pinkham,  William  Seely  and 
Addison  Green, — and  had  boasted  of  their  intention  to  put  them  to 
death  the  next  night.  It  was  to  rescue  these  men,  as  well  as  to  put  a 
stop  to  Bogart's  operations  that  Captain  Patten  went  forth.  Leaving 
Far  West  about  midnight,  he  and  his  company,  seventy-five  in 
number,  came  upon  Bogart's  band  in  ambush  just  at  day-break.  As 
the  Mormons  crossed  the  bluff  above  his  camp,  which  was  among 
the  brush  and  willows  in  the  river  bottom,  the  mob  leader  ordered 
his  men  to  fire.  They  obeyed,  when  young  Patrick  O'Banion.  a 
Mormon,  fell  mortally  wounded.  Captain  Patten  then  ordered  his 
men  to  charge.  Forward  they  dashed,  returning  the  enemy's  fire. 
After  delivering  a  second  volley  Bogart's  band  broke  and  fled, 
crossing  the  river  at  the  ford  and  abandoning  their  camp  to  the 
victorious  Mormons.  The  three  prisoners  held  by  the  mob  were 
liberated,  though  one  of  them  had  been  shot  and  wounded  by  his 
captors  during  the  engagement. 

But  the  victory  had  been  dearly  won.  Captain  Patten,  like 
O'Banion,  was  mortally  wounded,  and  Gideon  Carter  killed.  Other 
Mormons  were  wounded,  but  not  seriously.  Bogart,  whose  force 
outnumbered  the  attacking  party,  lost  one  man. 

David  W.  Patten  died  that  night.  He  was  a  man  much  esteemed 
by  his  people,  and  his  loss  was  deeply  mourned.  The  Church 
regarded  him  as  a  martyr. 

The  excitement  among  the  Missourians.  already  at  fever  heat 
over  the  troubles  in  Daviess  County,  now  became  intense.  The 
Crooked    River   battle   was   heralded  abroad    as  another    "Mormon 


atrocity,"  and  the  public  mind  was  more  and  more  inflamed  against 
the  Saints. 

The  Mormon-hating  Governor  of  Missouri  now  saw  his  oppor- 
tunity. So  long  as  it  was  only  the  Saints  who  were  being  worsted, 
he  could  afford  to  sit  by,  like  Xerxes  on  his  mountain  throne  at 
Salamis,  and  see  the  two  sides  "fight  it  out."  Bujt  when  the  tables 
were  turned,  and  the  mob  began  to  suffer  some  reverses,  he  came  to 
the  conclusion  that  it  was  high  time  for  him  to  interfere  for  their 
protection.  Besides  the  opportunity  to  wreak  personal  spite  upon  the 
Mormons,  there  was  a  chance  to  make  political  capital  out  of  the 

On  the  27th  of  October  Governor  Boggs  issued  an  order  to 
Major-General  John  B.  Clark,  giving  him  command  of  an  over- 
whelming force  of  militia,  with  instructions  to  proceed  at  once  against 
the  Mormons.  "Their  outrages  are  beyond  all  description"  said  the 
Governor,  "they  must  be  exterminated  or  driven  from  the  State." 
Other  generals  were  ordered  to  take  part,  under  Clark,  in  the  military 

General  Atchison,  upon  whom  the  command  rightfully  devolved, 
had  been  ignored  or  relieved  by  the  Governor, — apparently  for  the 
same  reason  that  caused  the  wife  of  the  newly  fledged  Thane  of 
Cawdor  to  "fear  the  nature"  of  her  lord.  In  General  Clark,  who  was 
not  so  "full  o*  the  milk  of  human  kindness,"  but  proved  himself  a 
pitiless  tyrant.  Boggs  found  a  fitting  instrument  to  execute  his  fell 
design.  Another  account  states  that  Atchison,  while  raising  troops 
to  quell  the  disturbance,  on  learning  of  the  Governor's  exterminating 
purpose,  exclaimed:  "I  will  have  nothing  to  do  with  so  infamous  a 
proceeding,"  and  resigned. 

Over  two  thousand  troops,  massed  at  Richmond  under  Major- 
General  Samuel  D.  Lucas  and  Brigadier  General  Moses  Wilson,  both 
of  Jackson  County,  during  the  closing  days  of  October  set  out  for  Far 
West.  General  Clark,  their  commander,  was  elsewhere  mustering 
another  army  for  the  same  purpose.  Lucas,  on  his  march,  captured 
two  Mormons  named  Tanner  and  Carey.     Tanner,  an  old  man.  was 


struck  with  a  gun  by  one  of  the  soldiers,  and  his  skull  laid  bare.  A 
similar  blow  dashed  out  Carey's  brains.  He  was  laid  in  a  wagon,  no 
aid  being  rendered  him,  and  died  within  twenty-four  hours.  Thus 
the  militia  moved  on  toward  the  fated  town  of  Far  West. 

Among  the  first  fruits  of  the  sanguinary  edict  of  Missouri's 
executive  was  the  Haun's  Mill  massacre.  It  occurred  on  the  30th  of 
October.  Haun's  Mill  was  situated  on  Shoal  Creek,  about  twenty 
miles  south  of  Far  West.  Here  dwelt,  in  the  neighborhood  of 
other  lately  arrived  immigrants,  all  awaiting  a  lull  in  the  warlike 
storm  before  proceeding  farther,  a  few  families  of  Latter-day  Saints. 
Among  them  were  Joseph  Young  and  his  family,  lately  from  Kirtland. 

About  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  a  company  of  two  hundred 
and  forty  men,  commanded  by  one  Nehemiah  Comstock,  fell  upon 
the  little  settlement  and  butchered  in  cold  blood,  without  warning  or 
provocation,  nearly  a  score  of  the  unoffending  Mormons.  Men, 
women  and  children  were  shot  down  indiscriminately,  their  bodies 
stripped  and  mutilated,  their  camp  plundered  and  their  horses  and 
wagons  driven  off  by  the  murdering  marauders.  The  dead  bodies 
were  thrown  into  an  old  well. 

Among  the  victims  was  an  aged  man  named  Thomas  McBride,  a 
soldier  of  the  Revolution  who  had  served  under  General  AVashington. 
A  Missourian  named  Rogers,  after  shooting  the  old  man  with  his 
own  gun,  hacked  him  to  pieces  with  a  corn-cutter.  Another  victim 
was  George  Spencer  Richards,  aged  fifteen,  son  of  Phinehas  Richards, 
and  brother  to  Franklin  D.,  the  present  Apostle.  Franklin  at  that 
very  time  was  making  his  way  across  the  Alleghanies  from  his  native 
town  of  Richmond,  Berkshire  County,  Massachusetts,  to  join  his 
people  at  Far  West. 

Among  those  who  survived  the  awful  butchery,  though  almost 
riddled  with  bullets  from  the  assassins'  rifles,  was  the  late  Isaac 
Laney,  father  of  Judge  H.  S.  Laney,  of  Salt  Lake  City;  also  the  late 
Alma  L.  Smith,  of  Coalville,  Summit  County,  brother  of  Hon.  Willard 
G.  Smith,  of  Morgan  County.  His  father.  Warren,  and  his  brother 
Sardius  were  among  the  slain. 


On  the  day  of  the  massacre,  the  troops  from  Richmond,  rein- 
forced to  nearly  three  thousand  men,  advanced  upon  and  beleaguered 
Far  West.  General  Clark  was  still  at  a  distance,  mustering  his 
forces.  The  whole  surrounding  region  was  now  being  over-run  by 
marauding  bands,  shooting,  burning  and  pillaging  wherever  Mormons 
were  to  be  found.  As  the  survivors  of  these  savage  raids  came  flee- 
ing into  Far  West  for  safety,  their  red-handed  pursuers  augmented 
the  army  of  investment.  Among  those  who  thus  joined  the  militia 
against  the  Mormons  were  Gilliam's  painted  guerillas  and  the  perpe- 
trators of  the  Haun's  Mill  massacre. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  doomed  city,  their  mails  having  been 
stopped,  had  not  yet  heard  of  the  Governor's  exterminating  order, 
but  supposed  the  army  of  General  Lucas  to  be  an  overwhelming 
military  mob.  Though  greatly  outnumbered  by  the  besieging 
force,  they  prepared  to  make  a  vigorous  defense  and  sell  their  lives 
as  dearly  as  possible.  Hastily  throwing  up  some  rude  fortifications. 
they  awaited  the  onslaught  of  the  foe. 

A  messenger  was  now  sent  from  Lucas  to  announce  that  to  three 
persons  in  the  town — Adam  Lightner,  John  Cleminson  and  wife — two 
of  them  non-Mormons,  amnesty  would  be  given,  but  that  the  design 
was  to  lay  Far  West  in  ashes  and  exterminate  the  rest.  "Then  we 
will  die  with  them  !"  heroically  answered  the  three,  and  rejected  the 
proffered  pardon. 

Charles  C.  Rich  went  out  from  the  city  with  a  flag  of  truce,  to 
confer  with  General  Doniphan,  who  was  with  Lucas.  As  he 
approached  the  camp  of  the  militia  Captain  Bogart  fired  upon  him. 

It  was  at  this  critical  juncture  that  Colonel  George  M.  Hinkle. 
commanding  the  defenders  of  Far  West,  entered  into  negotiations 
with  General  Lucas,  and  without  consulting  his  associates  agreed 
upon  a  compromise,  the  terms  of  which  were  as  follows  : 

(1)  The  Mormon  leaders  were  to  be  delivered  up  to  be  tried 
and  punished. 

(2)  The  Far  West  militia  were  to  surrender  their  arms. 

(3)  An  appropriation  was  to  be  made  of  the  property  of  all 

HISTORY   OF  UTAH.  1-59 

Mormons  who  had  taken  up  arms,  to  indemnify  for  damages  said  to 
have  been  inflicted  by  them.  This  was  afterwards  construed  to 
cover  all  the  expenses  of  the  militia  in  making  war  upon  the  Saints. 

(4)  The  Mormons,  as  a  body,  excepting  such  as  should  be  held 
as  prisoners,  were  to  forthwith  leave  the  State.  The  prisoners  were 
to  include  all  Mormon  participants  in  the  Crooked  River  battle,  who 
were  to  be  tried  for  murder. 

The  observance  of  these  conditions,  it  was  promised,  would 
avert  bloodshed.  The  alternative  was  an  immediate  assault  upon 
the  city. 

Under  pretense  of  arranging  a  conference  between  the  Mormon 
leaders  and  the  besieging  generals,  and  without  notifying  the  former 
of  the  compact  he  had  entered  into,  Colonel  Hinkle,  on  the  31st  of 
October,  delivered  up  to  General  Lucas  the  following  named  persons, 
who  had  been  demanded :  Joseph  Smith,  junior,  Sidney  Rigdon, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  Lyman  Wight  and  George  W.  Robinson.  Later  were 
added  to  the  list,  Hyrum  Smith  and  Amasa  M.  Lyman.  They  were 
placed  under  a  strong  guard  and  treated  as  prisoners  of  war. 

Some  writers  have  palliated  Colonel  Hinkle's  conduct  in  this 
affair,  on  the  score  of  obedience  to  his  superior  officer,  General  Lucas, 
who  demanded  the  prisoners ;  also  because  their  delivery  is  supposed 
to  have  saved  the  lives  of  the  other  citizens.  The  Mormons,  how- 
ever, will  always  regard  George  M.  Hinkle  as  a  traitor,  who  to  save 
himself  betrayed  his  friends,  in  the  most  cowardly  and  contemptible 
manner  possible. 

Next  day,  the  army  having  advanced  nearer  the  city,  the  Mor- 
mon militia  laid  down  their  arms,  and  were  then  compelled  at  the 
point  of  the  bayonet  and  the  cannon's  mouth  to  sign  away  their 
property  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  war  waged  upon  them.  They 
had  made  no  agreement  to  do  so,  but  Hinkle,  forsooth,  had  made  it 
for  them.  All  the  men,  save  those  who  had  escaped,  were  held  in 
temporary  durance,  and  the  town  then  given  up  to  pillage.  Nameless 
crimes  were  committed  by  the  ruthless  soldiery,  and  their  yet  more 
ruthless  allies,  the  banditti.     Women  were  abused,  some  of  them  till 


they  died,  within  sight  of  their  agonized  husbands  and  fathers, 
powerless  to  protect  them.  Let  imagination  paint  the  horror  from 
which  the  historian's  pen  recoils. 

William  E.  McLellin  and  other  apostate  Mormons  were  in  Far 
West  at  this  time,  taking  part  against  their  former  brethren. 

On  the  evening  of  November  1st,  General  Lucas  convened  a 
court-martial,  consisting  of  the  principal  officers  of  his  army,  and  no 
less  than  seventeen  Christian  preachers.  By  a  majority  of  this 
religio-military  tribunal,  Joseph  Smith  and  his  fellow  prisoners,  none 
of  whom  were  permitted  to  be  present  during  their  trial,  were  sen- 
tenced to  be  shot  at  eight  o'clock  next  morning,  in  the  public  square 
at  Far  West,  in  the  presence  of  their  wives  and  children.  Generals 
Doniphan  and  Graham  refused  their  assent  to  this  decision,  the 
former  denouncing  it  as  "  cold-blooded  murder,"  and  threatening  to 
withdraw  his  brigade  from  the  scene  of  the  proposed  massacre. 
This  caused  Lucas  and  his  murderous  colleagues  to  hesitate,  and 
finally  to  reconsider  their  action.  On  the  morning  set  for  the  execu- 
tion they  decided,  in  lieu  of  killing  the  prisoners,  to  parade  them  in 
triumph  through  the  neighboring  counties. 

Prior  to  setting  out  from  Far  West,  General  Lucas  allowed  the 
prisoners  to  see  for  a  few  moments,  in  the  presence  of  their  guards, 
their  weeping  wives  and  children.  Most  of  them  were  not  permitted 
to  speak,  but  merely  look  farewell  to  them,  before  being  hurried  away. 

Mary  Fielding  Smith,  wife  of  Hyrum  Smith,  a  few  days  after  this 
painful  parting  from  her  husband  became  a  mother.  The  child  thus 
born  amid  these  warlike  scenes,  drinking  in  with  his  mother's  milk  a 
wholesome  hatred  of  tyrants  and  mobs,  and  the  courage  to  fearlessly 
denounce  them,  is  known  to-day  as  Joseph  Fielding  Smith,  second 
counselor  in  the  existing  First  Presidency. 

Leaving  a  large  portion  of  his  troops  at  Far  West,  to  await  the 
arrival  of  General  Clark,  and  having  sent  Gilliam  and  his  banditti 
against  the  Mormons  at  Diahman,  Lucas,  with  his  confrere  Wilson 
and  a  strong  guard  set  out  with  the  prisoners  southward.  As  they 
neared  the  Missouri  River  orders  were  received  from  General  Clark, 


demanding  the  return  of  the  captives.      Lucas,  however,  ignored  the 
order,  and  pressed  on  with  the  prisoners  to  Jackson  County. 

They  were  now  treated  with  some  degree  of  consideration. 
Wilson  assured  them  that  their  lives  should  be  spared,  and  that  they 
should  be  protected  :  "  We  only  want  to  take  you  over  the  river  and 

let  our  people  see  what  a  d d  fine  looking  set  of  fellows  you  are,*' 

said  this  typical  son  of  Jackson  County.     He  also  told  them  that  one 
of  the  reasons  for  bringing  them  along  was  to  keep  them  out  of  the 

hands  of  General  Clark,  "a  G d  d d  old  bigot,"  said  he,  "so 

stuffed  with  lies  and  prejudice  that  he  would  shoot  you  down  in  a 

The  Prophet,  on  the  day  of  their  arrival  at  Independence — Sun- 
day, November  4th — was  permitted  to  preach  to  the  multitude  that 
thronged  to  gaze  at  him  and  his  brethren.  The  feeling  against  them 
diminished  daily,  until  it  was  almost  in  their  favor.  After  four  days' 
imprisonment  at  Independence,  during  which  they  were  visited  by 
curious  thousands,  the  prisoners,  in  response  to  repeated  demands 
from  General  Clark,  were  sent  to  Richmond  for  trial. 

Clark,  at  the  head  of  two  thousand  troops,  had  arrived  at  Far 
West  on  the  4th  of  November.  He  approved  of  all  that  Lucas  had 
done,  except  the  taking  away  of  the  Mormon  leaders,  whose  persons 
he  evidently  desired  as  trophies  of  his  own  triumph.  He  solaced 
himself,  however,  by  putting  Bishop  Partridge  and  fifty-five  other 
prominent  Mormons  in  chains  and  carrying  them  captive  to  Rich- 

Prior  to  departing,  he  sent  a  brigade  of  troops  in  the  wake  of 
Gilliam  and  his  guerillas,  to  demand  the  surrender  of  Diahman,  on 
the  same  terms  as  those  enforced  at  Far  West.  He  also  delivered, 
before  leaving,  an  address  to  the  citizens  of  that  place,  of  which  the 
following  was  the  substance  : 

*Wilson  admitted,  according  to  Parley  P.  Pratt,  that  in  the  reigning  troubles,  as  well 
as  those  in  Jackson  County,  the  Mormons  bad  not  been  tin-  aggressors,  lull  had  been  pur- 
posely goaded  to  resistance  by  the  Missourians  in  order  to   furnish   an   excuse  for  their 



Gentlemen  : 

You  whose  names  are  not  attached  to  this  list  of  names,  will  now  have  the 
privilege  of  going  to  your  fields,  and  of  providing  corn,  wood,  etc.,  for  your  families. 
Those  who  are  now  taken  will  go  from  this  to  prison,  to  be  tried  and  receive  the  due 
demerit  of  their  crimes  ;  but  you  (except  such  as  charges  may  hereafter  be  preferred 
against),  are  at  liberty  as  soon  as  the  troops  are  removed  that  now  guard  the  place,  which 
I  shall  cause  to  be  done  immediately. 

It  now  devolves  upon  you  to  fulfill  a  treaty  that  you  have  entered  into,  the  leading- 
items  of  which  I  shall  now  lay  before  you.  The  first  requires  that  your  leading  men  be 
given  up  to  be  tried  according  to  law  ;  this  you  already  have  complied  with.  The  second 
is,  that  you  deliver  up  your  arms ;  this  has  been  attended  to.  The  third  stipulation  is  that 
you  sign  over  your  properties  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  war.  This  you  have  also 
done.  Another  article  yet  remains  for  you  to  comply  with, — and  that  is,  that  you  leave 
the  state  forthwith.  And  whatever  may  be  your  feelings  concerning  this,  or  whatever 
your  innocence,  it  is  nothing  to  me.  General  Lucas  (whose  military  rank  is  equal  with 
mine),  has  made  this  treaty  with  you  ;  I  approve  of  it,  I  should  have  done  the  same 
had   I   been  here.     I  am  therefore  determined  to  see  it  executed. 

The  character  of  this  state  has  suffered  almost  beyond  redemption,  from  the 
character,  conduct  and  influence  that  you  have  exerted  ;  and  we  deem  it  an  act  of  justice 
to  restore  her  character  to  its  former  standing  among  the  states  by  every  proper  means. 
The  orders  of  the  Governor  to  me  were,  that  you  should  be  exterminated,  and  not 
allowed  to  remain  in  the  state.  And  had  not  your  leaders  been  given  up,  and  the  terms 
of  the  treaty  complied  with,  before  this  time  you  and  your  families  would  have  been  des- 
troyed, and  your  houses  in  ashes. 

There  is  a  discretionary  power  vested  in  my  hands,  which,  considering  your  circum- 
stances, 1  shall  exercise  for  a  season.  You  are  indebted  to  me  for  this  clemency.  I  do 
not  say  that  you  shall  go  now,  but  you  must  not  think  of  staying  here  another  season  or  of 
putting  in  crops  ;  for  the  moment  you  do  this  the  citizens  will  be  upon  you  ;  and  if  I  am 
called  here  again  in  case  of  a  non-compliance  of  a  treaty  made,  do  not  think  that  I  shall 
do  as  I  have  done  now.  You  need  not  expect  any  mercy,  but  extermination,  for  I  am 
determined  the  Governor's  order  shall  be  executed. 

As  for  your  leaders,  do  not  think,  do  not  imagine  for  a  moment,  do  not  let  it  enter 
into  your  minds,  that  they  will  be  delivered  and  restored  to  you  again,  for  their  fate  is 
fixed,  their  die  is  cast,  their  doom  is  sealed. 

I  am  sorry,  gentlemen,  to  see  so  many  apparently  intelligent  men  found  in  the  situa- 
tion that  they  are;  and  oh!  if  I  could  invoke  that  Great  Spirit,  the  Unknown  God 
to  rest  upon  and  deliver  you  from  that  awful  chain  of  superstition,  and  liberate  you  from 
those  fetters  of  fanaticism  with  which  you  are  bound — that  you  no  longer  do  homage  to  a  man. 

I  would  advise  you  to  scatter  abroad  and  never  again  organize  yourselves  with 
Bishops,  Presidents,  etc.,  lest  you  excite  the  jealousies  of  the  people  and  subject  your- 
selves In  the  same  calamities  that  have  now  come  upon  you.  You  have  always  been  the 
aggressors-  you  have  brought  upon  yourselves  these  difficulties  by  being  disaffected,  and 
not  being  subject  to  rule.  And  my  advice  is,  that  you  become  as  other  citizens,  lest  by  a 
recurrence  of  these  events  you  bring  upon  yourselves  irretrievable  ruin. 


General  Clark  then  proceeded  with  his  captives  to  Richmond, 
where  the  Prophet  and  his  fellow  prisoners  soon  arrived.  A  pro- 
tracted examination  before  Judge  Austin  A.  King. — who.  with  the 
public  prosecutor.  Thomas  Burch,  had  sat  in  the  court-martial  at  Far 
West  and  sentenced  these  same  men  to  be  shot, — failed  to  fasten 
guilt  upon  any  of  them.  Finally,  all  save  Joseph  Smith,  Sidney  Rig- 
don,  Hyrum  Smith,  Lyman  Wight,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Caleb  Baldwin, 
Alexander  McBae,  Morris  Phelps,  Luman  Gibbs,  Darwin  Chase  and 
Norman  Shearer,  were  discharged.  These  were  held  for  murder, 
arson,  treason, — in  fact  nearly  all  the  crimes  in  the  calendar. 

One  evidence  of  their  treason,  as  cited  in  open  court,  was  their 
avowed  belief  in  the  prophecy  of  Daniel — Chapters  II.  and  VII. — 
relative  to  the  setting  up  of  the  latter-day  kingdom  of  God.  Their 
taking  up  arms  in  the  late  troubles  was  also  construed  as  treason. 
Their  murders  were  the  battles  and  skirmishes  they  had  had  with 
the  mob.  The  depredations  and  deeds  of  blood  committed  by  the 
Missourians  against  the  Mormons  apparently  cut  no  figure  in  the 
case.  The  Haun's  Mill  massacre  was  as  completely  ignored  as  if  it 
had  never  occurred.  Said  General  Doniphan  to  the  defendants, 
whose  attorney  he  was  :  "  Offer  no  defense;  for  if  a  cohort  of  angels 
should  declare  your  innocence  it  would  be  all  the  same.  The  judge 
is  determined  to  throw  you  into  prison." 

Colonel  Sterling  Price  had  charge  of  the  captives  at  this  time. 
The  yet  to  be  noted  Confederate  general  seems  to  have  done  all  in 
his  power  to  render  their  situation  as  miserable  as  possible.  One 
method  employed  by  their  guards  to  entertain  them  was  the  recital 
in  their  hearing  of  the  murders  and  rapes  that  they — the  soldiers — 
boasted  of  having  committed  at  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Far  West. 
Finally  the  Prophet,  arising  in  his  chains,  in  a  voice  of  thunder 
rebuked  the  crime-stained  wretches  and  commanded  them  to  be  still. 
So  overpowering  was  his  indignation,  his  metaphysical  force,  that  the 
armed  guards  quailed  before  him  and  begged  bis  pardon.* 

*  Says  Parley  P.  Pratt  of  the  Prophet  on  that  occasion  :  "  He  ceased   to  speak.      He 
stood  erect  ill   terrible   majesty,  chained  and   without  a   weapon.         *         *         *  * 

164  HISTORY    OF  UTAH. 

Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith,  Sidney  Rigdon,  Lyman  Wight,  Alex- 
ander MePtae  and  Caleb  Baldwin  were  now  removed  to  Clay  County, 
and  immured  in  Liberty  jail.  The  remainder  of  the  prisoners  were 
still  held  at  Richmond.  The  Clay  County  captives  were  treated  with 
great  barbarity.  Several  times  their  food  was  poisoned,  nearly  caus- 
ing their  death,  and  they  even  declared  that  cooked  human  flesh, 
called  by  their  guards  "  Mormon  beef,"  was  repeatedly  served  up  to 

Months  passed.  Various  efforts  were  made  by  legal  process  to 
free  the  prisoners.  Among  those  actively  engaged  in  their  behalf 
were  Brigham  Young  and  Heber  C.  Kimball,  who,  being  comparatively 
unknown  by  the  Missourians,  had  escaped  arrest  and  incarceration. 
Stephen  Markham  was  another  faithful  friend.  Generals  Atchison 
and  Doniphan  lent  their  aid,  and  Judge  Hughes,  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Missouri,  also  favored  the  release  of  the  captives.  It  was 
conceded  by  many  that  they  were  illegally  held,  but  owing  to  the 
prevailing  prejudice,  their  friends  were  powerless  to  do  much  for 
them.  Again  and  again  they  were  put  upon  trial  and  nothing  was 
proven  against  them,  even  after  their  own  witnesses  had  all  been 
driven  from  the  State.  Finally  by  proceedings  in  habeas  corpus  Sid- 
ney Rigdon  was  let  out  on  bail.  Threatened  by  the  mob  after  his 
liberation  he  was  compelled  to  flee  for  his  life.  His  companions  were 
remanded  to  prison,  where  they  passed  the  winter  of  1838-9. 

Meantime  such  of  the  leading  Mormons  as  had  retained  or 
regained  their  liberty  addressed  a  memorial  to  the  Missouri  Legisla- 
ture, reciting  the  wrongs  and  sufferings  of  the  Saints  in  that  State 
and  praying  for  redress  of  grievances.  The  total  loss  of  property 
sustained  by  the  Mormons  in  Missouri  was  estimated  at  about  two 
million  dollars.      The   Legislature,  after  much   delay,  appropriated 

I  have  seen  the  ministers  of  justice,  clothed  in  magisterial  robes  and  criminals  arraigned 
before  them,  while  life  was  suspended  on  a  breath  in  the  courts  of  England;  I  have  wit- 
nessed a  congress  in  solemn  session  to  give  laws  to  nations  ;  *  *  *  but 
dignity  and  majesty  have  I  seen  but  once,  as  it  stood  in  chains  at  midnight,  in  a  dungeon. 
in  an  obscure  village  of  Missouri." 


some  thousands  of  dollars  to  be  distributed  among  the  people  of 
Daviess  and  Caldwell  counties,  "  the  Mormons  not  excepted."  Some 
say  that  only  two  thousand  dollars  were  thus  appropriated ;  others 
that  two  hundred  thousand  was  the  amount.  The  latter  seems  the 
more  reasonable,  and  the  Missourians  should  be  given  the  benefit  of 
the  doubt.* 

In  the  absence  of  the  First  Presidency — in  prison — the  authority 
to  direct  the  Church  devolved  upon  the  Twelve  Apostles.  Their 
some  time  president,  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  had  apostatized  during  the 
Far  West  troubles^  which  event,  with  the  death  of  David  W.  Pat- 
ten, left  Brigham  Young  the  senior  Apostle  and  consequently  the 
President  of  the  Twelve.  Being  sustained  as  such  by  his  brethren 
Brigham  now  took  charge  of  the  Church  and  planned  and  directed 
the  exodus  of  the  Saints  to  Illinois. 

Late  in  January  and  early  in  February,  meetings  were  held  at 
Far  West,  and  the  following  committee  appointed  to  arrange  for  the 
exodus:  John  Taylor,  Alanson  Ripley,  Brigham  Young,  Theodore 
Turley,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  John  Smith,  Don  C.  Smith,  Elias  Smith, 
Erastus  Bingham,  Stephen  Markham  and  James  Newberry.  A  sub- 
committee was  also  appointed.  They  were  William  Huntington, 
Charles  Bird,  Alanson  Ripley,  Theodore  Turley,  Daniel  Shearer, 
Shadrach  Pioundy  and  Jonathan  H.  Hale.  "On  motion  of  President 
Brigham  Young,"  says  the  record,  "it  was  resolved  that  we  this  day 
enter  into  a  covenant  to  stand  by  and  assist  each  other  to  the  utmost 
of  our  abilities  in  removing  from  this  State,  and  that  we  will  never 
desert  the  poor,  who  are  worthy,  till  they  shall  be  out  of  the  reach  of 
the  exterminating  order  of  General  Clark,  acting  for  and  in  the  name 

*  Heber  G.  Kimball  thus  describes  the  manner  in  which  was  distributed  to  the 
Mormons  their  share  of  the  appropriation:  "Judge  Cameron." — who  with  one  MeHenry 
had  charge  of  the  distribution, — '-drove  in  the  hogs  belonging  to  the  brethren  (many  of 
which  were  identified)  shot  them  down  in  the  streets,  and  without  further  bleeding  they 
were  half  dressed,  cut  up  and  distributed  by  MeHenry  to  the  poor,  charging  four  or  live 
cents  per  pound,  which,  together  with  a  few  pieces  of  refuse  calicoes,  at  double  and  treble 
price,  soon  consumed  the  appropriation." 


of  the  State."  This  covenant,  signed  hy  several  hundred  persons, 
was  faithfully  kept. 

That  winter  from  ten  to  twelve  thousand  Latter-day  Saints,  men, 
women  and  children,  still  hounded  and  pursued  by  their  merciless 
oppressors,  fled  from  Missouri,  leaving  in  places  their  bloody  foot- 
prints on  the  suow  of  their  -frozen  path-way.  Crossing  the  icy 
Mississippi  they  cast  themselves,  homeless,  plundered  and  penniless, 
upon  the  hospitable  shores  of  Illinois.  There  their  pitiable  condition 
and  the  tragic  story  of  their  wrongs  awoke  wide-spread  sympathy 
and  compassion,  with  corresponding  sentiments  of  indignation  and 
abhorrence  toward  their  persecutors. 

The  main  body  of  the  Mormons  were  now  beyond  the  reach  of 
the  Missourians.  But  spme  of  the  Committee  on  Exodus  and  a  few 
scattered  families  yet  remained.  These  were  now  the  objects  of  mobo- 
cratic  malice.  About  the  middle  of  April  a  lawless  band,  encouraged 
by  Judge — once  Captain — Bogart.  assaulted  and  drove  away  the 
committee,  threatened  the  lives  of  the  remaining  Mormons,  and 
plundered  and  destroyed  thousands  of  dollars*  worth  of  property 
with  which  the  committee  were  assisting  the  poor  to  remove. * 

At  Quincy,  Adams  County,  Illinois,  where  most  of  the  exiled 
Saints  found  refuge  and  a  kindly  welcome,  they  were  joined  late  in 
April  or  early  in  May  by  the  Prophet  and  his  brother  Hyruni.  who 
had  recently  escaped  with  others  of  their  captive  companions  from 
their  imprisonment  in  Missouri. 

*  Says  Heber  G.  Kimball :  "  One  mobber  rode  up,  and  finding  no  convenient  place  to 
fasten  his  horse,  shot  a  cow  that  was  standing  near  while  a  girl  was  milking  her,  and  as 
the  poor  animal  was  struggling  in  death  he  cut  a  strip  of  her  hide  from  the  nose  to  the 
tail  to  which  he  fastened  his  halter." 






GOVERNMENT PRESIDENT    VAN     BUREN's      REPLY "  YOUR    CAUSE      IS      JUST,    RUT      I      CAN      DO 










1S\  AUVOO,  the  Beautiful.  Such  was  the  name  of  the  fair  city 
*  b-  founded  by  Joseph  Smith  and  his  followers  on  the  eastern 
shore  of  the  Mississippi,  after  their  flight  and  expulsion  from 
Missouri.  It  was  in  Hancock  County,  Illinois,  fifty  miles  above  the 
town  of  Quincy. 

Situated  in  a  graceful  bend  of  the  majestic  Father  of  Waters,  on 
an  eminence  commanding  a  noble  view  of  the  broad  and  rolling 
river,  here  sweeping  round  it  in  a  semi-circle,  Nauvoo,  even  as  the 
site  of  the  lovely  city  it  soon  became,  well  merited  the  surname  of 
Beautiful.  The  site  of  the  city,  prior  to  May.  1839,  when  the 
Mormons  made  their  first  purchase  of  lands  in  that  locality,  was  the 
little  town  or  village  of  Commerce,  which  title  it  continued  to  bear 
until  about  a  year  later,  when  it  was  rechristened  by  the  Saints 

Among  the  landed  proprietors  from  whom  they  made  extensive 
purchases  in  and  around  Commerce  was  Daniel  H.  Wells,  famous  in 


Utah  history  as  General  and  as  "Squire"  Wells.  He  was  a  native  of 
Trenton,  Oneida  County,  New  York,  and  was  descended  from  Thomas 
Wells,  the  fourth  Governor  of  Connecticut.  He  was  now  in  his 
twenty-fifth  year,  and  had  resided  in  Illinois  since  he  was  eighteen. 
At  first  he  had  engaged  in  clearing  land  and  farming,  but  before 
coming  of  age  had  entered  upon  his  official  career,  being  first  elected 
constable  and  then  justice  of  the  peace.  He  also  held  an  office  in 
the  first  military  organization  of  Hancock  County.  He  was  noted  for 
courage  and  wisdom,  and  was  a  man  of  strict  integrity  and  of  broad 
and  generous  soul.  He  was  not  then  connected  with  any  religious 
society.  In  politics  he  was  a  staunch  Whig,  but  was  much  esteemed 
by  men  of  all  creeds  and  parties. 

A  foe  to  oppression  in  all  its  forms,  and  a  fearless  champion  of 
universal  freedom,  Squire  Wells  at  once  befriended  the  outcast 
Mormons  upon  their  arrival  in  his  neighborhood,  and  extended  to 
them  a  cordial  welcome.  He  might  have  speculated  out  of  their 
necessities  at  that  time,  but  would  not.  Platting  his  land  into  city 
lots  he  let  them  have  it  almost  on  their  own  terms — low  rates  and 
long-time  payments.  Though  not  a  Mormon  until  after  the 
Prophet's  death,  Daniel  H.  Wells  was  always  his  staunch  and  faithful 

Another  land-owner  from  whom  the  Saints  purchased  largely  in 
that  locality  was  Dr.  Isaac  Galland,  who  also  joined  the  Church. 
With  him  the  Prophet  had  corresponded  upon  the  subject  while  in 
Liberty  jail. 

Lands  were  likewise  secured  on  the  Iowa  side  of  the  river; 
about  one  hundred  families  settling  in  Lee  County,  opposite  Nauvoo, 
in  1839.  Brigham  Young  dwelt  there,  at  a  place  called  Montrose. 
The  Iowa  purchase  included  the  town  of  Nashville,  with  twenty 
thousand  acres  of  land  adjoining,  upon  which  was  projected  and 
partly  built  the  Mormon  town  of  Zarahemla. 

Nauvoo  was  not  altogether  "a  city  set  upon  a  hill."  Some  of  it 
lay  in  the  low  lands,  where  the  surface  sloped  down  to  the  river. 
Here  the  soil  was  naturally  moist  and  miry,  superinducing  malaria; 


in  consequence  of  which  the  locality  was  at  first  very  unhealthy. 
Within  a  short  time,  however,  under  the  energetic  labors  of  the 
thrifty  and  industrious  Saints, — whose  mission  seems  to  have  been 
from  the  beginning  to  make  the  wilderness  blossom, — the  climate 
underwent  a  salutary  change,  regarded  by  the  devout  people  as 
miraculous,  and  thenceforth  it  became  a  wholesome  as  well  as  a 
charming  place  of  abode.  But  this  was  not  until  after  some  painful 
and  protracted  sieges  of  sickness,  which  at  one  time  prostrated  nearly 
all  the  inhabitants  of  Commerce,  and  many  people  in  the  neighboring 

It  was  during  the  reign  of  such  an  epidemic,  in  the  latter  part  of 
1839,  that  the  Twelve  Apostles  of  the  Church — or  a  majority  of  them 
— started  upon  their  first  mission  to  foreign  lands.  They  had  been 
appointed  to  this  mission  in  July,  1838,  while  the  Saints  were  in 
Missouri.  It  had  then  been  declared  by  the  Prophet  that  they  should 
meet  upon  the  Temple  grounds  at  Far  West  on  the  26th  of  the 
ensuing  April,  and  take  formal  leave  of  the  city,  prior  to  crossing  the 
"great  waters."  What  special  significance  was  attached  to  this  event 
we  know  not,  but  the  Apostles  and  the  Prophet  seemed  to  regard  it 
ns  very  important  and  were  determined  to  see  the  prophecy  fulfilled. 

The  Missourians,  however,  who  had  been  informed  by  their 
apostate  allies  of  the  prediction  concerning  the  26th  of  April,  were 
just  as  firmly  resolved  to  thwart  it.  Probably  this  was  one  reason 
why  Bogart  and  his  mob.  as  related,  expelled  the  few  remaining 
Mormons  from  Far  West  about  the  middle  of  April.  It  was  their 
boast  that  if  all  others  of  "Joe  Smith's  prophecies"  should  be  fulfilled, 
this  one,  now  that  he  was  in  prison  and  his  people  driven  from  the 
Shite,  should  fail. 

Before  day-break,  however,  on  the  morning  of  April  26th,  L839, 
Apostles  Brigham  Young.  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Orson  Pratt.  John 
Taylor.  John  E.  Page  and  others  rode  into  Far  West.  Holding  a 
meeting  on  the  temple  grounds,  they  ordained  Wilford  Woodruff  and 
George  A.  Smith  to  the  Apostleship.  and  having  severed  thirty-one 
persons  from  the  Church,  hade  adieu  hi  the  halt-deserted,  half-ruined 

12-VOL.    1. 

170  HISTORY  OF    UTAH. 

city  and  departed,  ere  their  enemies  had  arisen  to  renew  their  oath 
that  the  words  of  the  Mormon  Prophet  relating  to  this  event  should 
never  be  realized.  Subsequently,  the  founding  of  Nauvoo  and  the 
labor  of  settling  their  people  in  that  vicinity,  with  the  terrible 
epidemic  that  swept  over  them  that  summer,  unavoidably  delayed  the 
departure  of  the  Apostles  from  America. 

During  August  and  September,  however,  seven  of  the  Twelve, 
namely :  Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  *  Orson 
Pratt,  John  Taylor.  Wilford  Woodruff  and  George  A.  Smith,  with 
Elders  Theodore  Turley,  Reuben  Hedlock  and  Hiram  Clark,  left  Com- 
merce for  Europe.  Most  of  them  were  weak  and  ailing,  and  some 
even  arose  from  sick  beds,  burning  with  fever  or  shaking  with  ague 
to  begin  the  journey.  Their  families,  whom  they  were  forced  to  leave 
behind,  were  also  sick  and  well-nigh  helpless.  Penniless,  as  usual, 
and  with  swelling  hearts,  these  devoted  men  went  forth  to  perform 
their  duty,  trusting  in  Him  who  feedeth  the  sparrows  and  heareth  the 
young  ravens  when  they  cry,  to  minister  to  their  own  needs,  and  to 
care  for  and'comfort  their  wives  and  little  ones. 

Of  such  undaunted  mettle  and  quenchless  zeal  Avere  the  men 
whom  the  Mormon  Prophet  had  gathered  round  him  as  his  Apostles, 
in  whose  destiny  it  was  written  that  they  should  not  only  war  with 
'•principalities  and  powers,"  contending  for  their  faith  with  the 
learned  polemists  of  Christendom,  but  battle  in  the  same  strength 
and  sturdiness  of  purpose  with  Nature's  sterile  elements,  and 
conquering  redeem  a  desert. 

Reference  has  been  made  to  the  widespread  sympathy  and  com- 
passion for  the  Saints,  coupled  with  abhorrence  and  detestation  for 
their  oppressors,  felt  by  the  generous  people  of  Illinois  when  the 
homeless  refugees  first  came  among  them.  Indignation  was  rife  that 
in  a  free  land  and  in  an  enlightened  age  a  community  should  thus  be 
persecuted  for  their  opinions;  that  a  sovereign  state  of  the  American 
Union,   instead    of  shielding   its   citizens    from    mobocracy,    should 

1 'alley  had  but  recently  escaped  from  Richmond  jaJ 


actually  join  hands  with  the  lawless  element  and  assist  in  the  work 
of  wholesale  plunder  and  expatriation.  Upon  Governor  Boggs  and 
his  coadjutors  censure  was  heaped  unsparingly.  Upon  the  hapless 
victilns  of  their  tyranny  favors  were  abundantly  bestowed.  Said  the 
Quincy  Argus  of  March  16th,  1839  : 

We  have  no  language  sufficiently  strong  for  the  expression  of  our  indignation  and 
shame  at  the  recent  transaction  in  a  sister  State,  and  that  State  Missouri,  a  State  of  which 
we  had  long  been  proud,  alike  for  her  men  and  history,  but  now  so  fallen  that  we  could 
wisli  her  star  stricken  out  from  the  bright  constellation  of  the  Union.  We  say  we  know 
of  no  language  sufficiently  strong  for  the  expression  of  our  shame  and  abhorrence  of  her 
recent  conduct.  She  has  written  her  own  character  in  letters  of  blood,  and  stained  it  by 
acts  of  merciless  cruelty  and  brutality  that  the  waters  of  ages  cannot  efface.  It  will  be 
observed  that  an  organized  mob,  aided  by  many  of  the  civil  and  military  officers  of 
Missouri,  with  Governor  Boggs  at  their  head,  have  been  the  prominent  actors  in  this 
business,  incited,  too,  it  appears,  against  the  Mormons  by  political  hatred,  and  by  the 
additional  motives  of  plunder  and  revenge.  They  have  but  too  well  put  in  execution  their 
threats  of  extermination  and  expulsion,  and  fully  wreaked  their  vengeance  on  a  body  of 
industrious  and  enterprising  men  who  had  never  wronged  nor  wished  to  wrong  them, 
but  on  the  contrary  had  ever  comported  themselves  as  good  and  honest  citizens,  living 
under  the  same  laws,  and  having  the  same  right  with  themselves  to  the  sacred  immunities 
of  life,  liberty,  and  property.* 

Professor  Turner,  of  Illinois  College,  wrote  : 

Who  began  the  quarrel?  Was  it  the  Mormons'?  Is  it  not  notorious,  on  the  con- 
trary, that  they  were  hunted  like  wild  beasts,  from  county  to  county,  before  they  made  any 
desperate  resistance '?  Did  they  ever,  as  a  body,  refuse  obedience  to  the  laws,  when  called 
upon  to  do  so.  until  driven  to  desperation  by  repeated  threats  and  assaults  from  the  mob? 
Did  the  State  ever  make  one  decent  effort  to  defend  them  as  fellow-citizens  in  their  rights, 
or  to  redress  their  wrongs?  Let  the  conduct  of  its  governors,  attorneys,  and  the  fate  of 
their  final  petitions  answer.  Have  any  who  plundered  and  openly  massacred  the 
Mormons  ever  been  brought  to  the  punishment  due  to  their  crimes?  Let  the  boasting 
murderers  of  begging  and  helpless  infancy  answer.  Has  the  State  ever  remunerated  even 
those  known  to  be  innocent,  for  the  loss  of  either  their  property  or  their  arms?  Did 
either  the  pulpit  or  the  press  through  the  State  raise  a  note  of  remonstrance  or  alarm  ? 
Let  the  clergymen  who  abetted  anil  the  editors  who  encouraged  the  mob  answer. 

To  be  sure,  not  all  the  people  of  Illinois  shared  these  sentiments. 
The  Mormons  had  enemies  there  as  well  as  friends.     These,   it   is 

Some  of  the  Missouri  papers  of  thai  period  contained  similar  articles,  denouncing 
treatment  of  the  Mormons  and  censuring  the  Legislature  for  avoiding  an  investiga- 

the  crimes  committed  against  them. 


almost  needless  to  say,  were  largely  of  the  religious  element,  who 
could  neither  forget  nor  forgive  that  Joseph  Smith,  whatever  his 
innocence  of  crime,  had  been  guilty  of  founding  a  new  Church, 
which  opposed  theirs,  and  in  spite  of  all  that  had  been  said  and  done 
against  it,  was  fast  becoming  a  power  in  the  land. 

Of  course  there  were  exceptions  even  here;  but  this  was  the 
general  feeling  among  earnest  Christians  concerning  Mormonism. 
They  sincerely  and  heartily  hated  the  system,  and  their  hatred 
extended  in  most  instances  to  all  connected  with  it.  It  was  this 
class,  in  conjunction  with  two  others,  its  traditional  allies — politi- 
cians and  apostates— that  finally  encompassed  the  murder  of  the 
Mormon  Prophet,  and  the  driving  of  his  people  into  the  western 

As  yet,  however,  there  were  no  signs  of  such  an  issue.  Illinois 
had  opened  her  arms  to  the  exiles.  Her  governor,  Thomas  Carlin, 
and  other  State  officials,  with  editors,  professors  and  prominent 
citizens  in  general  had  taken  the  lead  in  extending  aid  and  sympathy 
to  the  outcast  community.  Thousands  of  dollars  in  money,  clothing 
and  provisions  had  been  contributed  for  their  relief  by  the  citizens 
of  Quincy  and  other  places,  and  every  effort  made  of  which  a 
humane  and  benevolent  people  seemed  capable,  to  cause  the  Saints  to 
forget  their  former  sufferings  in  the  assurance  of  present  protection 
and  promised  peace. 

Nor  were  the  people  of  Iowa  at  all  behind  in  friendly  feeling  for 
the  Mormons.  Robert  Lucas,  Governor  of  that  Territory — a  former 
governor  of  Ohio — treated  them  kindly,  pledged  to  them  the  protec- 
tion of  the  Constitution  and  the  laws,  and  testified  to  their  general 
repute  as  •'industrious,  inoffensive  and  worthy  citizens." 

One  of  the  first  steps  taken  by  the  Prophet,  after  planting  the 
feet  of  his  people  in  these  places  of  refuge,  was  to  lay  their  grievances 
before  the  general  government.  A  committee,  consisting  of  himself. 
Sidney  Rigdon  and  Elias  Higbee,  was  appointed  at  a  conference  held 
at  Commerce,  October  5th,  1839,  to  proceed  to  Washington  for  that 
purpose.     They   started    on   the  29th    of   October.      Elder   Rigdon. 


owing  to  ill  health,  did  not  go  any  farther  than  Columbus,  Ohio. 
His  companions  reached  the  capital  late  in  November. 

On  the  way  thither  the  Prophet  met  with  an  exciting  adventure, 
in  which  the  part  he  played  doubtless  saved  the  limbs  if  not  the  lives 
of  several  persons.  The  coach  upon  which  they  were  traveling  was 
descending  a  mountain  pass  of  the  Alleghanies.  The  driver  having 
laid  down  his  lines  and  got  off  at  a  wayside  tavern,  the  horses, 
becoming  frightened,  ran  away.  Climbing  from  the  inside  of  the 
vehicle  to  the  driver's  seat,  while  the  horses  were  in  furious  motion, 
the  Prophet  secured  the  reins  and  skillfully  guided  the  foaming 
steeds  until  they  were  brought  to  a  stand-still.  On  the  coach  were 
several  ladies  and  some  members  of  Congress.  The  daring  feat  of 
their  fellow-traveler,  whose  identity  they  were  unaware  of,  was 
greatly  admired  and  gratefully  mentioned  by  all.  Later  they 
learned  with  much  surprise  that  the  one  to  whom  they  were  so 
deeply  indebted  was  no  other  than  Joseph  Smith,  the  Mormon 

He  remained  several  months  at  the  capital,  forming-  many 
acquaintances  among  leading  statesmen  and  politicians  of  the  period, 
and  pleading  earnestly  the  cause  of  his  plundered  and  exiled 
people.  But  beyond  the  personal  interest  that  he  excited  his  mission 
was  apparently  fruitless.  The  authority  of  the  general  government 
to  interfere  in  the  affairs  of  a  State, — even  when  that  State  had 
acted  as  Missouri  had  done, — where  not  denied,  was  seriously 
doubted,  especially  by  Democrats,  and  it  was  a  Democratic  adminis- 
tration that  held  the  reins  of  power.  Others,  though  holding- 
different  views,  were  unwilling,  for  political  reasons,  to  champion  the 
cause  of  the  unpopular  Mormons.  Policy,  the  Prophet  discovered, 
rather  than  principle,  swayed  the  hearts  and  minds  of  the  majority 
of  his  country's  statesmen.  The  Committee  on  Judiciary,  to  whom 
the  memorial  of  the  Saints  was  referred,  with  claims  against  Missouri 
for  about  one-and-a-half  million  dollars,  finally  reported  adversely 
upon  the  petition.  This,  however,  was  after  the  Prophet  left 


While  there  he  had  interviews  with  the  President,  Martin  Van 
Buren,  who  said,  after  listening  to  his  story:  "Your  cause  is  just, 
but  I  can  do  nothing  for  you."  This  frank  democratic  statement 
the  Mormon  leader  might  have  excused, — though  himself  a  Whig, 
and  differing  from  the  President  on  the  "  State  Rights"  question 
involved.  But  Van  Buren  unwisely  added:  '■  If  I  take  up  for  you  I 
shall  lose  the  votes  of  Missouri," — referring  to  the  approaching 
presidential  election.  Personal  ambition,  quite  as  much  as  loyalty  to 
his  political  principles,  was  thus  shown  to  be  his  ruling  motive.  For 
such  an  admission  Joseph  Smith's  fearless,  uncalculating  spirit 
was  hardly  prepared.  Heartsick  and  disgusted  at  what  he  deemed  a 
display  of  pusillanimity  in  high  places,  he  now  left  Washington 
for  home. 

Passing  through  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  he  formed  the 
acquaintance  of  Edward  Hunter,  a  prosperous  farmer  and  an 
influential  man  in  that  vicinity,  who  was  already  favorably  impressed 
with  Mormonism.  He  soon  afterwards  embraced  the  faith  and 
removed  to  Illinois.  Edward  Hunter  became  Bishop  of  the  Fifth 
Ward  of  Nauvoo,  and  in  Utah  the  Presiding  Bishop  of  the  Church. 

From  Chester  County  the  Prophet  proceeded  to  Philadelphia, 
where  a  flourishing  branch  of  the  Church  existed,  and  then  returned 
to  Illinois,  arriving  at  Commerce  on  the  4th  of  March,  1840. 

Hyrum  Smith,  in  the  absence  of  his  associates,  had  had  presi- 
dential charge  of  the  Churh.  Stakes  of  Zion  had  been  organized  at 
Commerce  and  in  Iowa.  William  Marks  became  President  of  the 
Commerce  Stake,  with  Charles  C.  Rich  and  Austin  Cowles  as  his 
counselors.  The  members  of  the  High  Council  were  G.  W.  Harris, 
Samuel  Bent.  Henry  G.  Sherwood.  David  Fullmer,  Alpheus  Cutler. 
William  Huntington,  Thomas  Grover.  Newel  Knight,  Charles  C.  Bich, 
David  Dort,  Seymour  Brunson  and  Lewis  D.  Wilson.  On  the  Iowa 
side  John  Smith  was  President  of  the  Stake,  and  Reynolds  Cahoon 
and  Lyman  Wight  were  his  counselors.  Members  of  the  High  Coun- 
cil: Asahel  Smith,  John  M.  Burk,  A.  0.  Smoot,  Richard  Howard, 
Willard   Snow,   Erastus   Snow.    David   Pettigrew,   Elijah    Fordham. 

HISTORY  OF   UTAH.  17-5 

Edward  Fisher,  Elias  Smith,  John  Patten  and  Stephen  Chase.  Alan- 
son  Ripley  was  Bishop  in  Iowa.  Other  stakes  were  in  early  contem- 

At  Commerce  in  November,  1839,  Don  Carlos  Smith  and 
Ebenezer  Robinson  had  established  a  semi-monthly  paper  called 
the  Times  and  Seasons.  This  was  the  organ  of  the  Church.  In  its 
columns  Hyrum  Smith  had  published  an  account  of  the  Missouri 
persecutions.  The  Prophet  became  the  editor  of  this  paper.  The 
Nauvoo  Wasp,  edited  by  William  Smith,  and  afterwards  renamed  the 
Nauvoo  Neighbor,  was  a  later  publication. 

On  April  6th,  1840 — the  tenth  anniversary  of  the  Church — the 
Saints  convened,  according  to  custom,  in  general  conference.  Dur- 
ing its  session  Apostles  Orson  Hyde  and  John  E.  Page  were  appointed 
to  take  a  mission  to  Palestine.  Orson  Hyde  accepted  the  call,  and 
subsequently  departed  for  the  Holy  Land.  Elder  Page  failed  to  fulfill 
his  mission.  It  was  the  beginning  of  his  defection  from  Mormonism. 
President  Joseph  Smith  detailed  to  the  conference  his  recent  visit  to 
Washington,  including  his  interview  with  Van  Buren,  of  whom  he 
expressed  his  opinion  in  plain  terms.  Resolutions  were  passed 
thanking  the  people  of  Illinois,  their  representatives  in  Congress, 
their  governor,  Thomas  Carlin,  and  Governor  Lucas,  of  Iowa,  for  aid, 
sympathy  and  protection. 

Commerce  now  changed  its  name  to  Nauvoo.  During  their  first 
year  of  occupancy,  hundreds  of  houses  had  been  erected  by  the  Saints, 
Avho  were  fast  flocking  to  their  new  gathering  place,  and  the  insignifi- 
cant hamlet  of  a  few  months  before  was  rapidly  assuming  the 
dimensions  of  a  city.  The  bend  in  the  Mississippi  at  this  point  gave 
the  place  three  river  fronts,  with  some  of  the  streets  terminating  at 
the  water's  edge.  The  thoroughfares  were  wide,  crossing  each  other 
at  right  angles;  a  model  of  healthfulness  and  beauty  many  times 
copied  by  the  city-building  Saints  in  laying  out  their  settlements  in 
the  Rocky  Mountains.  The  houses,  embowered  i«^groves  and  gar- 
dens, tastefully  and  securely  fenced,  ranged  all  the  way  from  the 
neatly  white-washed  log-cabin,  through  buildings  of  brick  and  frame 


to  the  stately  mansion  of  stone.  When  the  Temple  came  to  crown 
the  noble  hill  upon  which  the  city  had  already  climbed,  and  the  busy 
hum  of  industry  from  forge,  mill  and  factory  arose  as  incense  from  a 
hundred  altars,  Nauvoo,  the  home  of  twice  ten  thousand  people,  was 
not  only  the  City  Beautiful  of  the  Saints,  but  bid  fair  to  become,  in 
the  not  far  distant  future,  the  pride  and  glory  of  Illinois." 

At  the  time  of  which  we  write,  May,  1840,  the  town  had  from 
two  to  three  thousand  inhabitants,  and  was  divided  ecclesiastically 
into  three  wards — Upper,  Middle  and  Lower — presided  over  severally 
by  Bishops  Edward  Partridge,!  Newel  K.  Whitney  and  Vinson 
Knight.  As  the  place  grew,  these  three  wards  became  four,  then  ten, 
while  in  the  farming  districts,  outside  the  city,  three  additional  wards 
were  created. 

Thus  were  affairs  at  Nauvoo  prospering.  Thus,  with  that  won- 
derful recuperative  power  which  has  ever  characterized  them  as  a 
people,  were  these  whilom  exiles  of  Missouri  already  recovering 
from  the  effects  of  the  persecution  which  had  robbed  them  of  well- 
nigh  their  earthly  all. 

The  Mormons  now  began  to  take  part  in  Illinois  politics.  Per- 
haps it  would  have  been  well  for  them  in  a  worldly  sense,  though 
not  so  well  in  a  sense  far  wider  and  higher,  had  they  refrained  from 
exercising  this  right.  Though  not  immediately  apparent,  it  was  the 
beginning  for  them  of  untold  sorrow.  Next  to  the  rancor  of  religious 
hatred  is  the  bitterness  of  political  animosity.  The  Mormons  ere 
this  had  experienced  both.  They  were  fated  ere  long  to  again  exper- 
ience them. 

A  great  presidential  election  was  approaching.  The  celebrated 
"log-cabin  and  hard  cider'*  campaign  was  in  progress,  and  Whigs  and 
Democrats  throughout  the  entire  land  were  working  arduously  in  the 
interests  of  their  respective  parties.  William  Henry  Harrison  was 
the  Whig  candidate  for  the  Presidency,  while  Martin  Van  Buren  had 

■■-  Nauvoo  in  1844-5  was  said  to  lie  the  mosl 
t  Bishop  Partridge  died  on  May  l>7Hi  of  thai 


again  been  put  forward  by  the  Democrats.  In  Hancock  County, 
Illinois,  the  two  great  parties  were  almost  equally  divided.  A  hand- 
ful of  votes,  thrown  either  way,  would  suffice  to  turn  a  local  election. 
This  balance  of  power  was  held  by  the  Mormons.  To  secure  and 
retain  their  favor,  therefore,  became  an  object  with  politicians  of 
both  sides. 

Most  of  the  Mormons  were  traditionally  Democrats.  In  Ohio, 
in  February,  1835,  they  had  started  a  paper  called  the  Northern 
Times,  supporting  democracy.  But  now,  it  seems,  they  mostly  voted 
with  the  Whigs,  casting  their  ballots  for  the  Harrison  electors.  The 
reason  probably  Avas,  not  that  Joseph  Smith  was  a  Whig,  but  that 
Martin  Van  Buren  was  a  Democrat.  At  subsequent  elections  in 
Illinois  the  majority  of  the  Mormons  generally  voted  the  democratic 

They  were  quite  naturally  averse,  however,  to  supporting  their 
enemies  on  any  ticket,  or  men  whom  they  believed  incompetent, 
corrupt  and  immoral.  They  insisted,  not  only  upon  representation 
for  themselves,  but  that  men  of  character  and  ability  be  put  forward, 
if  their  vote  was  wanted  to  elect  them.  The  politicians,  not  always 
able  to  furnish  what  was  required,  no  doubt  deemed  this  fastidi- 
ous. Many  thought  it  dictatorial.  Misunderstandings  occurred,  and 
much  ill-feeling  was  at  times  created.  Men  whom  the  Mormons  thus 
rejected  as  nominees, — for  at  times  they  carried  their  point  in 
caucus, — as  well  as  those  whom  they  defeated  at  elections,  generally 
became  their  enemies. 

Among  their  friends  in  political  circles  were  Hon.  Sidney  H. 
Little  and  Hon.  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  the  former  a  Whig  and  the  latter 
a  Democrat.  Mr.  Little,  who  was  a  State  senator,  died  before  the 
Mormon  troubles  in  Illinois  had  fairly  begun.  Judge  Douglas,  who 
was  Secretary  of  the  State,  though  he  eventually  proclaimed  against 
the  Saints,  was  their  friend  for  several  years  after  the  Prophet's  death. 
Stephen  A.  Douglas  and  Joseph  Smith  each  regarded  the  other  as  a 
masterspirit.  It  was  by  means  of  the  Mormon  vote,  during  the 
Prophet's   lifetime,   that    "the   little   giant"   finally   attained    t«>   the 


United  States  Senate.  His  opponents  styled  him  "the  Mormon-made 

In  1840,  as  said,  the  Saints  supported  the  Whig  party  in  the 
contest  which  resulted  in  the  defeat  of  Martin  Van  Buren,  and  the 
election  of  General  Harrison  as  President  of  the  United  States.  The 
anxiety  of  the  rival  parties  to  attach  the  Mormons  to  their  interests, 
was  doubtless  an  important  element  in  the  peace  and  prosperity 
enjoyed  by  the  Saints  during  this  period. 

But  now  a  cloud,  "a  cloud  no  bigger  than  a  man's  hand,"  but 
that  hand  an  inveterate  foe  to  the  Prophet  and  his  people,  appeal's 
upon  their  horizon.  It  is  the  forerunner  of  a  storm,  a  storm  which, 
though  not  bursting  forth  instanter,  shall  know  no  lull  when  once  its 
fury  breaks,  till  the  blood  of  that  Prophet  has  been  shed,  and  another 
and  a  crowning  exodus  of  that  people — from  the  confines  of  civiliza- 
tion to  the  wilds  of  the  savage  west — shall  have  startled  by  its 
strangeness  and  awakened  by  its  unparalleled  achievement,  a  world's 

On  the  15th  of  September,  1840,  the  Governor  of  Missouri, 
Lilburn  W.  Boggs,  made  a  demand  upon  Thomas  Carlin,  Governor  of 
Illinois,  for  Joseph  Smith,  junior,  Sidney  Rigdon,  Lyman  Wight, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  Caleb  Baldwin  and  Alanson  Brown,  as  fugitives  from 
justice.  The  demand,  it  seems,  was  retaliative  in  its  character.  On  the 
7th  of  July,  preceding,  a  party  of  Missourians  had  kidnapped  four 
Mormons,  namely  :  James  Allred,  Noah  Bogers,  Alanson  Brown  and 
Benjamin  Boyce,  whom  they  carried  over  the  river  to  Tully,  Lewis 
County,  Missouri,  tied  them  to  trees  and  whipped  them  unmercifully. 

Their  excuse  for  their  lawlessness  and  barbarity  was  that  the 
Mormons  had  stolen  from  them.  The  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  at 
that  time,  was  infested  with  thieves  and  rogues  of  every  description  ; 
preying  upon  all  classes,  the  Saints  included.  Some  of  these  thieves 
were  probably  Mormons,  weak  and  wicked  enough  to  thus  retaliate 
upon  those  who  had  robbed  them  of  their  all.  But  the  Mormon 
people  were  not  given  to  thievery,  nor  was  there  any  proof  that  the 
four  men  abducted  and  abused  by  the  Missourians  were  guilty.     They 


were  in  the  river-bottom  hunting  horses,  it  is  said,  when  the  men  of 
Tully,  after  recovering  some  stolen  goods  near  Warsaw,  twenty  miles 
below  Nauvoo,  came  upon  and  captured  them. 

The  affair  created  considerable  excitement  at  Nauvoo  and 
throughout  Hancock  County;  the  general  feeling  of  all  classes,  Mor- 
mon and  non-Mormon,  being  against  the  Missourians.  Governor 
Carlin,  in  response  to  popular  demand,  called  upon  Missouri  to 
deliver  up  the  kidnappers.  It  was  then  that  Governor  Boggs  issued 
his  requisition  for  Joseph  Smith  and  his  brethren,  most  of  whom 
had  escaped  from  captivity  in  that  State  nearly  eighteen  months 

Possibly  there  was  more  than  retaliation  in  this  act  of  Governor 
Boggs.  The  conduct  of  Missouri  in  the  bloody  crusade  inaugurated 
by  her  Executive  against  her  Mormon  citizens,  had  been  widely  con- 
demned, and  the  charges  alleged  against  the  Saints  in  justification  of 
that  conduct  were  generally  disbelieved.  The  fact  that  many 
months  had  passed  since  the  escape  of  the  Mormon  leaders,  during 
which  no  effort  had  been  made  to  retake  them,  was  being  cited  in 
proof  of  the  falsity  of  those  charges.  Governor  Boggs,  therefore, 
after  a  Rip  Van  Winkle  sleep  of  seventeen  months,  suddenly  wakes 
up  and  returns  to  the  assault,  hoping  perhaps  to  vindicate,  or  at 
least  render  consistent  his  former  course,  and  rescue  by  a  cowp 
d'etat  what  remains  of  his  besmirched  and  shattered  reputation. 

Besides,  the  state  election  is  approaching,  and  it  may  be  that 
he  hopes  for  another  term  of  office.  What  more  brilliant  a  bribe, 
what  more  tempting  a  bait  for  ballots,  in  Mormon-hating  Missouri, 
than  Joseph  Smith  the  Mormon  leader  in  chains? 

Many  non-Mormon  citizens  of  Illinois  stoutly  opposed  the 
delivery  of  the  persons  named,  even  if  guilty,  to  be  dealt  with  by 
officials  who  had  sanctioned  and  even  assisted  in  the  butchery, 
wholesale  robbery  and  expulsion  of  their  innocent  co-religionists. 
But  many  did  not  believe  them  guilty.  Said  the  Quincy  Whig,  a 
prominent  journal  of  that  period:  "We  repeat,  Smith  and  Bigdon 
should  not  be  given  up.        *        *        The  law  is  made  to  secure  the 


punishment  of  the  guilty,  and  not  to  sacrifice  the  innocent.  *  * 
Compliance  on  the  part  of  Governor  Carlin  would  be  to  deliver  them, 
not  to  be  tried  for  crime,  but  to  be  punished  without  crime." 

Other  papers  justified  the  Governor  in  observing  the  forms  of 
law  usual  in  such  cases,  and  issuing  his  requisition  for  the  arrest 
and  delivery  of  the  Mormon  leaders  to  the  officers  of  Missouri. 

Carlin's  writ  was  returned  to  him  unserved;  the  sheriff  of  Han- 
cock County,  entrusted  with  its  service,  not  being  able  to  find  the 
persons  wanted.  Having  no  faith  in  Missouri  justice,  like  the  wise' 
man  in  the  proverb  they  had  probably  "foreseen  the  evil"  and  "hid 

Despite  this  unpleasant  episode,  fortune  continued  to  rain  favors 
upon  the  Mormons  in  Illinois.  During  the  winter  of  1840-41  the 
Legislature  granted  the  Charter  of  the  City  of  Nauvoo,  one  of  the 
most  liberal  charters  ever  bestowed  upon  a  municipality.  It  was 
planned  by  the  Prophet  and  devised,  as  he  said,  "on  principles  so 
broad  that  any  honest  man  might  dwell  secure  under  its  protective 
influence  without  distinction  of  sect  or  party." 

A  few  sections  of  the  Charter  are  here  inserted: 

Sec.  4.  There  shall  be  a  City  Council  tit  consist  of  Mayor,  four  Aldermen  and  nine 
Councilors,  who  shall  have  the  qualifications  of  electors  of  said  city,  and  shall  be  chosen 
by  the  qualified  voters  thereof,  and  shall  hold  their  offices  for  two  years,  and  until  their 
successors  shall  be  elected  and  qualified.  The  City  Council  shall  judge  of  the  qualifications, 
elections  and  returns  of  their  own  members,  and  a  majority  of  them  shall  form  a  quorum 
to  do  business;  but  a  smaller  number  may  adjourn  from  day  to  day,  and  compel  the 
attendance  of  absent  members,  under  such  penalties  as  may  be  prescribed  by  ordinance. 

Sec.  5.  The  Mayor,  Aldermen  and  Councilors,  before  entering  upon  the  duties  of 
their  offices,  shall  take  and  subscribe  an  oath  or  affirmation,  that  they  will  supporl  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  of  this  State,  and  that  they  will  well  and  truly  per- 
form tin'  duties  of  their  offices  to  the  best  of  their  skill  and  abilities. 

Sec.  11.  The  City  Council  shall  have  power  and  authority  to  make,  ordain,  estab- 
lish and  execute  all  such  ordinances,  not  repugnant  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  Slates 
in'  of  this  State,  as  they  may  deem  necessary  tor  the  benefit,  peace,  good  order,  regulation, 
convenience  ami  cleanliness  of  said  city;  for  the  protection  of  property  therein  from 
destruction  by  fire  or  otherwise,  and  I'm-  the  health  and  happiness  thereof;  they  shall  have 
power  lii  lill  all  vacancies  that  may  happen  by  death,  resignation  or  removal,  ill  any  of  the 
offices  herein  made  elective;  to  fix  and  establish  all  the  lees  of  the  officers  of  said  corpor- 


each  offense,  as  they  may  deem  just,  for  refusing  to  accept  any  office  in  or  under  the  cor- 
poration, or  for  misconduct  therein;  to  divide  the  city  into  wards;  to  add  to  the  number  of 
Aldermen  and  Councilors,  and  apportion  them  among  the  several  wants  as  may  be  must 
just  and  conducive  to  the  interests  of  the  city. 

Sec.  13.  The  City  Council  shall  have  exclusive  power  within  the  city,  by  ordinance 
to  license,  regulate  and  restrain  the  keeping  of  ferries;  to  regulate  the  police  ot  the  city; 
to  impose  lines,  forfeitures  and  penalties  for  the  breach  of  any  ordinance,  and  provide  for 
the  recovery  of  such  lines  and  forfeitures,  and  the  enforcement  of  such  penalties,  and  to 
pass  such  ordinances  as  may  he  necessary  and  proper  for  carrying  into  execution  the 
powers  specified  in  this  act:  Provided,  Such  ordinances  are  not  repugnant  In  the  Constitu- 
tion of  the  I'niled  Stales  or  of  this  State;  and  in  fine,  to  exercise  such  other  legislative 
powers  as  are  conferred  on  the  City  Council  of  the  city  of  Springfield,  by  an  act  entitled 
'■An  act  to  incorporate  the  city  of  Springfield,"  approved  February  third,  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  forty. 

Sec.  Hi.  The  Mayor  and  Aldermen  shall  be  conservators  of  the  peace  within  the 
limits  of  said  city,  and  shall  have  all  the  powers  of  Justices  of  the  Peace  therein,  both  in 
civil  and  criminal  cases,  arising  under  the  laws  of  the  State;  they  shall,  as  Justices  of  the 
Peace  within  the  limits  nf  said  city,  perform  the  same  duties,  be  governed  by  the  same 
laws,  give  the  same  bonds  and  security  as  other  Justices  of  the  Peace,  ami  he  commis- 
sioned as  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  and  for  said  city  by  the  Governor. 

Sec.  17.  The  Mayer  shall  have  exclusive  jurisdiction  in  all  cases  arising  under  the 
ordinances  of  the  corporation,  and  shall  issue  such  process  as  may  be  necessary  to  carry 
said  ordinances  into  execution  and  effect;  appeals  may  be  had  from  any  decision  or  judg- 
ment nf  said  Mayor  or  Aldermen,  arising  under  the  city  ordinances,  to  the  Municipal 
Court,  under  such  regulations  as  may  be  presented  by  ordinance,  which  Court  shall  lie 
composed  of  the  Mayor,  or  Chief  Justice,  and  the  Aldermen  as  Associate  Justices,  and 
from  the  final  judgment  nf  the  Municipal  Court  to  the  Circuit  Court  of  Hancock  County, 
in  the  same  manner  as  appeals  are  taken  from  Ihe  judgments  of  Justices  of  the  Peace  : 
Provided.  That  the  parties  litigant  shall  have  a  right  to  a  trial  by  a  jury  of  twelve  men  in 
all  cases  before  the  Municipal  Court.  The  Municipal  Court  shall  have  power  to 
grant    writs    of  habeas   rorpti.-i    in    all    cases    arising    under   the    ordinances  nf   Ihe  City 

Sec.  lit.  All  processes  issued  by  the  Mayor,  Aldermen  or  Municipal  Court  shall  he 
directed  In  the  Marshal,  and  in  the  execution  thereof  he  shall  he  governed  by  Ihe  same 
laws  ;i>  are  or  nia\  he  prescribed  for  ihe  direction  anil  compensation  of  constables  in  simi- 
lar cases.  The  Marshal  shall  also  perform  such  other  duties  as  may  he  required  of  him 
ler  the  ordinances  of  said  city,  and  shall  he  the  principal  ministerial  officer. 

Sec.  24.     The   City   Council    may    establish  and    organize   an    institution   <A'  learning 

within  ihe  limits  of  the  city  for  the  leaching  nf  ihe  arts,  sciences  ami  tear I  professions, 

I.,  he  called  the  "University  nf  the  City  nf  Nauvoo;"  which  institution  shall  he  under  the 
control  ami  managemenl  nf  a  Board  nf  Trustees,  consisting  nf  ;i  Chancellor,  Registrar, 
and  twenty-three  Regents,  which  Board  shall  thereafter  he  a   body  corporate  and  politic, 

will,  perpetual  succession,  by  the  nan f  the  "Chancellor  and  Regents  nf  the  University 

nf  ihe  City  of  Nauvoo,"  and  shall  have  full   power  In  pass,  ordain,  establish  ami  execute 


all  such  laws  and  ordinances  as  they  may  consider  for  the  welfare  and  prosperity  of  said 
University,  its  officers  and  students ;  Provided,  That  the  said  laws  and  ordinances  shall 
not  be  repugnant  to  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  or  of  this  State  ;  and,  Provided, 
also,  That  the  Trustees  shall  at  all  times  be  appointed  by  the  City  Council,  and  shall 
have  all  the  powers  and  privileges  for  the  advancement  of  the  cause  of  education  which 
appertain  to  the  trustees  of  any  other  college  or  university  of  this  State. 

Sec.  25.  The  City  Council  may  organize  the  inhabitants  of  said  city  subject  to  mili- 
tary duty  into  a  body  of  independent  military  men,  to  be  called  the  "  Nauvoo  Legion."  the 
court-martial  of  which  shall  be  composed  of  the  commissioned  officers  of  said  Legion,  and 
constitute  the  law-making  department,  with  full  powers  and  authority  to  make,  ordain, 
establish  and  execute,  all  such  laws  and  ordinances,  as  may  be  considered  necessary  for 
the  benefit,  government  and  regulation  of  said  Legion  ;  Provided,  Said  court-martial  shall 
pass  no  law  or  act  repugnant  to  or  inconsistent  with  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
or  of  this  State  ;  and  Provided,  also,  That  the  officers  of  the  Legion  shall  be  commissioned 
by  the  Governor  of  the  State.  The  said  Legion  shall  perform  the  same  amount  of  mili- 
tary duty  as  is  now  or  may  be  hereafter  required  of  the  regular  militia  of  the  State,  and 
shall  be  at  the  disposal  of  the  Mayor  in  executing  the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  City 
Corporation,  and  the  laws  of  the  State,  and  at  the  disposal  of  the  Governor  for  the  public 
defense  and  the  execution  of  the  laws  of  the  State,  or  of  the  United  States,  and  shall  be 
entitled  to  their  proportion  of  the  public  arms  ;  and,  Provided,  also,  That  said  Legion 
shall  be  exempt  from  all  other  military  duty. 

Having  passed  both  houses  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  the 
Charter  of  Nauvoo  was  signed  by  Governor  Carlin  and  certified  by 
Secretary  Douglas  on  the  16th  of  December.  It  went  into  effect 
February  1st,  1841. 

On  that  day  occurred  the  first  city  election  of  Nauvoo,  resulting 
in  the  choice  of  the  following  named  officers  :  Mayor,  John  C.  Ben- 
nett :  Aldermen,  William  Marks,  Samuel  H.  Smith,  Daniel  H.  Wells 
and  Newel  K.  Whitney ;  Councilors,  Joseph  Smith,  Hyrum  Smith, 
Sidney  Rigdon,  Charles  C.  Rich,  John  T.  Barnett,  Wilson  Law,  Don 
Carlos  Smith,  John  P.  Greene  and  Vinson  Knight. 

Among  the  first  bills  for  ordinances  presented  to  the  city  coun- 
cil, was  one  to  prohibit  the  sale  of  liquor  at  retail  within  the  corpor- 
ate limits,  and  others  providing  for  the  freedom  of  all  religious  sects 
and  of  all  peaceable  public  meetings  within  the  city.  These  bills 
were  presented  by  the  Prophet,  and  ordinances  passed  accordingly. 
It  was  the  purpose  of  the  Saints,  who  greatly  predominated  at 
Nauvoo.  to  make  of  it  a  strictly  moral  and  free  city,  as  free  from  vice 

HISTORY   OF   UTAH.  183 

as  from   tyranny,  a  delight   at    once  to  its   inhabitants  and  to  the 
stranger  within  its  gates. 

The  municipal  election  was  followed  by  the  organization  of  the 
University  and  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion,  as  provided  for  in  the  Charter. 
At  the  military  election,  held  on  the  4th  of  February,  Joseph  Smith 
was  chosen  Lieutenant-General,  John  C.  Bennett,  Major-General,  and 
Wilson  Law  and  Don  Carlos  Smith,  Brigadier-Generals  of  the  Legion. 
It  was  modeled  after  the  Roman  legion,  and  consisted  originally  of 
six  companies,  divided  into  two  brigades  or  cohorts.  Subsequently 
other  citizens  of  Hancock  County  joined  the  Legion,  and  it  finally 
aggregated  several  thousand  troops. 

The  Nauvoo  University,  for  which  a  suitable  edifice  was  to  be 
erected,  was  officered  as  follows  :  Chancellor,  John  C.  Bennett;  Reg- 
istrar/William Law;  Regents,  Joseph  Smith,  Sidney  Rigdon,  Hyrum 
Smith,  William  Marks,  Samuel  H.  Smith,  Daniel  H.  Wells,  Newel  K. 
Whitney,  Charles  C.  Rich,  John  T.  Barnett,  Wilson  Law,  John  P. 
Greene,  Vinson  Knight,  Isaac  Galland,  Elias  Higbee,  Robert  D.  Foster, 
James  Adams,  Samuel  Bennett,  Ebenezer  Robinson,  John  Snider, 
George  Miller,  Lenos  M.  Knight,  John  Taylor  and  Heber  C.  Kimball. 
Its  faculty  included  the  names  of  Sidney  Rigdon,  Orson  Pratt,  Orson 
Spencer  and  James  Kelly ;  the  latter  two  college  graduates.  Four 
common  school  wards,  with  three  wardens  to  each,  were  connected 
with  the  University. 

On  January  24th  of  that  year,  a  change  had  taken  place  in  the 
personnel  of  the  Church  Presidency.  Hyrum  Smith,  second  coun- 
selor to  the  Prophet,  having  been  called  to  succeed  his  deceased  sire 
as  Patriarch  of  the  Church,  William  Law  was  chosen  to  fill  the 
vacancy  thus  created  in  the  Presidency.  A  few  days  later,  Joseph 
Smith  was  chosen  Trustee-in-Trust  for  the  Church,  to  hold  the  legal 
title  to  its  property  agreeable  to  the  laws  of  Illinois.  The  succession 
to  this  office  was  vested  in  the  First  Presidency.  It  was  perpetuated 
for  many  years  after  the  Mormons  removed  to  Utah. 

April  6th,  1841.  A  general  conference  convened  this  day  at  the 
chief  city  of  the  Saints.     During  the  morning  hours  the  corner  stones 

184  HISTORY   OF   UTAH. 

of  the  Nauvoo  Temple  were  laid  and  dedicated.  On  the  third  day  of  the 
conference,  Lyman  Wight  was  ordained  an  Apostle  to  fill  a  vacancy 
which  had  for  some  time  existed  in  the  council  of  the  Twelve. 

Apropos  of  the  Apostles,  let  us  now  briefly  advert  to  them  and 
their  mission  abroad.  After  leaving  Illinois,  in  the  fall  of  1839,  the 
majority  of  the  Twelve  made  their  way  to  Kirtland,  where  a  few 
families  of  Saints  yet  resided.  Thence  they  journeyed  to  New  York, 
preaching  by  the  way  and  laboring  for  some  time  in  that  city  and  its 
vicinity.  In  the  latter  part  of  December,  John  Taylor,  Wilford  Wood- 
ruff, Hiram  Clark  and  Theodore  Turley  sailed  for  Liverpool  on  board 
the  Oxford.  Three  months  later,  Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  Orson  Pratt,  George  A.  Smith  and  Reuben  Hedlock 
followed  in  their  wake  on  the  Patrick  Henry. 

Landing  at  Liverpool  on  the  6th  of  April,  1840,  President  Young 
and  his  party  there  found  Apostle  Taylor,  with  about  thirty  converts. 
He  and  his  party  had  arrived  at  that  port  on  the  11th  of  January. 
They  were  there  welcomed  by  Mr.  George  Cannon,  Apostle  Taylor's 
brother-in-law,  who  resided  at  Liverpool.  He  was  the  father  of 
George  Q.  Cannon,  then  a  mere  lad,  and  not  yet  connected  with  the 
cause  in  which  he  was  destined  to  play,  in  after  years,  so  prominent 
a  part.  Visiting  Preston,  Apostle  Taylor  had  returned  with  Joseph 
Fielding  to  Liverpool,  while  Elders  Woodruff  and  Turley  had  gone 
into  Staffordshire,  and  Hiram  Clark  to  Manchester.  In  that  great 
town  a  branch  of  the  Church  had  previously  been  built  up  by  Elder 
William  Clayton. 

Immediately  upon  the  arrival  of  President  Young,  a  conference 
of  the  British  Saints  was  called  to  convene  at  Preston  on  the  14th  of 
April.  That  clay  Willard  Richards  was  ordained  to  the  Apostleship. 
It  was  decided  to  send  for  a  score  or  more  of  the  Seventies,  to  assist 
the  Apostles  in  their  ministry:  to  publish  a  hymn  book  for  the  use  of 
the  Saints,  and  to  establish  at  Manchester  a  monthly  periodical  to  be 
called  The  Latter-day  Saints   Millennial  Starr1' 

*The  first  number  of  the  Star,  edited  by  Parley  P.  Pratt,  appeared  in  Ma 
is  now  a  weekly  issue  and  is  published  at  Liverpool. 


The  Apostles  and  Elders  then  separated  and  went  preaching  into 
various  parts  of  Great  Britain.  Their  experience  was  a  repetition  of 
the  success  of  Heber  C.  Kimball  and  his  confreres  in  that  land  a  few 
years  before.  The  fruits  of  Apostle  Woodruff's  labors  in  Stafford- 
shire and  Herefordshire  were  especially  abundant.  He  baptized  hun- 
dreds, including  over  forty  preachers  of  the  sect  known  as  United 
Brethren.  Wales,  Scotland,  Ireland,  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  parts  of 
England  yet  unvisited  by  the  Elders,  were  all  penetrated  and  many 
converts  made  of  each  nationality.  The  foundations  for  future  mis- 
sionary success,  in  the  organization  of  conferences,  the  establish- 
ment of  a  publishing  house  and  a  shipping  agency  were  now  laid 
broad  and  permanently. 

On  June  6th,  1840,  a  company  of  forty-one  Latter-day  Saints — 
the  first  to  emigrate  from  a  foreign  land,  sailed  from  Liverpool  on  the 
ship  Britannia,  bound  for  Nauvoo,  via  New  York.  John  Moon  had 
charge  of  this  company.  About  three  months  later  two  hundred 
more,  in  charge  of  Theodore  Turley  and  William  Clayton,  were  carried 
over  in  the  North  America.  Several  other  companies  sailed  in  1841,  the 
last  one  for  that  year  going  to  Nauvoo  by  way  of  New  Orleans,  which 
then  became  the  regular  route.  Each  succeeding  year  added  its 
quota  ;  the  work  of  proselyting  more  than  keeping  pace  with  the  con- 
tinuous drain  of  emigration.  It  is  estimated  that  prior  to  the  settle- 
ment of  Utah  nearly  five  thousand  British  converts  to  Mormonism 
had  landed  in  America. 

Thus  was  set  in  motion  that  great  tide  of  immigration  which, 
swelling  the  numbers  of  the  Saints  in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  peopled 
in  later  years  with  the  skilled  mechanics  and  hardy  yeomanry  of 
Britain,  Scandinavia  and  other  European  countries,  the  mountain 
valleys  of  Utah  ;  mingling  their  brave  blood — brave  to  forsake  native 
land,  sunder  all  earthly  ties  and  endure  the  scorn  and  odium  heaped 
ever  upon  the  adherents  of  an  unpopular  faith — with  the  life-stream 
of  a  race  equally  heroic,  cradled  in  the  lap  of  liberty.  The  result, 
the  bone  and  sinew,  character  and  intelligence  of  Utah  to-day. — the 
promise  of  the  present  to  the  future. 


When  the  Apostles  landed  at  Liverpool,  in  April,  1840,  the 
Church  in  Great  Britain  numbered  less  than  two  thousand  souls. 
Twelve  months  later,  when  most  of  them  returned  to  America,  that 
figure  had  been  more  than  trebled.  Said  Brigham  Young  :  "  It  truly 
seems  a  miracle  to  look  upon  the  contrast  between  our  landing  and 
departing  at  Liverpool.  We  landed  in  the  spring  of  1840.  as 
strangers  in  a  strange  land,  and  penniless  ;  but  through  the  mercy  of 
God  we  have  gained  many  friends,  established  churches  in  almost 
every  noted  town  and  city  of  Great  Britain  ;  baptized  between  seven 
and  eight  thousand  souls,  printed  five  thousand  Books  of  Mormon, 
three  thousand  hymn  books,  twenty-five  hundred  volumes  of  the 
Millennial  Star  and  fifty  thousand  tracts  ;  emigrated  to  Zion  one  thou- 
sand souls,  established  a  permanent  shipping  agency,  which  will  be  a 
great  blessing  to  the  Saints,  and  have  left  sown  in  the  hearts  of 
thousands  the  seed  of  eternal  life.  And  yet  we  have  lacked  nothing 
to  eat,  drink  or  wear." 

Parley  P.  Pratt  was  left  by  his  brethren  to  preside  over  the 
British  Mission.  Orson  Hyde  was  in  Palestine.  The  remainder  of 
the  Apostles  who  had  gone  abroad  now  returned  home,  some  of  them 
reaching  Nauvoo  early  in  July,  1841. 

Anticipating  their  arrival  by  several  weeks,  our  story  now 
returns  to  the  latter  part  of  May.  As  already  shown,  it  was  a  part  of 
the  plan  of  the  Mormon  leader,  besides  building  up  a  central  Stake  of 
Zion  at  Nauvoo,  to  establish  other  stakes  in  that  vicinity.  Among 
these,  which  had  now  been  organized  for  several  months,  were  those 
of  Ramus  and  Lima  in  Hancock  County,  Quincy  and  Mount  Hope  in 
Adams  County,  Geneva  in  Morgan  County,  and  -Zarahemla  in  Lee 
County,  Iowa.  One  of  the  stake  presidency  at  Quincy  was  Ezra  T. 
Benson,  afterwards  an  Apostle  and  a  prominent  Utah  pioneer. 

The  stake  at  Kirtland,  Ohio,  had  lately  been  reorganized,  with 
Almon  W.  Babbitt,  Lester  Brooks  and  Zebedee  Coltrin  as  its  presi- 
dency. All  or  most  of  the  stakes  were  being  built  up  rapidly  by  the 
gathering  of  the  Saints  from  various  parts,  including  those  from 


On  the  24th  of  May,  1841,  President  Smith  announced  through 
the  Times  and  Seasons  the  discontinuance  of  all  the  stakes  outside  of 
Hancock  County,  Illinois,  and  Lee  County,  Iowa,  and  called  upon  the 
Saints  residing  in  other  parts  "  to  make  preparations  to  come  in  with- 
out delay."  Said  he:  "This  is  important,  and  should  he  attended  to 
by  all  who  feel  an  interest  in  the  prosperity  of  this,  the  corner  stone 
of  Zion.  Here  the  temple  must  be  raised,  the  university  be  built, 
and  other  edifices  erected  which  are  necessary  for  the  great  work  of 
the  last  days;  and  which  can  only  be  done  by  a  concentration  of 
energy  and  enterprise."  To  this  call  the  Saints  responded  with 
alacrity,  and  came  pouring  in  from  all  parts  outside  the  two  counties 
mentioned,  to  engage  in  the  work  of  building  up  and  beautifying 
"  the  corner  stone  of  Zion." 

To  the  followers  of  the  Prophet,  as  well  as  to  the  Prophet  him- 
self, this  was  all  that  the  call  really  meant.  Temple-building,  with 
the  Saints,  we  need  scarcely  inform  the  reader,  amounts  to  what 
might  be  termed  a  divine  passion ;  a  work  done  by  Time  for  Eternity. 
The  sacred  edifices  they  rear,  with  their  solemn  ceremonies  and 
ordinances,  represent  to  them  so  many  links  literally  binding  earth 
to  heaven.  No  work  in  their  estimation  is  so  important, — not  even 
their  proselyting  labors  among  the  nations.  Next  to  their  religious 
mission  of  preaching,  proselyting,  and  administering  in  their  temples 
for  the  salvation  of  the  living  and  the  dead,  is  their  penchant  for 
founding  institutions  of  learning.  This  fact  Mormon  history 
abundantly  verifies,  in  spite  of  all  that  has  been  said  and  thought  to 
the  contrary.  This  explains  in  part  that  ready  obedience, —  wrong- 
fully supposed  to  be  a  mere  servile  yielding  to  the  dictum  of  a 
despot, — manifested  by  the  Saints  to  the  word  and  will  of  their 
leader.  He  was  simply  inviting  them  to  engage  in  the  work  most 
congenial  to  their  souls;  and  this,  as  we  have  said,  was  all  that  the 
call  really  meant. 

But  to  the  politicians  it  meant  more, — or  rather,  meant  some- 
thing entirely  different.  It  was  construed  by  them  as  a  shrewd 
political  maneuver,  foreshadowing  the  ultimate  domination  of  Han- 


cock  County  by  the  Mormons,  and  the  relegation  to  the  rear,  as  a 
hopeless  minority,  of  the  combined  forces  of  Whigs,  Democrats  and 
whatever  else,  in  spite  of  all  that  could  be  done  to  hinder.  It  was 
believed,  in  short,  to  be  a  "colonizing"  scheme,  a  trick  to  increase 
and  render  supreme  the  local  Mormon  vote.  Already  jealous  of  the 
power  wielded  by  the  Saints  at  the  polls,  and  professing  to  "  view 
with  alarm"  the  prospective  increase  of  that  power  by  means  of  the 
proposed  concentration,  some  of  the  politicians  now  set  about 
organizing  in  Hancock  County  a  new  party,  the  avowed  object  of 
which  was  to  oppose  and  counteract  the  political  influence  of  the 
Mormons  in  county  and  in  state. 

Public  meetings  to  discuss  the  question  were  held  at  various 
points,  and  resolutions  expressive  of  the  anti-Mormon  feeling  passed 
by  those  assembled.  The  result  was  the  rise  of  the  Anti-Mormon 
Party,  and  the  origin  of  the  term  "anti-Mormon,"  thenceforth  in 
vogue  in  Illinois  politics.  Much  bitterness  was  engendered  by  this 
party,  not  only  against  the  Mormons,  whom  they  finally  compelled  to 
leave  the  State,  but  against  all  who  affiliated  with  or  in  any  way 
befriended  them.  Such  were  denominated  Jack-Mormons.  The 
hatred  of  the  Anti-Mormons  for  the  Mormons,  despite  their 
resolutions  and  protestations  to  the  contrary,  expressed  itself  not 
only  in  politics,  but  in  everything  else,  social,  commercial  and 

Of  course  there  were  exceptions  to  this  rule  ;  Joseph  Smith  him- 
self styled  some  of  the  Anti-Mormons  "  good  fellows."  But  they 
were  mixed  in  politics, — which  like  adversity  "  makes  strange  bed- 
fellows,**— with  many  characters  that  were  positively  disreputable. 
The  party  as  a  whole  probably  answered,  far  better  than  did 
Bacon,  Pope's  caustic  description  of  England's  great  Lord  Chan- 
cellor.— "  the  wisest,  brightest,  meanest  of  mankind." 

The  Anti-Mormon  Party  of  Illinois  was  made  up  of  all  parties. 
Anyone  with  a  grievance  against  the  Saints, — from  the  apostate, 
expelled  from  the  Church  for  adultery,  to  the  common  thief  and 
counterfeiter,  convicted  and  punished  at  Nauvoo  for  breaking  the  city 


ordinances, — forthwith  became  an  anti-Mormon.  Whigs  and  Demo- 
crats then,  as  Republicans  and  Democrats  since,  united  to  oppose 
and  destroy  the  political  power  of  the  Mormons. 

Whether  or  not  the  anti-Mormons  conspired  about  this  time 
with  the  Executive  of  Illinois,  to  effect  a  speedier  solution  of  the 
problem  than  seemed  possible  by  means  of  ordinary  methods, — even 
to  remove  the  Mormon  leader  from  the  midst  of  his  people,  thus 
paralyzing  the  gathering  movement  in  progress, — may  never  be 
known.  But  the  arrest  of  the  Prophet,  a  few  weeks  after  his  procla- 
mation had  gone  forth,  on  the  identical  writ  first  issued  by  Governor 
Boggs  in  September,  1840,  with  the  part  played  by  Governor  Carlin 
in  bringing  about  that  arrest,  almost  warrants  the  suspicion.  It 
occurred  as  follows:  About  the  4th  of  June,  1841,  Joseph  Smith, 
having  accompanied  as  far  as  Quincy  his  brother  Hyrum  and  William 
Law,  who  were  starting  east  upon  a  mission,  called  upon  Governor 
Carlin  at  his  residence  in  that  place.  He  was  received  with  marked 
kindness  and  respect.  In  the  extended  interview  which  followed 
between  the  Governor  and  his  visitor,  nothing  whatever  was  said 
of  the  writ  formerly  issued  by  Missouri,  concerning  which  all 
excitement  had  long  since  abated.  Taking  leave  of  his  Excellency, 
the  Prophet  set  out  for  Nauvoo.  He  had  not  gone  far  when  he  was 
overtaken  and  arrested  by  Sheriff  King  of  Adams  County,  and  a 
posse,  whom  he  believed  the  Governor  had  sent  after  him.  Among 
them  was  an  officer  from  Missouri,  the  bearer  of  the  writ,  who 
gloated  exultingly  over  the  prisoner  and  the  prospect  of  carrying  him 
back  to  his  former  captivity. 

But  Joseph  Smith  had  studied  law  as  well  as  theology,  and  knew 
how  to  defend  his  rights  under  the  circumstances.  Obtaining  a  writ 
of  haheas  corpus  from  C.  A.  Warren,  Esq.,  master  in  chancery  at 
Quincy,  he  had  the  hearing  in  the  case  set  for  the  8th  of  June,  at 
Monmouth,  Warren  County,  before  Judge  Stephen  A.  Douglas. 
Judge  Douglas  had  arrived  at  Quincy  on  the  night  of  the  arrest. 
Next  morning  the  Prophet,  accompanied  by  Sheriff  King  and  the 
Missouri  officer,  started  for  Nauvoo.     On  the  way  the  Sheriff,  who  was 


in  poor  health,  was  taken  seriously  ill.  The  Prophet  conveyed  him 
to  his  own  home  and  nursed  him  with  the  kindliest  care. 

The  hearing  at  Monmouth  came  off  in  clue  order  on  the  day 
appointed.  Considerable  excitement  reigned,  and  an  effort  was  made 
by  the  rabble  to  mob  the  Mormon  leader  as  he  entered  the  town. 
Sheriff  King,  however,  faithfully  stood  by  his  prisoner  and  protected 
him  from  assault.  A  formidable  array  of  attorneys  assisted  in  the 
prosecution.  The  Prophet's  counsel  were  C.  A.  Warren,  Sidney  H. 
Little,  0.  H.  Browning,  James  H.  Ralston,  Cyrus  Walker  and  Archi- 
bald Williams.  Mr.  Browning,  in  the  course  of  an  earnest  and  elo- 
quent plea,  pictured  so  vividly  the  sufferings  of  the  Prophet  and  his 
people  in  Missouri,  and  the  hopeless  case  of  the  prisoner  if  delivered 
over  to  his  former  persecutors,  that  nearly  all  present,  including 
Judge  Douglas  himself,  shed  tears.* 

The  defense  rested  upon  two  propositions :  (1)  that  the  Missouri 
writ,  having  once  been  returned  to  the  Executive  unserved,  was  void; 
(2)  that  the  entire  proceeding  on  the  part  of  Missouri  was  illegal. 
Judge  Douglas,  without  going  into  the  merits  of  the  second  proposi- 
tion, decided  that  the  writ  was  void  and  that  the  prisoner  must  be 
liberated.  -  Amid  the  rejoicings  of  his  friends,  and  to  the  chagrin  of 
his  enemies,  the  Prophet  returned  to  Nauvoo. 

But  press  and  pulpit  now  took  up  the  controversy,  the  tone  of 
the  former,  once  so  favorable  to  the  Saints,  being  now  much  modi- 
fied. Some  papers  were  openly  hostile.  Beneath  the  burning  rays 
of  political  jealousy  and  religious  hatred  the  flowers  of  friendship 
were  fast  fading.     Even  Judge  Douglas  was  censured  for  his  decision 

*  Said  Browning:  "Great  God!  have  I  not  seen  it ?  Yes,  mine  eyes  have  beheld 
the  blood-stained  traces  of  innocent  women  and  children,  in  the  drear  winter,  who  had 
traveled  hundreds  of  miles  bare-foot  through  frost  and  snow,  to  seek  a  refuge  from  their 
savage  pursuers.  It  was  a  scene  of  horror,  sufficient  to  enlist  sympathy  from  an  adaman- 
tine heart.  And  shall  this  unfortunate  man.  whom  their  fury  has  seen  proper  to  select 
for  sacrifice,  be  driven  into  such  a  savage  land,  and  none  dare  to  enlist  in  the  cause  of 
justice?  If  there  was  no  other  voice  under  heaven  ever  to  be  heard  in  this  cause,  gladly 
would  I  stand  alone,  and  proudly  spend  my  latest  breath  in  defence  of  an  oppressed 
American  citizen." 


which  had  set  the  Mormon  leader  free.  The  Prophet's  personal  foes, 
the  more  radical  anti-Mormons,  sought  in  every  way  to  prejudice  the 
public  mind  against  him.  That  they  succeeded  the  tragic  issue 
amply  showed. 

One  charge  preferred  against  the  Mormons  in  Illinois  was  that  of 
"spoiling  the  Philistines." — in  other  words  stealing  from  the  Gentiles; 
a  practice  which  it  was  said  their  leaders  sanctioned.  This  accusa- 
tion, being  noised  abroad  and  believed  by  many,  was  an  effective 
weapon  for  the  anti-Mormons.  It  was  particularly  gratifying  to  the 
thieving  bands  that  continued  plying  their  nefarious  trade  up  and 
down  the  Mississippi.  Screening  them  from  suspicion,  by  placing  the 
onus  of  their  misdeeds  upon  others,  it  enabled  them  to  pursue  their 
dangerous  vocation  with  greater  security. 

That  some  Mormons  practiced  thievery  was  doubtless  true, — as 
true  as  that  some  anti-Mormons  did, — but  the  allegation  that  the 
Mormon  leaders  sanctioned  such  a  practice  was  totally  false.  On  the 
contrary  they  denounced  it,  in  public  and  in  private,  publishing,  in 
December,  1841,  their  emphatic  denial  of  the  charge  of  teaching  their 
followers  that  it  was  right  and  proper  for  them  to  prey  upon  "the 
Philistines."  They  made  examples,  too,  of  such  of  their  community 
as  were  convicted  of  stealing.  Two  subordinate  officers  of  the  Nauvoo 
Legion,  being  found  guilty  of  theft,  were  promptly  cashiered  and  their 
names  stricken  from  the  rank  roll. 

With  the  return  of  the  Apostles  from  Europe,  the  work  of  build- 
ing up  Nauvoo  and  the  surrounding  stakes  was  much  accelerated. 
The  Nauvoo  Temple  and  the  Nauvoo  House— the  latter  designed  for 
the  entertainment  of  strangers — were  now  progressing  favorably  : 
also  other  edifices  and  public  improvements.  What  gave  the  Temple 
a  special  impetus  about  this  time  was  the  enunciation  by  the  Prophet 
of  the  tenet  of  baptism  for  the  dead.  A  Masonic  Temple  was  like- 
wise projected  at  Nauvoo,  and  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith,  Brigham 
Young  and  many  other  leading  Mormons  became  Free  Masons. 

Joseph  Smith's  fame  was  now  the  property  of  two  hemispheres. 
He  was  styled,  from  his  rank  as  Lieutenant  General   of  the  Nauvoo 


Legion,  "a  military  prophet,"  and  referred  to  both  in  Europe  and 
America  as  "the  Western  Mohamet."  All  sorts  of  rumors  as  to 
his  alleged  intended  conquests,  with  the  sword  in  one  hand  and  his 
Koran — the  Book  of   Mormon — in  the  other,  began  to  fill  the  air. 

Early  in  1842  the  great  journals  of  the  land,  which  had  hith- 
erto ignored  or  treated  lightly  the  subject  of  Mormonism,  began  to 
send  representatives  to  Nauvoo  to  write  up  the  question,  or  solicit 
from  the  Prophet  contributions  to  their  columns  touching  that  topic, 
which  had  become  one  of  the  most  interesting  of  the  hour.  The 
first  of  these  journals  to  give  the  Mormons  a  fair  and  full  presenta- 
tion to  the  public  was  the  New  York  Herald,  in  which  a  series  of 
letters  appeared  over  the  signature  of  James  Arlington  Bennett,  of 
Long  Island,  who  visited  Nauvoo  to  see  for  himself,  and  as  the  repre- 
sentative of  James  Gordon  Bennett,  this  Mecca  and  its  Mohamet  of 
the  West.  So  pleased  were  the  authorities  at  Nauvoo  with  the  fair 
and  impartial  letters  published  in  the  Herald  that  the  City  Council 
passed  resolutions  thanking  the  editor  for  his  courtesy  and  liberality, 
while  upon  the  author  of  the  articles  was  gratefully  conferred  the 
honoraiw  title  of  Inspector-General  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion. 

John  Wentworth,  Esq.,  proprietor  of  the  Chicago  Democrat — an 
influential  journal — solicited  from  the  Prophet's  pen  a  concise  sketch 
of  his  personal  history  with  that  of  the  Church  from  its  inception  to 
the  year  1842.  The  sketch  was  furnished  and  published.  It  con- 
tained what  are  known  as  the  Articles  of  Faith  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  It  stated,  among  other  things, 
that  the  Prophet's  followers  at  Nauvoo,  were  from  six  to  eight 
thousand  souls,  with  "vast  numbers  in  the  county  around  and  in 
almost  every  county  of  the  State."  Other  pens  and  tongues,  of 
tourists  and  visitors,  praised  the  hospitality,  enterprise,  industry, 
good  order  and  morality  of  the  City  Beautiful  and  its  inhabitants. 

We  have  stated  that  Stephen  A.  Douglas  regarded  Joseph  Smith 
as  a  master  spirit.  He  was  not  alone  in  that  opinion  of  the  founder 
of  Mormonism.  James  Arlington  Bennett  styled  him  "  one  of  the 
greatest  characters  of  the  age."      Josiah  Quincy,  who.  in  company 


with  Charles  Francis  Adams,  senior,  was  at  Nauvoo  shortly  before 
the  Prophet's  death,  said  of  him : 

It  is  by  no  means  improbable  tbat  some  future  textbook,  for  the  use  of  generations 
yet  unborn,  will  contain  a  question  something  like  this :  What  historical  American  of  the 
nineteenth  century  has  exerted  the  most  powerful  influence  upon  the  destinies  of  his 
countrymen  ?  And  it  is  by  no  means  impossible  that  the  answer  to  that  interrogatory  may 
be  thus  written :  Joseph  Smith,  the  Mormon  Prophet.  And  the  reply,  absurd  as  it 
doubtless  seems  to  most  men  now  living,  may  be  an  obvious  common-place  to  then- 
descendants.  History  deals  in  surprises  and  paradoxes  quite  as  startling  as  this.  The 
man  who  established  a  religion  in  this  age  of  free  debate,  who  was  and  is  today  accepted 
by  hundreds  of  thousands  as  a  direct  emissary  from  the  Most  High. — such  a  rare  human 
being  is  not  to  be  disposed  of  by  pelting  his  memory  with  unsavory  epithets.  Fanatic, 
imposter,  charlatan,  he  may  have  been ;  but  these  hard  names  furnish  no  solution  to  the 
problem  he  presents  to  us.  Fanatics  and  impostors  are  living  and  dying  every  day,  and 
their  memory  is  buried  with  them;  but  the  wonderful  influence  which  this  founder  of  a 
religion  exerted  and  still  exerts  throws  him  into  relief  before  us,  not  as  a  rogue  to  be 
criminated,  but  as  a  phenomenon  to  be  explained.  *  *  *  *  * 

"  A  fine  looking  man,"  continues  Mr.  Quincy,  "  is  what  the 
passer-by  would  instinctively  have  murmured.  But  Smith  was  more 
than  this,  and  one  could  not  resist  the  impression  that  capacity  and 
resource  were  natural  in  his  stalwart  person." 

In  May,  1842,  the  treachery  and  rascality  of  a  man  whom  the 
Mormon  leader  had  befriended  and  loaded  with  honors,  became 
known  to  his  benefactor.  That  man  was  Dr.  John  C.  Bennett, 
Mayor  of  Nauvoo,  Chancellor  of  its  University,  and  Major-General  of 
its  Legion.  He  had  become  associated  with  the  Saints  soon  after 
their  exodus  from  Missouri.  Though  a  great  egotist,  he  was  a  man 
of  education,  address  and  ability.  That  he  had  little  or  no  principle 
was  not  immediately  apparent.  Considerable  of  a  diplomat  and 
possessing  some  influence  in  political  circles,  he  rendered  valuable 
aid  in  securing  the  passage  by  the  Illinois  Legislature  of  the  act 
incorporating  the  city  of  Nauvoo.  *    Hence  the  honors  bestowed  upon 

*  It  was  to  such  men  as  Senator  Little  and  Judge  Douglas  thai  the  Mormons  were 
most  indebted  for  the  passage  of  the  act.     Abraham  Lincoln,  the  future  martyr  President, 

then  a  member  of  the  Illinois  Legislature,  voted,  it  is  said,  for  the  Nauvoo  Charter  and 
congratulated  the  Mormons  on  its  passage.  Lincoln  was  never  an  enemy  to  the  Saints, 
and  they  much  esteemed  him. 


him  by  the  Mormon  people.  Prior  to  that,  and  subsequently,  he  was 
Quartermaster-General  of  Illinois.  Bennett  professed  great  sympathy 
for  the  Saints.  He  joined  the  Church  and  apparently  was  a  sincere 
convert  to  the  faith. 

Governor  Thomas  Ford,  in  his  history  of  Illinois,  styles  Bennett 
"  probably  the  greatest  scamp  in  the  western  country.'"  But  this 
was  not  until  long  after  the  Mormons,  thrice  victimized,  had  become 
aware  of  his  villainy. 

On  the  7th  of  May  the  Nauvoo  Legion,  now  consisting  of 
twenty-six  companies,  aggregating  two  thousand  troops,  assembled 
for  a  grand  parade  and  sham  battle,  which  was  witnessed  by 
thousands  of  spectators.  Among  the  visitors  present,  as  guests  of 
General  Joseph  Smith,  were  Judge  Stephen  A.  Douglas  and  other 
legal  lights,  who  had  adjourned  the  circuit  court  at  Carthage  in  order 
to  attend  the  Mormon  military  review.  Wilson  Law  and  Charles  C. 
Bich. — the  latter  successor  to  Don  Carlos  Smith,  deceased, — were  the 
Brigadier-Generals  of  the  Legion.  As  such,  it  devolved  upon  them 
to  lead  the  two  cohorts  in  the  battle.  For  some  reason,  however, 
Major-General  Bennett  tried  hard  to  induce  the  Prophet  to  take  part 
in  the  fight  and  lead  one  of  the  cohorts.  Suspecting  Bennett's 
motive,  General  Smith  declined,  and  subsequently  recorded  his 
impression  that  the  purpose  was  to  have  him  treacherously  slain,  in 
such  a  way  that  none  but  the  guilty  might  know  who  did  the  deed. 

Bennett's  after  course  gave  color  to  the  Prophet's  suspicion. 
The  same  month  he  was  convicted  of  seduction, — a  crime  which 
seems  to  have  been  common  with  him, — and  expelled  from  the 
Mormon  Church.  He  was  also  deprived  of  the  various  offices  given 
him  by  the  people  of  Nauvoo.  Joseph  Smith  succeeded  him  as 
Mayor,  Orson  Spencer  as  Chancellor  of  the  University,  and  Wilson 
Law  as  Major-General  of  the  Legion. 

Bennett,  to  subserve  his  licentious  practices,  had  secretly  taught 
that  the  Prophet  sanctioned  illicit  relations  between  the  sexes.  Pro- 
fessing deep  contrition  after  his  exposure,  he  voluntarily  went  before 
Alderman  Daniel  H.  Wells  and  made  oath  to  the  effect  that  Joseph 


Smith  had  never  taught  him  anything  contrary  to  virtue  and 
morality,  and  that  so  far  as  he  knew  the  Prophet's  private  life  was 
above  reproach.  These  statements  he  repeated  in  public  meetings. 
Finding,  however,  that  he  had  become  morally  bankrupt  in  the  eyes 
of  the  community,  and  could  not,  even  if  forgiven,  regain  their  con- 
fidence, he  withdrew  from  Nauvoo  and  joined  the  anti-Mormons. 

He  now  repeated  his  former  tale  of  Joseph  Smith's  licentious 
teachings  and  practices,  claiming  that  his  denial  of  the  charge  had 
been  forced  from  him  by  threats  of  violence.  He  revived  the 
story  of  the  Danites,  originated  by  Dr.  Avard  at  Far  West.  Bennett 
declared  that  these  "Avenging  Angels,"  were  following  him  to  take  his 
life,  as  they  had  previously  taken  other  lives  at  the  Prophet's  com- 
mand. He  also  wrote  and  published  a  book  against  Mormonism,  and 
devoted  himself  assiduously  to  the  task  of  bringing  trouble  upon  his 
former  friends.  The  more  intelligent  and  reputable  anti-Mormons 
despised  Bennett  and  distrusted  his  story,  but  others  believed  and 
made  use  of  it,  and  prejudice  against  the  Saints  increased  correspond- 
ingly* During  August  the  Prophet  sent  out  the  Apostles  and  a  large 
number  of  Elders  to  preach  in  the  country  round  and  refute  the  vile 
slanders  of  this  vengeful  apostate. 

Coming  events  now  cast  their  solemn  shadows  before.  The 
Prophet  foresaw  the  inevitable.  He  more  than  once  had  hinted  at  his 
own  death,  and,  as  seen,  had  singled  out  intuitively  his  successor. 
To  him  a  mighty  destiny  was  opening  for  his  people,  but  the  far 
West,  and  not  the  East,  nor  even  the  intermediary  region  was  the 
fated  arena  of  Mormonism's  immediate  future.  On  Saturday,  August 
6th,  18-A2,  at  Montrose,  Lee  County,  Iowa,  he  uttered  in  the  presence 
of  several  friends  a  prediction,  recorded  in  his  own  words  as  follows: 

"I  prophesied  that  the  Saints  would  continue  to  suffer  much 
affliction,  and  would  be  driven  to  the  Bocky  Mountains.     Many  would 

*  Governor  Carlin  being  informed  by  Joseph  Smith  of  Bennett's  conduct  a<  Nauvoo, 
replied,  '-Bennett's  meanness  is  in  accordance  with  representations  of  his  character  made 
to  me  more  than  two  years  since,  and  which  1  fell  constrained  to  believe  were  true,  since 
which  time  I  have  desired  to  have  as  little  intercourse  with  him  as  possible." 


apostatize ;  others  would  be  put  to  death  by  our  persecutors,  or  lose 
their  lives  in  consequence  of  exposure  or  disease;  and  some  would 
live  to  go  and  assist  in  making  settlements  and  building  cities,  and 
see  the  Saints  become  a  mighty  people  in  the  midst  of  the  Rocky 




Again    in    the    toils — Joseph     smith    and    porter    Rockwell    arrested,    charged    with 

attempted  murder ex-governor  boggs  of    missouri    the    alleged  victim how  the 

deed  was  done the  prisoners  released  by  habeas  corpus they  evade  re-arrest 

rockwell  kidnapped  and  carried  to  missouri governor  ford  succeeds  governor 

carlin the  prophet  submits  to  a  judicial  investigation judge  pope the  mormon 

leader  again  liberated another    requisition joseph  smith  kidnapped his  rescue 

and  release anti-mormon  depredations  around  nauvoo. 

/L'WO  days  after  the  delivery  of  the  foregoing  prediction  the 
>K  Prophet  was  again  arrested.  He  was  charged  this  time  with 
being  an  accessory  to  an  attempt  to  murder.  The  alleged  vic- 
tim was  no  other  than  Lilburn  W.  Boggs,  ex-Governor  of  Missouri, 
who,  on  the  night  of  May  6th,  1842,  at  his  home  in  Independence, 
Jackson  County,  in  that  State,  had  indeed  been  shot  and  dangerously 
wounded  by  some  person  or  persons  unknown. 

Lying  near  an  open  window  in  a  pool  of  blood,  with  a  ghastly 
wound  in  his  head,  the  ex-Governor  had  been  found  by  his  little  son, 
soon  after  the  shooting.  Footprints  and  a  smoking  pistol  on  the 
ground  outside  afforded  the  only  clue  to  the  perpetrator  of  the  deed. 
Suspicion,  however,  at  once  rested  upon  the  Mormons,  whom  Boggs 
had  so  persistently  persecuted  wvhile  in  power,  and  without  further 
ado  the  crime  was  laid  at  their  door.  It  was  said  that  Joseph  Smith 
had  predicted  a  violent  death  for  Governor  Boggs,  and  lo  !  here  was 
an  attempt  at  fulfillment.  Could  anything  be  plainer?  The  proof 
was  positive — positive  enough  to  suit  the  Missourians,  eager  for  any 
excuse  to  get  the  Mormon  leader  back  into  their  power — that  he  was 
in  some  way  connected  with  the  commission  of  the  crime. 

It  was  not  contended  that  he  had  committed  the  assault  in  person. 


The  Missourians  soon  learned  that  Joseph  Smith,  if  so  accused,  could 
prove  an  alibi.  The  date  of  the  assault  was  just  one  day  prior  to  the 
grand  parade  and  sham  battle  at  Nauvoo,  already  mentioned,  and  the 
distance  between  that  place  and  Independence  was  at  least  two  hun- 
dred miles  ;  in  those  days  a  full  week's  journey.  Besides  it  was 
pretty  generally  known  that  the  Prophet  had  not  been  in  Missouri 
since  his  escape  from  captivity  in  that  State  in  the  spring  of  1839. 
But  then  he  might  have  sent  a  "  Danite" — say  Porter  Rockwell,  or 
some  "  avenging  angel," — to  do  the  deed  of  blood,  after  which  the 
assassin  had  made  good  his  escape.  So  reasoned  among  themselves 
the  Missourians. 

It  was  useless  after  that  for  Joseph  Smith  to  deny — as  he  did — 
having  ever  made  such  a  prediction  about  ex-Governor  Boggs.  Use- 
less, also,  that  he  denied  sending  Porter  Rockwell,  or  anyone  else 
into  Missouri  for  such  a  purpose  ;  or  that  Rockwell  had  been  in  that 
State  during  the  year  1842.  Such  denials  availed  nothing.  Sus- 
picion had  already  decided  his  guilt.  Neither  would  evidence  the 
most  conclusive  now  clear  him.  Were  not  the  Mormons  all  falsifiers? 
Had  they  not  slandered  Missouri  and  rendered  her  name  odious  by 
declaring  that  she  had  persecuted  them  for  their  religious  opinions? 
Here  was  a  rare  chance  for  revenge.  The  hated  Prophet  had  lain 
himself  liable,  or  had  been  laid  liable  to  fall  back  into  their  power. 
Let  them  once  but  "get  him  on  the  hip,''  and  they  would  "feed  fat 
the  ancient  grudge  "  they  bore  him. 

Boggs  himself  shared,  or  professed  to  share,  in  the  general  opin- 
ion regarding  the  Mormon  leader's  complicity  in  the  crime.  As  soon, 
therefore,  as  he  had  recovered  from  his  well-nigh  fatal  wound,  and 
he  and  his  friends  had  had  time  to  mature  their  plans,  he  went 
before  a  justice  of  the  peace — Samuel  Weston — and  swore  out  a  com- 
plaint charging  "Joseph  Smith,  commonly  called  the  Mormon 
Prophet,"  with  being  "an  accessory  before  the  fact  of  the  intended 
murder."  The  affidavit  stated  that  "the  said  Joseph  Smith"  was  "a 
citizen  or  resident  of  the  State  of  Illinois." 

Upon  this  complaint,  application  was  made  to  the  Governor  of 


Missouri,  Thomas  Reynolds,  for  the  issuance  of  a  writ  demanding 
Joseph  Smith  of  the  authorities  of  Illinois.  Governor  Reynolds 
promptly  responded,  issuing  the  desired  requisition.  The  writ,  how- 
ever, instead  of  following  the  language  of  the  affidavit,  described 
Joseph  Smith,  not  as  "a  citizen  or  resident  of  the  State  of  Illinois," 
but  as  a  "fugitive  from  justice"  who  had  "fled  to  the  State  of 
Illinois."  It  also  went  beyond  the  affidavit  in  stating  that  the  assault 
was  "  made  by  one  0.  P.  Rockwell,"  whose  name,  it  appears,  had  been 
left  out  of  the  original  complaint. 

Governor  Carlin,  on  receiving  the  requisition  from  Missouri, 
issued  a  warrant  for  Joseph  Smith's  arrest,  stating  therein — if  Gov- 
ernor Ford's  duplicate  warrant  upon  which  the  case  finally  came  up 
for  trial  was  an  exact  copy  of  the  original — that  it  had  been  "made 
known"  to  him  "  by  the  Executive  authority  of  the  State  of  Mis- 
souri, that  one  Joseph  Smith  stands  charged  by  the  affidavit  of  one 
Lilburn  W.  Boggs  *  *  with  being  accessory  before  the  fact 
to  an  assault  with  intent  to  kill,  made  by  one  0.  P.  Rockwell,"  etc., 
"and  that  the  said  Joseph  Smith  had  fled  from  the  justice  of  said 
State  and  taken  refuge  in  the  State  of  Illinois."  Thus  Carlin  not 
only  repeated  the  mis-statements  of  Governor  Reynolds,  but  added 
one  of  his  own,  in  saying  that  the  Executive  of  Missouri  had 
informed  him  that  "Joseph  Smith  had  tied  from  the  justice  of  said 
State."  It  was  these  discrepancies  between  the  Boggs  affidavit  and 
the  writs  of  the  two  governors  ostensibly  based  thereon,  together 
with  the  insufficiency  of  the  affidavit,  that  proved  the  mouse  to  gnaw 
the  net  and  set  the  lion  free. 

The  glaring  illegality  of  the  whole  proceeding  is  further  shown 
in  the  fact  that  an  attempt  was  here  made  to  transport  to  Missouri 
for  trial  a  citizen  of  the  State  of  Illinois,  for  an  offense  committed — if 
committed  at  all— in  Illinois.  Joseph  Smith  was  not  charged  with 
assaulting  ex-Governor  Boggs.  but  with  sending  0.  P.  Rockwell  from 
Illinois  to  Missouri  for  that  purpose.  Rockwell,  on  a  proper  show- 
ing, might  indeed  have  been  lawfully  tried  in  Missouri :  but  not 
Joseph  Smith,  whose  alleged  offense  was  against  the  laws  of  Illinois. 


Whether  the  two  governors  erred  blindly  or  wilfully  in  the  parts 
played  by  them  in  this  legal  burlesque,  we  know  not.  The  proba- 
bility is  that  Reynolds,  perceiving  the  weakness  of  the  affidavit,  pur- 
posely overstated  its  contents  in  order  to  insure  the  success  of  the 
undertaking.  Carlin,  on  his  part,  was  either  a  co-conspirator  with 
Reynolds,  or,  to  give  him  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  ignorant  or  careless 
as  to  the  outcome. 

Anyway,  Joseph  Smith  and  Orrin  Porter  Rockwell  were  both 
arrested  by  the  deputy  sheriff  of  Adams  County,  at  Nauvoo,  on  the 
8th  of  August.  Immediately  after  their  arrest  they  obtained  a  writ 
of  habeas  corpus,  and  were  discharged  after  a  hearing  before  the 
Municipal  Court  of  Nauvoo.  The  deputy  sheriff  and  his  assistants 
denied  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Nauvoo  Court,  but  leaving  the  prisoners, 
they  returned  to  Governor  Carlin  for  further  instructions.  Two  days 
later  they  reappeared,  having  been  instructed  to  "re-arrest  at  all 
hazards."     But   the  persons  wanted  were  nowhere  to  be  found. 

The  authority  under  which  the  Municipal  Court  acted  in  dis- 
charging the  prisoners  was  the  following  ordinance  passed  by  the 
City  Council  on  the  day  of  the  arrest : 

An  Ordinance  regulating  the  mode  of  proceeding  in  cases  of  habeas  corpus  before  the 
Municipal  Court: 

Sec.  1.  Be  it  ordained  by  the  City  Council  of  the  City  of  Nauvoo,  That  in  all 
cases  where  any  person  or  persons  shall  at  any  time  hereafter  be  arrested  or  under  arrest, 
in  this  city,  under  any  writ  or  process,  and  shall  be  brought  before  the  Municipal  Court  of 
this  city,  by  virtue  of  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  the  Court  shall  in  every  case  have  power 
and  authority,  and  are  hereby  required  to  examine  into  the  origin,  validity  and  legality  of 
the  writ  or  process,  under  which  such  arrest  was  made ;  and  if  it  shall  appear  to  the 
Court  upon  sufficient  testimony,  that  said  writ  or  process  was  illegal,  or  not  legally  issued, 
or  did  not  proceed  from  the  proper  authority,  then  the  Court  shall  discharge  the  prisoner 
from  under  said  arrest ;  but  if  it  shall  appear  to  the  Court  that  said  writ  or  process  had 
issued  from  proper  authority,  and  was  a  legal  process,  the  Court  shall  then  proceed  and 
fully  hear  the  merits  of  the  case  upon  which  said  arrest  was  made,  upon  such  evidence  as 
may  be  produced  and  sworn  before  said  Court  ;  and  shall  have  power  to  adjourn  the  hear- 
ing, and  also  issue  process  from  time  to  time,  in  their  discretion,  in  order  to  procure  the 
attendance  of  witnesses,  so  that  a  fair  and  impartial  trial  and  derision  may  be  obtained  in 
every  case. 

Sec.  2.  And  be  it  further  ordained.  That  if  upon  investigation  it  shall  be  proven  before 
the  Municipal  Court  that  the  writ  or  process  has  been  issued  either  through  private  pique, 


malicious  intent,  religious  or  other  persecution,  falsehood  or  misrepresentation,  contrary  to 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  or  of  this  State,  the  said  writ  or  process  shall  be 
quashed,  and  considered  of  no  force  or  effect,  and  the  prisoner  or  prisoners  shall  be 
released  and  discharged  therefrom. 

Sec.  3.  And  be  it  also  further  ordained,  That  in  the  absence,  sickness,  debility  or 
other  circumstances  disqualifying  or  preventing  the  Mayor  from  officiating  in  his  office,  as 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Municipal  Court,  the  Aldermen  present  shall  appoint  one  from  amongst 
them  to  act  as  Chief  Justice  or  President  pro  tempore. 

Sec.  4.     This  ordinance  to  take  effect  and  be  in  force  from  and  after  its  passage. 

Hyrum  Smith, 
Vice-Mayor  and  President  pro  tempore. 
Passed  August  8,  1842. 

James  Sloan,  Recorder. 

The  Prophet,  who  was  determined  not  to  be  taken  back  to  Mis- 
souri, now  retired  for  several  weeks,  concealing  himself  in  the  homes 
of  trusted  friends  at  and  near  Nauvoo.  Rockwell,  equally  averse  to 
being  taken,  absented  himself  for  some  months,  during  which  he 
traveled  to  the  eastern  states.  Returning  thence  and  visiting  St. 
Louis,  he  was  captured  and  carried  in  chains  to  Jackson  County. 
Nothing  being  proven  against  him,  he  was  eventually  set  free  and 
made  his  way  back  to  Illinois. 

The  most  strenuous  efforts  were  put  forth  for  the  capture  of  the 
Prophet,  but  without  avail.  Besides  the  regular  officers,  John  C.  Ben- 
nett and  others  were  in  the  field,  seeking  to  kidnap  and  carry  him  to 
Missouri.  Such  an  event,  however,  was  not  destined  to  be.  The 
fates  had  not  decreed  his  return  to  his  former  captivity. 

From  his  secret  retreat  he  sent  forth  epistles  from  time  to  time 
relative  to  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  his  various  offices.  In 
one  of  these,  addressed  to  the  Major-General  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion, 
he  expressed  his  desires  for  peace  and  the  supremacy  of  the  law,  but 
declared  his  determination  to  submit  no  more  to  mob  violence  and 
tyranny.  Appeals  were  successively  made  to  Governor  Carlin  by 
the  Prophet,  his  wife  Emma,  and  the  ladies  of  the  Nauvoo  Relief 
Society,  a  benevolent  institution  that  Joseph  Smith  had  founded* 
But  all  to  no  purpose.      The  Governor  apparently  was    hand -a  i  id  - 

*   The  forerunner  <>f  the  ureal  lielief  Sorirlv  syslein  now  flourishing:'  in  I' 


glove  with  the  anti-Mormons,  who  were  doing  all  in  their  power  to 
foment  trouble  and  bring  affairs  to  a  bloody  crisis.  Carlin  insisted 
that  Joseph  give  himself  up  to  the  officers.  This  the  Prophet 
refused  to  do,  as  his  friends  feared  his  assassination  or  kidnapping. 

Joseph  Smith,  as  repeatedly  averred,  was  no  coward ;  but  neither 
did  he  court  death,  nor  a  repetition  of  his  experience  in  a  Missouri 
dungeon.  It  would  have  been  eminently  characteristic  of  him, — for 
his  was  truly  a  martial  spirit, — to  have  taken  the  field  with  his 
legion  and  fought  like  a  lion  to  the  death  rather  than  tamely  submit 
to  what  he  had  endured,  or  was  now  enduring.  But  other  considera- 
tions restrained  him.  Because  he  declined  to  surrender  himself,  he 
was  represented  as  being  with  his  people  in  an  attitude  of  defiance 
to  the  laws.  Public  feeling  ran  high  against  him,  and  men  were 
daily  offering  their  services  to  Governor  Carlin  to  arm  and  march 
upon  Nauvoo. 

Meantime,  the  State  election  had  come  round.  Joseph  Duncan, 
an  ex-Governor  of  Illinois,  was  put  forward  by  the  Whigs  for  re-elec- 
tion. The  Democrats  nominated  Adam  W.  Snyder  for  Governor,  but 
he  dying,  Judge  Thomas  Ford  became  a  candidate  in  his  stead. 
Duncan  was  regarded  as  a  brave  and  able  man,  and  under  ordinary 
conditions  might  have  been  elected.  But  he  was  an  anti-Mormon, 
and  took  the  stump  against  the  Saints,  expecting,  it  is  said,  to  be 
elected  on  that  issue.  This  solidified  the  Mormon  vote  against  him, 
and  in  favor  of  his  opponent.  The  result  was  the  election  of 
Thomas  Ford  as  Governor  of  Illinois.  At  the  same  time  William 
Smith,  the  Prophet's  brother,  was  chosen  a  representative  from  Han- 
cock County  to  the  Legislature.  Jacob  C.  Davis — of  whom  more 
anon — was  elected  a  state  senator. 

The  Whigs  were  very  angry  at  the  outcome,  and  the  papers  of 
that  party  now  teemed  with  accounts  of  the  alleged  iniquities  of  the 
Mormons  at  Nauvoo,  and  severely  took  to  task  the  Democrats  for 
deigning  to  accept  support  from  the  Prophet  and  his  followers. 

About  the  1st  of  October  Governor  Carlin  made  public  procla- 
mation offering  a  reward  of  four  hundred  dollars  for  the  persons  of 


Joseph  Smith  and  Orrin  Porter  Rockwell.  At  the  same  time  Gov- 
ernor Reynolds  of  Missouri  increased  his  standing  offer  of  a  much 
larger  sum  for  their  capture. 

In  December,  1842,  Carlin's  term  of  office  expired,  and  he  was 
succeeded  by  Governor  Ford.  The  new  executive  was  reputed  as  a 
well-meaning  man,  though  not  a  strong  official ;  possessing  some 
ability,  but  liable  to  be  swayed  from  his  convictions  by  the  opinions 
of  others.  In  his  inaugural  address  to  the  Legislature,  Ford  recom- 
mended that  the  Charter  of  Nauvoo,  as  it  was  objectionable  to  other 
citizens  of  the  State,  be  modified  and  restricted.  This  caused  the 
Whigs  to  exult  over  the  Mormons  and  ask  them  ironically  what  they 
thought  of  their  democratic  Governor. 

Immediately  after  Governor  Ford's  installation,  the  Mormon 
leader,  still  in  exile,  appealed  to  him  to  recall  the  writs  and  proclama- 
tion of  his  predecessor.  The  case  was  fully  presented  to  Ford  by 
Justin  Butterfield,  Esq.,  the  United  States  District  Attorney.  He,  in 
common  with  several  of  the  Judges  of  the  Supreme  Court,  held  that 
Carlin's  writs  were  illegal.  Ford,  though  sharing  the  same  opinion, 
deemed  it  impolitic  to  interfere  with  the  acts  of  his  predecessor.  He 
therefore  advised  the  Prophet  to  submit  his  case  to  a  judicial  investi- 

This  the  latter  finally  concluded  to  do.  Accordingly,  on  the 
26th  of  December,  he  allowed  himself  to  be  arrested  by  General 
Wilson  Law,  and  on  the  day  following,  in  company  with  Hyrum 
Smith,  John  Taylor,  Willard  Richards  and  others,  he  set  out  for 
Springfield,  the  State  capital.  There,  on  the  4th  of  January,  1843, 
occurred  his  celebrated  trial  before  Judge  Pope,  which  resulted  in  his 
again  being  set  at  liberty. 

The  original  warrant  issued  by  Governor  Carlin  not  being 
at  hand,  it  was  duplicated  for  the  purpose  of  this  trial  by  his 
successor.  Judge  Pope  granted  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  and  the  case 
was  argued  by  Josiah  Lamborn,  Attorney-General  of  Illinois,  for  the 
prosecution,  and  by  Justin  Butterfield,  Esq.,  for  the  defense.  The 
Judge  gave  as  the  grounds  for  his  decision  in  the  prisoner's  favor  the 


insufficiency  of  the  Boggs  affidavit  and  the  mis-recitals  and  overstate- 
ments in  the  documents  of  the  two  Governors.  This  decision 
rendered  void  the  proclamation  as  well  as  the  writs  issued  against 
the  Prophet,  and  he  was  once  more  a  free  man. 

He  now  enjoyed  a  brief  season  of  peace.  On  the  6th  of 
February,  1843,  recurred  the  city  election  of  Nauvoo.  The  officers 
chosen  for  the  ensuing  two  years  were:  Joseph  Smith,  Mayor; 
Orson  Spencer,  Daniel  H.  Wells,  George  A.  Smith  and  Stephen  Mark- 
ham,  Aldermen;  Hyrum  Smith,  John  Taylor,  Orson  Hyde,  Orson 
Pratt,  Sylvester  Emmons,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Benjamin  Warrington, 
Daniel  Spencer  and  Brigham  Young,  Councilors.  Liberality  without 
extravagance  in  public  officials,  the  establishment  of  markets,  and  the 
regulation  of  prices  to  protect  the  poor  against  avarice  and  monopoly, 
were  among  the  measures  proposed  by  Mayor  Smith  to  the  new 

On  the  25th  of  March  the  Mayor  issued  the  following  proclama- 
tion : 

Whereas  it  is  reported  that  there  now  exists  a  band  of  desperadoes,  hound  by  oaths 
of  secrecy,  under  severe  penalties  in  case  any  number  of  the  combination  divulges  their 
plans  of  stealing  and  conveying  properties  from  station  to  station  up  and  down  the 
Mississippi  and  other  routes :     And 

Whereas  it  is  reported  that  the  fear  of  the  execution  of  the  pains  and  penalties  of 
their  secret  oaths  on  their  persons  prevents  some  members  of  said  secret  association  (who 
have,  through  falsehood  and  deceit,  been  drawn  into  their  snares,)  from  divulging  the 
same  to  the  legally-constituted  authorities  of  the  land  : 

Know  ye,  therefore,  that  I,  Joseph  Smith,  Mayor  of  the  city  of  Nauvoo,  will  grant 
and  insure  protection  against  all  personal  mob  violence  to  each  and  every  citizen  of  this 
city  who  will  come  before  me  and  truly  make  known  the  names  of  all  such  abominable 
characters  as  are  engaged  in  said  secret  combination  for  stealing,  or  are  accessory  thereto 
in  any  manner.  And  1  respectfully  solicit  the  co-operation  of  all  ministers  of  justice 
in  this  and  the  neighboring  states  to  ferret  out  a  band  of  thievish  outlaws  from  our 

Immigration  continued  pouring  in  at  Nauvoo.  On  the  12th  of 
April  two  large  companies,  led  by  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Lorenzo  Snow  and 
Levi  Richards,  landed  there.  Among  these  arrivals  were  the  Cannon 
family  from  Liverpool.  They  had  crossed  the  sea  in  the  fall  of  1842, 
but  were  ice-bound  at  St  Louis,  and  had  there  spent  the  winter. 


Mrs.  Cannon,  the  mother,  had  died  and  been  buried  at  sea.  The 
father,  George  Cannon,  with  his  sons,  George  Q.,  Angus  M.,  David 
H.  and  three  daughters,  reached  their  destination  in  safety. 

Another  attempt,  the  final  one,  was  now  made  to  drag  the  Mor- 
mon leader  back  to  Missouri.  The  charge  this  time  was  treason — 
treason  against  that  State — a  reiteration  of  the  old  charge  upon 
which  the  Prophet  had  once  suffered  imprisonment.  John  C.  Ben- 
nett was  at  the  bottom  of  this  new  attempt  upon  the  liberty  and  life 
of  his  former  friend,  and  Samuel  C.  Owens  and  others  in  Jackson 
County  assisted  in  the  scheme.  Governor  Reynolds  issued  his  writ, 
Governor  Ford  his  warrant,  and  the  ball  was  thus  set  rolling. 
Sheriff  J.  H.  Reynolds  of  Jackson  County  was  Missouri's  officer  to 
receive  the  prisoner,  and  Harmon  T.  Wilson  of  Carthage,  Hancock 
County,  the  person  authorized  to  make  the  arrest. 

Late  in  June,  1843,  they  set  out  upon  their  errand.  Learning 
that  the  Prophet  was  visiting  with  his  wife  at  a  Mrs.  Wasson's — 
Emma  Smith's  sister — near  Dixon,  Lee  County,  Illinois,  the  two 
officers  proceeded  thither,  passing  themselves  off  as  Mormon  Elders. 
Arriving  at  Mrs.  Wasson's,  they  inquired  for  "Brother  Joseph."  On 
his  appearing,  they  covered  him  with  cocked  pistols,  threatened  him 
with  death  if  he  resisted,  hurried  him  into  a  vehicle  and  were  about 
to  drive  away.  Stephen  Markham.  who  was  present,  protested 
against  this  lawlessness, — Reynolds  and  Wilson  having  shown  no 
warrant  for  their  act, — but  they  threatened  his  life  also  and  drove 
away  with  their  prisoner  toward  Dixon.  They  compelled  him  to  sit 
between  them,  and  all  along  continued  to  threaten  him,  punching 
his  sides  with  their  pistols.  The  pain  from  these  assaults  was  so 
excruciating  that  the  Prophet  finally  begged  them  to  cease  torturing 
and  kill  him  outright,  whereupon  they  modified  their  abusive 

Meanwhile  Stephen  Markham,  mounting  a  horse,  preceded  the 
party  to  Dixon,  where  he  secured  legal  counsel  for  his  friend.  Rey- 
nolds and  Wilson,  on  their  arrival,  at  first  refused  to  allow  the 
prisoner  to   confer  with   his  attorneys,  but  finding  the  citizens  of 


Dixon  opposed  to  them,  demanding  that  their  brutality  cease,  they 
finally  consented.* 

A  writ  of  habeas  corpus  was  obtained  for  the  Prophet,  returnable 
before  Judge  Caton,  at  Ottawa,  but  he  being  absent  another  writ  was 
secured,  returnable  before  the  nearest  tribunal  in  the  fifth  judicial 
district  authorized  to  hear  and  determine  writs  of  habeas  corpus. 
This  district  included  Quincy  and  Nauvoo.  Reynolds  and  Wilson, 
who  were  now  themselves  under  arrest  for  abuse,  threatening  and 
false  imprisonment,  obtained  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  made  returnable 
before  Judge  Young  at  Quincy.  Toward  that  place  the  whole  party 
now  proceeded,  in  charge  of  Sheriff  Campbell,  of  Lee  County. 

Meeting  a  party  of  his  friends  from  Nauvoo, — for  the  city  had 
been  alarmed  and  the  whole  surrounding  region  was  being  scoured 
by  the  Mormons  in  quest  of  their  leader, — the  Prophet  asked  per- 
mission of  the  sheriff  to  go  to  Nauvoo,  instead  of  to  Quincy,  where  he 
feared  treachery.  The  attorneys  present,  one  of  whom  was  Cyrus 
Walker,  Esq.,  giving  it  as  their  opinion  that  the  hearing  might  legally 
be  held  there,  the  sheriff  consented  and  to  Nauvoo  they  went  accord- 
ingly. Reynolds  and  Wilson  fiercely  protested  against  this  change 
in  the  program,  probably  fearing  violence  at  the  hands  of  the  Mor- 
mon citizens.  The  Prophet,  however,  took  them  to  his  own  home 
and  seated  them  at  the  head  of  his  own  table,  thus  heaping  upon 
them,  in  a  scriptural  sense,  "coals  of  fire."  They  were  not  in  the 
least  molested,  but  treated  kindly  by  all. 

A  hearing  before  the  Municipal  Court  followed, — the  Prophet's 
case  coming  up  on  its  merits, — and  the  defendant  was  again  dis- 
charged. Reynolds  and  Wilson,  denying  the  court's  jurisdiction, 
applied  to  Governor  Ford  for  the  use  of  the  militia  to  re-take  their 
prisoner,  but  His  Excellency,  being  fully  informed  of  the  matter, 
refused  the  request,  and  Sheriff  Reynolds  returned,  crest-fallen  to 

*  It  is  said  that  the  Prophet,  on  being  taken   to  the  Dixon   hotel,  found  a  Masonic 
friend  in  the  landlord,  who  rendered  him  timely  succor. 


Why  he  and  his  confrere  Wilson, — against  whom  the  prosecu- 
tion for  false  imprisonment,  etc.,  seems  to  have  deen  dropped, — 
failed  to  show  their  warrant  at  the  time  of  the  Prophet's  arrest,  and 
acted,  instead  of  as  officers,  in  the  role  of  kidnappers,  has  never  been 
satisfactorily  explained.  Possibly  kidnapping  was  their  purpose,  and 
not  anticipating  the  intervention  of  officers  and  courts,  they  deemed 
the  warrant  superfluous  and  unnecessary. 

Another  election  occurred.  Cyrus  Walker  was  the  Whig  candidate, 
and  Joseph  P.  Hoge  the  Democratic  candidate  for  Congress,  frpm  the 
district  of  which  Hancock  County  was  a  part.  The  Whigs,  it  seems, 
had  been  counting  upon,  and  fully  expected  to  receive  the  Mormon 
vote ;  notwithstanding  their  former  criticism  of  the  Democrats  for 
condescending  to  accept  it.  What  gave  the  Whigs  hope  of  securing 
it  at  this  election  was  the  fact  that  Mr.  Walker,  their  candidate,  had 
defended  the  Mormon  leader  in  his  latest  legal  difficulty  and  rescued 
him  from  the  clutches  of  the  would-be  kidnappers,  Reynolds  and 
Wilson.  Judge  Pope,  whose  decision  in  January  had  liberated  the 
Prophet,  was  also  a  Whig,  as  was  Mr.  Browning,  the  eloquent 
champion  of  the  prisoner's  cause  on  that  occasion.  These  con- 
siderations, it  was  thought,  would  be  of  sufficient  weight  to  turn  the 
majority  of  the  Saints  in  favor  of  Mr.  Walker. 

The  Mormons,  however,  or  the  majority  of  them,  stood  by  their 
democratic  principles,  and  cast  their  ballots  for  Mr.  Hoge ;  while  a 
minority,  including  the  Prophet,  being  Whigs,  voted  for  Mr.  Walker.* 
Hoge  was  elected  by  a  majority  in  the  district  of  455  votes. 

The  Whigs  were  now  angry  again  ;  not  only  at  the  Mormons,  for 
failing  to  solidify  in  favor  of  Mr.  Walker,  but  also  at  the  Democrats, 
for  again  accepting  Mormon  assistance. 

It  is  not  at  all  clear,  however,  that  the  Mormons  were  respon- 
sible for  the  defeat  of  Mr.  Walker  at  this  election.  Many  of  the 
Whigs,   being   sincere    anti-Mormons,    were    "highly  indignant"  at 

*  The  Mormons  in  Adams  County,  being  Whigs,  voted  at  this  election  for  Mr.  0.  H. 
Browning,  the  party  candidate  in  that  district. 


their  candidate  for  defending  the  Prophet  in  the  Reynolds  and 
Wilson  affair.*  It  is  not  improbable,  therefore,  that  the  dissatisfied 
ones  repudiated  him  at  the  polls.  Still  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  this 
exhibition  of  anti-Mormon  animus  on  the  part  of  the  Whigs  was 
not  likely  to  attract  Mormon  votes,  and  it  may  have  accounted  in 
part  for  the  large  majority  rolled  up  at  Nauvoo  for  the  democratic 

Naturally  the  Whigs  were  angry,  but  they  ought  not  to  have 
been  surprised.  After  denouncing  the  Democrats  for  receiving  on  a 
former  occasion  Mormon  support,  and  filling  their  journals  with 
accounts  of  alleged  Mormon  atrocities  at  Nauvoo,  they  should  have 
been  prepared  for  what  awaited  them.  A  little  queer,  too,  that  the 
fox,  having  once  pronounced  the  grapes  sour,  should  make  another 
desperate  attempt  to  taste  them,  and  be  angry  because  they  were  still 
out  of  reach.     It  beats  the  original  fable.     But  such  is  politics. 

Jealousy  of  the  political  power  of  the  Mormons  was  now  much 
enhanced.  In  August,  several  of  them,  chosen  for  county  offices  at 
the  late  election,  proceeded  to  Carthage,  the  county  seat  of  Hancock, 
to  qualify.  They  were  there  threatened  by  an  armed  mob,  led  by 
Constable  Harmon  T.  Wilson,  who  swore  that  they  should  not  be 
installed.  The  Mormons,  however,  filed  their  bonds  and  took  the 
required  oaths  of  office,  while  their  opponents  were  deliberating 
upon  how  best  to  prevent  them. 

The  anti-Mormon  party,  which  for  some  time  had  been  discon- 
tinued, was  now  reorganized,  with  "  war  to  the  knife  " — figuratively 
speaking — as  its  motto.  Not  altogether  figurative,  either,  was  that 
motto,  if  what  followed  may  be  taken  as  a  criterion.  The  party 
pledged  itself  to  assist  Missouri  in  any  future  attempt  that  she  might 
make  against  the  Mormon  leader. 

Nor  was  this  all.  Mobs  began  attacking  and  burning  Mormon 
houses  outside  Nauvoo,  and  even  threatened  to  come  against  the  city. 
Governor  Ford  being  appealed  to  for  protection,  answered  much  in 

Gregg's  History  of  Hancock  County,  page  295. 


the  same  vein  as  President  Van  Buren  when  visited  by  the  Prophet 
on  a  former  occasion.  "You  must  defend  yourselves,"  was  the 
inference  drawn  from  Ford's  reply.  The  Nauvoo  Legion  was  there- 
fore held  in  constant  readiness  to  repel  any  mobocratic  assault  that 
might  be  made  upon  the  city  or  the  surrounding  settlements. 




Celestial    marriage — -why    the    mormons    practiced    polygamy — the    prophet    and    the 

politicians joseph    smith    a    candidate   for   president   of  the  united  states his 

platform  of   principles planning   the   western    exodus the   laws,  fosters,  and 

higbees    excommunicated the  "  expositor  "  abatement arrest  of  the  mayor    and 

city    council    of    nauvoo a     gathering    storm nauvoo    under    martial    law 

governor  ford  demands  the  surrender  of  the  mormon  leaders the  prophet  and 

his    friends    start    for    the    rocky    mountains the    return the    surrender 

carthage  jail murder  of  the  prophet  and  patriarch. 

•L"HE  question  has  probably  occurred  to  the  reader,  was  there 
>r  really  any  ground  for  the  charges  of  immorality  and  licen- 
tiousness hurled  against  the  Mormon  leaders  by  their 
enemies,  personal,  political  and  ecclesiastical.  What  of  John  C. 
Bennett's  story  to  the  effect  that  Joseph  Smith  sanctioned  illicit  rela- 
tions between  the  sexes  ?  Was  the  tale  true  or  false  1  We  propose 
to  answer  these  queries. 

First  let  us  ask  if  it  seems  consistent, — except  upon  the  theory 
that  the  Mormon  leaders  were  double-dyed  hypocrites,  arrant  knaves, 
who  were  wont  to  sacrifice  on  occasion  one  of  their  own  number  in 
order  to  throw  a  halo  of  virtue  around  the  rest, — that  such  men  as 
John  C.  Bennett,  D.  P.  Hurlburt  and  others,  expelled  from  the  Mormon 
Church  for  unchastity,  would  have  been  so  expelled  if  unchastity  had 
been  sanctioned  by  that  Church  or  those  leaders  ?  Again,  where  was 
their  cunning,  that  shrewdness  for  which  their  enemies  gave  them 
credit,  to  have  thus  alienated  from  their  cause  for  such  a  purpose — 
their  own  preservation — men  fully  cognizant  of  their  crimes  ? 

Reader,  the  Latter-day  Saints,  with  all  their  faults — for  they  have 
never  pretended  to  be  perfect — are  a  chaste  and  virtuous  people.  We 
speak  of  course  of  the  generality  of  them.     There  are  black  sheep  in 


every  fold.  No  community  on  earth  values  virtue  more  highly.  They 
require  chastity  in  man,  as  well  as  in  woman,  and  next  in  enormity 
to  murder,  in  their  minds  and  according  to  their  doctrines,  are  the 
sins  of  seduction  and  adultery.  Had  they  their  way  the  adulterer 
and  the  seducer,  no  less  than  the  murderer,  should  answer  for  his 
crime  with  his  life.  Those  who  do  not  know  this,  do  not  know  the 
Latter-day  Saints,  and  they  who  state  to  the  contrary  simply  state 
what  is  not  true. 

Then  why  so  much  talk  about  Mormon  immorality  ?  It  springs, 
aside  from  sheer  falsehood,  from  this  fact.  The  Mormons  believed 
in  a  doctrine  called  by  them  Celestial  Marriage,  but  by  others  named 
polygamy.  Whatever  may  be  thought  of  the  propriety  of  the  former 
term,  the  latter,  strictly  speaking,  is  a  misnomer.  Polygamy  means 
"many  marriages,"  and  may  imply  a  plurality  of  husbands  as  well 
as  wives.  That  a  woman  should  have  more  than  one  husband, 
living  and  undivorced  at  the  same  time,  the  Mormons  have  never 
believed,  but  that  a  man,  upright  and  moral,  might  under  proper 
regulations,  and  in  conformity  with  religious  principle,  have  more 
than  one  wife,  they  have  believed  and  in  times  past  have  practiced 
according  to  that  belief.  Polygeny,  meaning  "many  wives,"  and 
not  polygamy,  which  may  mean  "many  husbands,"  is  a  more 
correct  term  to  use  in  this  connection. 

With  the  Mormons  this  was  a  religious  principle, — a  tenet  of 
their  faith.  They  ceased  its  practice  after  nearly  half  a  century's 
observance,  because  of  a  manifesto  issued  by  the  President  of  their 
Church,  indicating  as  the  will  of  the  Lord  that  it  should  be  dis- 
continued. Congress  had  previously  passed  laws  against  plural 
marriage,  making  it  a  crime,  and  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United 
States  had  declared  those  laws  constitutional.  Not  immediately, 
however,  did  the  Mormons  cease  the  practice  of  polygamy.  They 
thought  that  Congress  was  wrong  in  thus  legislating  against  their 
religion ;  that  the  Supreme  Court  was  wrong,  and  might  yet  see  its 
error,  as  it  did  in  the  Dred  Scott  case,  and  reversing  its  former  ruling 
declare  the  anti-polygamy  laws  unconstitutional.      But  finally,  after 


much  suffering,  resulting  from  prosecutions,  fines,  imprisonments 
and  some  deaths,  the  manifesto  was  issued  and  the  practice  of  Mor- 
mon polygamy  was  at  an  end. 

Many,  perhaps  most  of  the  Latter-day  Saints,  still  believe  in  the 
plural-wife  doctrine, — there  being  no  law  against  their  belief, — and 
consider  that  the  former  practice  of  the  principle  was  eminently 
right  and  proper.  Some,  however,  disbelieve  the  doctrine,  while 
crediting  those  who  accepted  and  practiced  it  with  perfect  sincerity. 
Only  a  small  percentage  of  the  Mormon  people  were  ever  practical 
polygamists,  for  the  observance  of  the  principle  was  not  compulsory. 
But  those  who  engaged  in  it — most  of  them  at  least — were  actuated 
by  high  moral  and  religious  motives.  This,  however  difficult  for 
some  to  believe,  is  nevertheless  true.  Their  honesty  of  purpose  was 
not  questioned  by  those  who  knew  them  best,  in  or  out  of  the 
Church.  They  proved  their  sincerity  in  many  ways,  suffering 
much  as  individuals  and  as  a  community  rather  than  relinquish, 
even  at  the  behest  of  the  parent  government,  this  tenet  of  their 

They  were  wont  to  give  various  reasons  for  the  practice  of  this 
principle,  among  them  the  following:  the  right  and  privilege  of 
every  honorable  woman  to  be  a  wife  and  mother,  which  in  monog- 
amy, under  existing  conditions,  preponderance  of  women  over  men, 
disinclination  of  men  to  marry,  etc.,  was  virtually  denied :  the  extir- 
pation of  the  social  evil;  the  production  of  a  healthier  posterity,  and 
the  physical,  mental  and  moral  improvement  of  the  race.  These 
were  among  the  temporal  or  tangible  reasons  put  forth.  But  they 
also  believed,  and  this  was  the  spiritual  phase  of  the  question,  that 
those  who  faithfully  obeyed  this  principle  here  would  be  exalted  to  the 
highest  glory  hereafter,  as  the  ancient  patriarchs,  Abraham,  Jacob, 
et  al,  and  their  plural  wives  had  been.  It  was  to  the  Latter-day 
Saints  the  key  to  the  Celestial  Kingdom,  where,  according  to  their 
faith,  family  relationships  formed  on  earth  according  to  divine  law 
will  be  perpetuated.  Hence  the  revelation  enjoining  Celestial  Mar- 
riage was  entitled  :    "  Revelation  on  the  Eternity  of  the  Marriage 


Covenant  including  Plurality  of  Wives."     The  more  pertinent  parts 
of  it  are  here  given  : 

Verily,  thus  saitb  the  Lord  unto  you,  my  servant  Joseph,  that  inasmuch  as  you  have 
inquired  of  my  hand,  to  know  and  understand  wherein  I,  the  Lord,  justified  my  servants 
Abraham,  Isaac  and  Jacob ;  as  also  Moses,  David  and  Solomon,  my  servants,  as  touching 
the  principle  and  doctrine  of  their  having  many  wives  and  concubines: 

Behold  !  and  lo,  1  am  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  will  answer  thee  as  touching  this 
matter : 

Therefore,  prepare  thy  heart  to  receive  and  obey  the  instructions  which  I  am  about  to 
give  unto  you  ;  for  all  those  who  have  this  law  revealed  unto  them  must  obey  the  same  ; 

For  behold !  I  reveal  unto  you  a  new  and  an  everlasting  covenant ;  and  if  ye  abide 
not  that  covenant,  then  are  ye  damned  ;  for  no  one  can  reject  this  covenant,  and  be  per- 
mitted to  enter  into  my  glory  ; 

For  all  who  will  have  a  blessing  at  my  hands,  shall  abide  the  law  which  was  appointed 
for  that  blessing,  and  the  conditions  thereof,  as  were  instituted  from  before  the  foundation 
of  the  world  : 

And  as  pertaining  to  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant,  it  was  instituted  for  the  full- 
ness of  my  glory  ;  and  he  that  receiveth  a  fullness  thereof,  must  and  shall  abide  the  law, 
or  he  shall  be  damned,  saitb  the  Lord  God. 

And  verily  I  say  unto  you,  that  the  conditions  of  this  law  are  these : — All  covenants, 
contracts,  bonds,  obligations,  oaths,  vows,  performances,  connections,  associations,  or 
expectations,  that  are  not  made,  and  entered  into,  and  sealed,  by  the  Holy  Spirit  of 
promise,  of  him  who  is  anointed,  both  as  well  for  time  and  for  all  eternity,  and  that  too 
most  holy,  by  revelation  and  commandment  through  the  medium  of  mine  anointed,  whom 
I  have  appointed  on  the  earth  to  hold  this  power,  (and  I  have  appointed  unto  my  servant 
Joseph  to  hold  this  power  in  the  last  days,  and  there  is  never  but  one  on  the  earth  at  a 
time,  on  whom  this  power  and  the  keys  of  this  Priesthood  are  conferred),  are  of  no 
efficacy,  virtue  or  force,  in  and  after  the  resurrection  from  the  dead  ;  for  all  contracts  that 
are  not  made  unto  this  end,  have  an  end  when  men  are  dead. 

Therefore,  if  a  man  marry  him  a  wife  in  the  world,  and  he  marry  her  not  by  me, 
nor  by  my  word;  and  he  covenant  with  her  so  long  as  he  is  in  the  world,  and  she  with 
him,  their  covenant  and  marriage  are  not  of  force  when  they  are  dead,  and  when  they  are 
out  of  the  world  ;  therefore,  they  are  not  bound  by  any  law  when  they  are  out  of  the 
world  ; 

Therefore,  When  they  are  out  of  the  world,  they  neither  many,  nor  are  given  ill 
marriage  :  but  are  appointed  angels  in  heaven,  which  angels  are  ministering  servants,  to 
minister  fur  those  who  are  worthy  of  a  far  more,  and  an  exceeding  and  an  eternal  weighl 
of  glory ; 

For  these  angels  did  mil  abide  my  law.  therefore  they  Cannot  be  enlarged,  but  remain 
separately  and  singly,  without  exaltation,  in  their  saved  condition,  to  all  eternity,  ami  from 
henceforth  are  not  Gods,  but  are  angels  of  God,  lor  ever  ami  ever. 

And  again,  verily  1  say  unto  you.  if  a    man    marry  a  wife,  and  make  a  covenant  With 


her  for  time  and  for  all  eternity,  if  that  covenant  is  not  by  me,  or  by  my  word,  which  is  my 
law,  and  is  not  sealed  by  the  holy  spirit  of  promise,  through  him  whom  I  have  anointed 
and  appointed  unto  this  power — then  it  is  not  valid,  neither  of  force  when  they  are  out  of 
the  world,  because  they  are  not  joined  by  me,  saith  the  Lord,  neither  by  my  word  :  when 
they  are  out  of  the  world,  it  cannot  be  received  there,  because  the  angels  and  the  Gods 
are  appointed  there  ;  by  whom  they  cannot  pass  ;  they  cannot,  therefore,  inherit  my  glory, 
for  my  house  is  a  house  of  order,  saith  the  Lord  God. 

And  again,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  if  a  man  marry  a  wife  by  my  word,  which  is  my 
law,  and  by  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant,  and  it  is  sealed  unto  them  by  the  Holy 
Spirit  of  promise,  by  him  who  is  anointed,  unto  whom  I  have  appointed  this  power,  and 
the  keys  of  this  Priesthood  ;  and  it  shall  be  said  unto  them,  ye  shall  come  forth  in  the 
first  resurrection  ;  and  if  it  be  after  the  first  resurrection,  in  the  next  resurrection  ; 
and  shall  inherit  thrones,  kingdoms,  principalities,  and  powers,  dominions,  all 
heights  and  depths — then  shall  it  be  written  in  the  Lamb's  Book  of  Life,  that  he 
shall  commit  no  murder  whereby  to  shed  innocent  blood,  and  if  ye  abide  in  my  covenant, 
and  commit  no  murder  whereby  to  shed  innocent  blood,  it  shall  be  done  unto  them  in  all 
things  whatsoever  my  servant  hath  put  upon  them,  in  time,  and  through  all  eternity,  and 
shall  be  of  full  force  when  they  are  out  of  the  world  ;  and  they  shall  pass  by  the  angels, 
and  the  Gods,  which  are  set  there,  to  their  exaltation  and  glory  in  all  things,  as  hath  been 
sealed  upon  their  heads,  which  glory  shall  be  a  fullness  and  a  continuation  of  the  seeds 
for  ever  and  ever. 

Then  shall  they  be  Gods,  because  they  have  no  end  ;  therefore  shall  they  be  from 
everlasting  to  everlasting,  because  they  continue  ;  then  shall  they  be  above  all,  because  all 
things  are  subject  unto  them.  Then  shall  they  be  Gods,  because  they  have  all  power,  and 
the  angels  are  subject  unto  them. 


I  am  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  will  give  unto  thee  the  law  of  my  Holy  Priesthood,  as 
was  ordained  by  me,  and  my  Father,  before  the  world  was. 

Abraham  received  all  things,  whatsoever  he  received,  by  revelation  and  command- 
ment, by  my  word,  saith  the  Lord,  and  hath  entered  into  his  exaltation,  and  sitteth  upon 
his  throne. 

Abraham  received  promises  concerning  his  seed,  and  of  the  fruit  of  his  loins — from 
whose  loins  ye  are,  namely,  my  servant  Joseph, — -which  were  to  continue  so  long  as  they 
were  in  the  world ;  and  as  touching  Abraham  and  his  seed,  out  of  the  world  they  should 
continue  ;  both  in  the  world  and  out  of  the  world  should  they  continue  as  innumerable  as 
the  stars ;  or,  if  ye  were  to  count  the  sand  upon  the  sea  shore,  ye  could  not  number  them. 

This  promise  is  yours,  also,  because  ye  are  of  Abraham,  and  the  promise  was  made 
mild  Abraham  ;  and  by  this  law  are  the  continuation  of  the  works  of  my  Father,  wherein 
he  glorifieth  himself. 

Go  ye,  therefore  and  do  the  works  of  Abraham  ;  enter  ye  into  my  law,  and  ye  shall 
be  saved. 

But  if  ye  enter  not  into  my  law  ye  cannot  receive  the  promise  of  my  Father,  which  he 
made  unto  Abraham. 

God  commanded  Abraham,  and   Sarah   gave  Hagar  to  Abraham  to  wife.     Ami  why 


did  she  do  it  ?  Because  this  was  the  law,  and  from  Hagar  sprang  many  people.  This, 
therefore,  was  fulfilling,  among  other  things,  the  promises. 

Was  Abraham,  therefore,  under  condemnation  ?  Verily,  I  say  unto  you,  Nay  ;  for  I, 
the  Lord,  commanded  it. 

Abraham  was  commanded  to  offer  his  son  Isaac  ;  nevertheless,  it  was  written,  thou 
shalt  not  kill.  Abraham,  however,  did  not  refuse,  and  it  was  accounted  unto  him  for 

Abraham  received  concubines,  and  they  bear  him  children,  and  it  was  accounted  unto 
him  for  righteousness,  because  they  were  given  unto  him,  and  he  abode  in  my  law,  as 
Isaac  also,  and  Jacob  did  none  other  things  than  that  which  they  were  commanded  ;  and 
because  they  did  none  other  things  than  that  which  they  were  commanded,  they  have 
entered  into  their  exaltation,  according  to  the  promises,  and  sit  upon  thrones,  and  are  not 
angels,  but  are  Gods. 

David  also  received  many  wives  and  concubines,  as  also  Solomon  and  Moses  my 
servants  ;  as  also  many  others  of  my  servants,  from  the  beginning  of  creation  until  this 
time ;  and  in  nothing  did  they  sin  save  in  those  things  which  they  received  not  of  me. 

David's  wives  and  concubines  were  given  unto  him,  of  me,  by  the  hand  of  Nathan, 
my  servant,  and  others  of  the  prophets  who  had  the  keys  of  this  power ;  and  in  none  of 
these  things  did  he  sin  against  me,  save  in  the  case  of  Uriah  and  his  wife ;  and,  therefore 
he  hath  fallen  from  his  exaltation,  and  received  his  portion  ;  and  he  shall  not  inherit  them 
out  of  the  world  ;  for  I  gave  them  unto  another,  saith  the  Lord. 

I  am  the  Lord  thy  God,  and  I  gave  unto  thee,  my  servant  Joseph,  an  appointment,  and 
restore  all  things  ;  ask  what  ye  will,  and  it  shall  be  given  unto  you  according  to  my  word: 

And  as  ye  have  asked  concerning  adultery — verily,  verily  I  say  unto  you,  if  a  man 
receiveth  a  wife  in  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant,  and  if  she  be  with  another  man,  and 
I  have  not  appointed  unto  her  by  the  holy  anointing,  she  hath  committed  adultery,  and 
shall  be  destroyed. 

If  she  be  not  in  the  new  and  everlasting  covenant,  and  she  be  with  another  man,  she 
has  committed  adultery  ; 

And  if  her  husband  be  with  another  woman,  and  he  was  under  a  vow,  he  hath 
broken  his  vow,  and  hath  committed  adultery. 

And  again,  as  pertaining  to  the  law  of  the  Priesthood:  If  any  man  espouse  a  virgin, 
and  desire  to  espouse  another,  and  the  first  give  her  consent  ;  and  if  he  espouse  the 
second,  and  they  are  virgins,  and  have  vowed  to  no  other  man.  then  is  he  justified ;  he 
cannot  commit  adultery,  for  they  are  given  unto  him ;  for  he  cannot  commit  adultery  with 
that  that  belongeth  unto  him  and  to  no  one  else  ; 

And  if  he  have  ten  virgins  given  unto  him  by  this  law,  he  cannot  commit  adultery,  for 
they  belong  to  him,  and  they  are  given  unto  him,  therefore  is  he  justified. 

But  if  one  or  either  of  the  ten  virgins,  after  she  is  espoused,  shall  be  witli  another 
man  ;  she  has  committed  adultery,  and  shall  be  destroyed;  for  they  are  given  unto  him  to 
multiply  and  replenish  the  earth,  according  to  my  commandment,  and  to  fulfill  the  promise 
which  was  given  by  my  Father  before  the  foundation  of  the  world;  and  for  their  exalta- 
tion in  the  eternal  worlds,  that  they  may  bear  the  souls  ot  men  ;  for  herein  is  the  work  of 
my  Father  continued,  that  he  may  be  glorified. 


Prior  to  the  recording  of  this  revelation  the  Prophet  had  taught 
the  doctrine,  privately,  and  he  and  other  prominent  Elders  had 
practiced  it.  But  this  also  was  in  secret,  owing  to  the  great  prejudice 
it  was  foreseen  it  would  evoke.  It  was  not  avowed,  even  to  the 
masses  of  the  Saints,  until  after  their  removal  from  Illinois. 

Such  a  doctrine  as  plurality  of  wives — the  patriarchal  marriage 
system  of  the  ancients — though  practiced  by  an  Abraham,  a  Jacob, 
a  Moses,  a  Gideon,  could  not  well  be  mooted,  much  less  established 
in  this  monogamic  age,  without  meeting  opposition,  even  among  the 
Saints,  prepared  in  a  measure  by  their  peculiar  religious  training  for 
startling  innovations  on  the  prescribed  boundaries  of  tradition. 
Hence,  as  said,  the  secrecy  with  which  it.  was  at  first  carried  on.  It 
would  have  proved  a  terrible  weapon  in  anti-Mormon  hands,  had  it 
been  openly  proclaimed  at  Nauvoo  in  those  dangerous  days. 

As  it  was,  it  became  known  to  some  extent  on  the  outside 
through  apostasy,  and  of  course  was  deemed  and  denounced  as 
immoral.  John  C.  Bennett  obtained  an  inkling  of  it  before  leaving 
Nauvoo.  and  it  doubtless  formed  the  basis  of  his  vengeful  assault 
upon  those  who  had  severed  him  from  the  Church  for  adultery, 
which  to  the  Latter-day  Saint  differs  as  much  from  plural  marriage 
as  darkness  differs  from  light.  Other  seceders  from  Mormonism. 
who  fell  away  later,  revamped  the  tales  told  by  Bennett,  until  they 
became  with  other  things  a  casus  belli  against  the  Prophet  and  his 
people,  and  no  doubt  helped  to  hasten  his  tragic  end. 

The  first  record  of  the  revelation  on  Celestial  Marriage  was 
made  by  William  Clayton,  at  the  Prophet's  dictation.  It  was  on  the 
12th  of  July,  1843.  A  month  later  it  was  read  by  Hyrum  Smith  to 
the  Stake  Presidency  and  the  High  Council  at  Nauvoo.  The  majority 
of  them  accepted  it.  Emma  Smith,  the  Prophet's  wife,  though  at 
first  averse  to  the  doctrine,  finally  received  it  and  gave  other  wives  to 
her  husband.  Subsequently  she  is  said  to  have  destroyed  the 
original  document  of  the  revelation.  She  positively  denied,  after  the 
Prophet's  death,  that  he  had  ever  practiced  polygamy.  The  revela- 
tion, as  published,  is  from  an   exact  copy  of   the  original,  taken   by 


Joseph  G.  Kingsbury  for  Bishop  Newel  K.  Whitney,  the  day  after  it 
was  recorded  by  William  Clayton,  the  Prophet's  secretary. 

Joseph  Smith's  mind  was  largely  the  mind  of  a  statesman.  He 
had  meditated  much  upon  the  political  problems  of  his  period,  and 
sincerely  sorrowed  over  the  corruptions  and  degeneracy  of  the  times. 
He  thought,  moreover,  that  he  saw  a  way  of  escape  from  many  of 
the  evils  then  threatening  his  country.  One  of  these  was  the 
slavery  question,  his  plan  for  the  solution  of  which,  had  it  been 
adopted,  would  have  saved  the  nation  a  million  lives,  millions  of 
treasure  and  the  terrible  hatreds  and  heart-burnings  that  have  ever 
since  divided,  far  more  effectually  than  Mason  and  Dixon's  line,  the 
North  from  the  South.  Joseph  Smith's  plan  for  the  settlement  of 
slavery  was  for  the  general  government  to  purchase  from  the  South 
their  negroes  and  then  liberate  them. 

During  the  winter  of  1S43-4,  the  Prophet  corresponded  with 
several  eminent  statesmen,  such  as  Henry  Clay,  John  C.  Calhoun, 
Lewis  Cass,  Richard  M.  Johnson  and  Martin  Van  Buren,  who  were 
all  known  to  be  aspirants  for  the  Presidency.  Each  was  asked  this 
question:  ''What  will  be  your  rule  of  action  relative  to  us  as  a 
people,  should  fortune  favor  your  ascension  to  the  Chief  Magistracy?" 
Clay  and  Calhoun  were  the  only  ones  who  replied.  Their  answers 
being  politic  and  evasive,  the  Prophet  administered  to  each  a  stinging 
reproof  for  what  he  deemed  cowardice  and  lack  of  candor. 

He  also  took  to  task,  about  this  time,  James  Arlington  Bennett, 
of  New  York,  who  in  a  rather  bombastic  letter  to  the  "  American 
Mohamet,"  had  intimated  his  desire  to  become  his  "  right-hand 
man;"  at  the  same  time  making  known  his  desire  to  run  for  high 
office  in  Illinois,  and  use  the  Mormon  vote  to  lift  himself  into 
power.  Said  the  Prophet  to  Bennett :  "  Shall  I  who  have 
witnessed  the  visions  of  eternity,  *  *  *  who  have 
heard  the  voice  of  God,  and  communed  with  angels,  *  *  * 
shall  I  worm  myself  into  a  political  hypocrite  ?  Shall  I  who  hold 
the  keys  of  the  last  Kingdom  *  *  *  stoop  from  the 
sublime  authority  of  Almighty  God  to  be  handled  as  a    monkey's 


catspaw,  and  pettify  myself  into  a  clown  to  act  the  farce  of  political 
demagoguery  ?  No,  verily  no.  *  *  *  I  combat  the 
errors  of  ages,  I  meet  the  violence  of  mobs,  I  cope  with  illegal  pro- 
ceedings from  executive  authority,  I  cut  the  Gordian  knot  of  powers  ; 
and  I  solve  mathematical  problems  of  universities  with  truth — 
diamond  truth  ;  and  God-is  my  '  right-hand  man.'  " 

The  next  announcement  from  Nauvoo  was  to  the  political  world 
somewhat  startling.  It  was  the  nomination  of  Joseph  Smith,  the 
Mormon  Prophet,  as  a  candidate  for  the  Presidency  of  the  United 
States.  The  nomination  was  made  January  29th,  1844,  and  was 
duly  sustained  at  a  State  convention  held  at  Nauvoo  on  the  17th  of 
May.  This  was  followed  by  the  public  enunciation  of  Joseph  Smith's 
views  upon  the  powers  and  policy  of  the  Federal  Government. 
Therein  he  announced  himself  as  favoring  : 

(1)  The  abolition  of  slavery,  but  upon  the  basis  of  a  just 
remuneration  of  all  slave-holders  by  the  general  government. 

(2)  The  reduction  of  the  numbers  and  pay  of  Congressmen ; 
the  money  thus  saved,  together  with  the  proceeds  from  the  sale  of 
public  lands,  to  be  used  in  reimbursing  slave-holders  for  the  negroes 

(3)  The  abolition  of  imprisonment  for  debt,  and  of  imprison- 
ment for  every  crime  excepting  murder;  work  upon  public 
improvements  to  be  made  the  penalty  for  larceny,  burglary  and  like 
felonies.  "Let  the  penitentiaries.**  said  he.  "be  turned  into 
seminaries  of  learning." 

(4)  The  abolition  of  the  practice,  in  army  or  navy,  of  court- 
martialing  men  for  desertion.  "  If  a  soldier  or  marine  runs  away. 
send  him  his  wages,  with  this  instruction,  that  his  country  will 
never  trust  him  again.  *  *  *  Make  honor  the  standard 
with  all  men." 

(5)  The  investment  of  power  in  the  President  to  send  armies 
to  suppress  mobs. 

(6)  The  extension  of  the  Union,  with  the  consent  of  the  red 
man,  from  sea  to  sea. 


(7)  The  annexation  of  Texas,  if  she  petitioned  for  it,  and  of 
Canada  and  Mexico,  whenever  they  should  desire  to  enter  the 

Said  the  Prophet:  "We  have  had  Democratic  presidents,  Whig 
presidents,  a  pseudo-Democratic-Whig  president,  and  now  it  is  time 
to  have  a  President  of  the  United  States."  Such  were  the  principal 
planks  of  the  platform  upon  which  Joseph  Smith  as  a  candidate  for 
the  Chief  Magistracy  went  into  the  campaign  of  1844.  Henry  Clay 
was  the  Whig  candidate,  and  James  K.  Polk  the  Democratic  candi- 
date for  President  at  the  same  time. 

To  promulgate  these  views  through  the  eastern  states  and  act  as 
the  Prophet's  electioneered  in  the  campaign,  went  forth  from 
Nauvoo,  in  April  and  May  of  that  memorable  year,  Apostles  Brigham 
Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Orson  Hyde,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Orson  Pratt, 
Wilford  Woodruff,  George  A.  Smith,  Lyman  Wight  and  many  other 
Elders.  Joseph  kept  with  him  his  brother  Hyrum  and  Apostles 
John  Taylor  and  Willard  Richards ;  Elder  Taylor  having  succeeded 
the  Prophet  as  editor  of  the  Times  and  Seasons,  and  Willard  Richards 
being  Church  historian.  Sidney  Rigdon.  at  this  time,  was  living  at 
Pittsburg,  Pennsylvania,  having  lost  faith  in  Mormonism,  or  at  least 
in  Joseph  Smith,  and  retired  from  the  troubles  and  turmoils  of 
Nauvoo.  William  and  Wilson  Law  with  several  other  Elders  had 
lately  been  severed  from  the  Church  and  were  now  at  the  head  of  a 
local  opposition  movement  designed  for  the  Prophet's  overthrow. 

It  may  well  be  doubted  that  Joseph  Smith,  on  entering  the  polit- 
ical arena  as  a  presidential  candidate,  anticipated  a  successful  issue  of 
the  campaign.  Though  his  views  in  some  places  became  very  popu- 
lar,— which  we  presume  was  his  main  object  in  running  for  the 
Presidency, — his  thoughts  at  that  time,  judging  from  his  acts  and 
expressions,  were  dwelling  upon  another  subject  entirely.  That  sub- 
ject was  the  exodus  of  the  Saints  to  the  west, — an  event  he  had 
predicted  in  August,  1842,  and  a  project  which  various  notable 
personages,  friendly  to  him  and  his  people,  had  since  advised  him  to 
carry  into  effect.     Undoubtedly  he  would  have  done  so  had  he  lived, 


in  which  event  Joseph  Smith,  in  lieu  of  Brigham  Young,  would 
have  been  the  founder  of  Utah. 

In  February,  1844,  soon  after  his  nomination  for  President,  the 
Prophet  had  directed  the  organization  of  an  exploring  expedition  to 
seek  out  a  home  for  the  Saints  beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains, — in 
California  or  Oregon.  Among  the  men  selected  for  this  enterprise 
were  Jonathan  Dunham,  Phineas  H.  Young,  David  D.  Yearsley, 
David  Fullmer,  Alphonso  Young,  James  Emmett,  George  D.  Watt 
and  Daniel  Spencer.  These  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  proposed 
expedition,  to  which  volunteers  were  subsequently  added.  Says 
Samuel  W.  Richards,  one  of  these  volunteers :  "  The  outfit  for 
each  man  was  to  consist  of  a  rifle  and  ammunition,  a  saddle-horse,  a 
pack-horse,  with  a  few  provisions  and  cooking  utensils,  and  for  the 
rest  of  our  support  we  were  to  kill  game  on  the  way.  Each  man 
was  to  have  in  his  pocket  five  hundred  dollars,  to  purchase  lands  for 
our  people  a  home  whenever  we  should  find  a  place  suitable.  Our 
party  was  thoroughly  organized,  but  never  started  from  Nauvoo." 

In  March,  Joseph  Smith  memorialized  Congress  and  the  President 
— John  Tyler — relative  to  the  passage  of  an  act,  drafted  by  himself, 
providing  for  the  protection  of  American  citizens  "  wishing  to  settle 
Oregon  and  other  portions  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States; 
also  for  the  protection  of  the  people  of  Texas  against  Mexico.  He 
asked  for  the  privilege  of  raising  one  hundred  thousand  men  for 
these  purposes. 

Oregon  at  that  time,  it  must  be  remembered,  though  rightfully 
possessed  by  the  United  States,  was  also  claimed  by  Great  Britain, 
and  was  jointly  occupied  by  American  settlers  and  British  fur 
traders,  pending  final  diplomatic  settlement  between  the  two 
countries.  Oregon  then  included  Washington,  Idaho  and  portions  of 
Montana  and  Wyoming.  To  the  south  were  the  Mexican  provinces 
of  California  and  New  Mexico;  California  comprising  Utah.  Nevada 
and  portions  of  Wyoming  and  Colorado,  while  Xew  Mexico  took  in 
Arizona.  Texas,  formerly  a  part  of  Mexico,  but  now  independent, 
was  soon  to  be  annexed   to  the  United   States, — the  Democrats,  who 


were  about  returning  to  power,  having  made  that  the  issue  of  the 
presidential  campaign.  The  annexation  was  much  against  Mexico's 
wish,  and  she  threatened  to  regard  it  as  equivalent  .to  a  declaration 
of  war. 

Such  was  the  situation  at  the  time  that  Joseph  Smith  sent  his 
memorials  to  Washington :  Orson  Hyde  and  Orson  Pratt  being  the 
bearers  of  the  same  to  the  nation's  capital.  From  Apostle  Hyde's 
reports  to  the  Prophet  in  April,  we  excerpt  the  following: 

"Judge  Douglas  has  been  quite  ill,  but  is  just  recovered.  He 
will  help  all  he  can  ;  Mr.  Hardin  likewise.  But  Major  Semple  says 
he  does  not  believe  anything  will  be  done  about  Texas  or  Oregon  this 
session.  *  *  *  Congress  *  *  is  afraid  of  England, 
afraid  of  Mexico,  afraid  the  Presidential  election  will  be  twisted  by 
it.  *  *  *  The  most  of  the  settlers  in  Oregon  and  Texas 
are  our  old  enemies,  the  mobocrats  of  Missouri.  *  *  * 
Your  superior  wisdom  must  determine  whether  to  go  to  Oregon,  to 
Texas,  or  to  remain  in  these  United  States." 

Later:  "We  have  this  day  (April  26th)  had  a  long  conversation 
with  Judge  Douglas.  He  is  ripe  for  Oregon  and  California.  He  said 
he  would  resign  his  seat  in  Congress  if  he  could  command  the  force 
that  Mr.  Smith  could,  and  would  be  on  the  march  to  that  country  in 
a  month.  '  In  five  years,'  said  he,  'a  noble  state  might  be  formed, 
and  then  if  they  would  not  receive  us  into  the  Union,  we  would  have 
a  government  of  our  own.'  " 

Thus  we  see  that  while  the  campaign  for  the  Presidency  gave  the 
Prophet  an  excellent  opportunity  to  present  his  political  views  to  the 
nation,  it  was  the  contemplated  exodus  of  his  people  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains  that  mostly  occupied  his  thoughts.  Said  he,  soon  after 
the  departure  of  the  Apostles  on  their  political  mission  :  "  I  care  but 
little  about  the  presidential  chair.  I  would  not  give  half  as  much 
for  the  office  of  President  of  the  United  States,  as  I  would  for  the 
one  I  now  hold  as  Lieutenant-General  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion." 

That  Legion  he  doubtless  designed  as  the  nucleus  of  his  army 
of  one  hundred  thousand.     At  its  head  Joseph  Smith,  had  he  lived, 


would  have  moved  westward  to  maintain  the  rights  of  his  country 
against  Great  Britain  and  Mexico,  and  found  another  State  for  the 
Union  in  the  midst  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Fate,  however,  inter- 
posed at  this  juncture,  not  to  defeat  the  design,  which  was  eventually 
executed,  but  to  change,  as  in  the  case  of  Moses  and  Joshua,  the 
personality  of  the  executor. 

We  come  now  to  the  last  act  in  the  drama,  preceding  the  fulfill- 
ment of  the  Prophet's  design.  The  winter  of  1843-4  had  witnessed 
the  defection  from  Mormonism  of  several  persons  who  for  some  years 
had  been  more  or  less  prominent  in  its  history.  Among  these,  were 
William  and  Wilson  Law,  already  mentioned.  This  twain  were 
brothers.  They  were  of  Irish  descent  and  natives  of  Mercer  County, 
Pennsylvania.  Francis  M.  and  Chauncey  L.  Higbee,  sons  of  Judge 
Elias  Higbee,  were  numbered  with  the  seceders,  as  were  also 
Robert  D.  and  Charles  A.  Foster.  All  or  most  of  these  had  been 
excommunicated  from  the  Church  for  dishonesty  and  immorality. 
They  set  up  a  church  of  their  own,  with  William  Law  as  its 
head,  denounced  Joseph  Smith  as  "  a  fallen  prophet,"  and  proceeded 
to  inaugurate  another  crusade  against  him.  In  secret  sympathy  with 
these  men  were  Sidney  Rigdon,  William  Marks  and  Austin  A.  Cowles. 

Upon  the  testimony  of  William  Law  and  others,  Joseph  Smith 
was  indicted  at  Carthage  for  polygamy,  in  the  latter  part  of  May. 
He  surrendered  himself  for  trial,  but  the  prosecution  not  being  ready 
to  proceed,  the  case  was  continued  for  the  term.  Charles  Foster, 
temporarily  friendly,  disclosed  to  Joseph  a  plot  of  the  seceders  to 
murder  him  while  at  Carthage,  which  kindly  service  enabled  him  to 
baffle  the  conspirators  and  return  to  Nauvoo  in  safety. 

But  the  design  of  the  opposition  was  not  merely  to  assail  the 
Prophet.  Nauvoo  and  its  citizens  generally  were  to  be  the  objects  of 
attack.  To  this  end  a  paper  was  established  there  called  the  Naitcoo 
Expositor,  of  which  the  Laws,  Fosters  and  Higbees  with  one  Charles 
Ivins  were  the  publishers,  and  Sylvester  Emmons  the  editor. 
Emmons  was  a  non-Mormon  member  of  the  City  Council.  One  of 
the  purposes  of  the  Expositor,  as  announced  in  its  prospectus  issued 


May  10th,  1844,  was  to  advocate  "  the  unconditional  repeal  of 
the  Nauvoo  City  charter,"  efforts  to  which  end  had  already  been 
made  in  the  Illinois  Legislature.  Its  further  design,  as  appeared 
later,  was  to  libel  and  defame  the  leading  Mormon  citizens  of 
Nauvoo, — possibly  to  incite  mobocratic  assaults  upon  the  city.  At 
all  events  such  was  the  view  taken  by  many  citizens  as  to  its  purpose 
and  policy. 

The  first  and  final  number  of  the  Nauvoo  Expositor,  reeking 
with  filthy  scandals,  was  issued  on  the  7th  of  June.  Public  indigna- 
tion was  at  once  aroused.  Decency  was  shocked.  Modesty  had 
been  made  to  blush.  Potent  to  the  people  of  Nauvoo  as  were  such 
considerations,  they  were  but  secondary  compared  with  the  deep 
and  deadly  injury  that  was  sought  to  be  done  the  city.  Mobs, 
incited  by  anti-Mormon  politicians, — more  than  ever  incensed  at 
what  they  deemed  the  towering  presumption  of  the  Mormon  leader 
in  running  for  the  Presidency, — were  already  threatening  Nauvoo, 
and  such  scandalous  reports,  if  accepted  as  true,  might  precipitate  at 
any  hour  an  attack  upon  the  town.  Such  a  fear  was  far  from 
groundless  to  men  and  women  upon  whose  minds  were  indelibly 
stamped  the  terrible  memories  of  Far  West  and  Haun's  Mill.  Besides, 
the  charter  of  the  city,  the  bulwark  of  their  rights  and  liberties,  was 
assailed.  That  swept  away,  and  what  evils  might  not  follow,  what 
vices  flourish  unchecked,  in  the  midst  of  their  peaceable,  temperate 
and,  for  all  that  was  said  to  the  contrary,  moral  and  virtuous  com- 

Such  was  the  Mormon  view  of  the  situation.  Yet  not  the 
Saints  alone,  but  respectable  people  of  all  parties  felt  outraged. 
There  were  those  who  longed  to  take  the  law  into  their  own  hands, 
and  raze  the  Expositor  building  to  the  ground. 

The  Mormon  leaders,  however,  would  not  sanction  mobocracy. 
They  had  suffered  too  much  from  it  themselves  to  countenance  it  in 
their  followers.  Legal  measures,  in  lieu  of  lawless  force,  were 
therefore  employed  against  the  Expositor.  The  City  Council  of 
Nauvoo  convened  in  regular  session  on  Saturday  the  8th  of  June, 


Mayor  Joseph  Smith  presiding,  and  an  adjourned  session  was  held  on 
Monday,  the  10th.  The  character,  aims  and  objects  of  the  libelous 
sheet  and  its  publishers  were  fully  ventilated.  Among  those  who 
spoke  to  the  question  were  the  Mayor,  Aldermen  George  W.  Harris, 
Samuel  Bennett,  Elias  Smith,  Stephen  Markham,  Orson  Spencer, 
and  Councilors  Hyrum  Smith,  John  Taylor,  William  W.  Phelps, 
Edward  Hunter,  Levi  and  Phinehas  Richards  and  Benjamin  Warring- 
ton. Willard  Richards  was  clerk  of  the  Council.  By  an  almost 
unanimous  vote, — Councilor  Warrington,  a  non-Mormon,  alone 
dissenting, — the  Nauvoo  Expositor  was  declared  a  public  nuisance, 
and  the  Mayor  instructed  to  have  it  abated  without  delay.  Councilor 
Warrington,  it  should  be  added,  only  opposed  summary  action.  He 
considered  the  paper  libelous,  and  was  in  favor  of  heavily  fining  its 
publishers.  On  the  night  of  June  10th,  by  order  of  the  Mayor,  City 
Marshal  John  P.  Greene  and  a  force  of  police  destroyed  the  printing 
press,  pied  the  type,  and  burned  the  published  sheets  of  the  Expositor 
found  upon  its  premises,  in  the  streets  of  Nauvoo.  The  leaders  of 
the  opposition  party  immediately  left  the  city. 

On  the  12th  of  June  Constable  David  Bettisworth  came  from 
Carthage  to  Nauvoo  and  arrested  on  a  charge  of  riot  the  following 
named  persons  :  Joseph  Smith,  Samuel  Bennett,  John  Taylor,  William 
W.  Phelps,  Hyrum  Smith,  John  P.  Greene,  Stephen  Perry,  Dimick  B. 
Huntington,  Jonathan  Dunham,  Stephen  Markham,  William  Edwards, 
Jonathan  Harmon,  Jesse  P.  Harmon,  John  Lytle,  Joseph  W.  Coolidge, 
Harvey  D.  Bedfield,  0.  P.  Rockwell  and  Levi  Richards.  The  com- 
plaint was  sworn  to  by  Francis  M.  Higbee,  and  referred  to  the 
abatement  of  the  Nauvoo  Expositor. 

The  warrant  required  that  the  accused  be  brought  before  Justice 
Thomas  Morrison,  at  Carthage,  "or  some  other  justice  of  the  peace" 
in  Hancock  County.  Taking  advantage  of  this  wording  of  the 
warrant  they  requested  the  privilege  of  going  before  one  of  the 
justices  of  Nauvoo.  The  constable,  however,  insisted  on  taking  them 
to  Carthage.  They  thereupon  sued  out  writs  of  habeas  corpus  and 
were  discharged,  after  a  hearing,  by  the  Municipal  Court  of  Nauvoo. 


Subsequently,  at  the  advice  of  Judge  Jesse  B.  Thomas,  who  was 
visiting  the  city,  Mayor  Smith  and  his  friends  went  before  Justice 
Daniel  H.  Wells,  who  was  still  a  non-Mormon,  and  were  again 
examined  and  discharged  ;  it  appearing  that  their  course  in  relation 
to  the  Expositor,  while  summary,  was  strictly  legal  under  the 
charter  and  ordinances  of  Nauvoo. 

The  same  day — June  16th — Mayor  Smith  issued  a  proclamation, 
stating  why  the  act  of  abatement  had  been  deemed  necessary  and  de- 
claring that  the  city  authorities  were  willing  to  appear,  whenever  the 
Governor  should  require  it,  before  any  high  .court  in  the  State  and 
answer  for  the  correctness  of  their  conduct.  He  also  warned  the 
lawless  element,  now  reported  to  be  gathering  against  Nauvoo,  not  to 
be  precipitate  in  interfering  with  the  affairs  of  that  city.  Governor 
Ford  had  previously  been  informed  of  the  situation  in  detail,  but  no 
reply  had  been  received  from  him. 

The  excitement  caused  by  the  abatement  of  the  Expositor  and 
the  unwillingness  of  the  Mormon  leaders  to  be  tried  at  Carthage,  was 
intense.  Armed  men  were  now  taking  the  field  in  deadly  earnest. 
Carthage  and  Warsaw,  the  neighboring  towns  to  Nauvoo,  wore  the 
aspect  of  military  camps.  Troops  were  training  daily  for  the  pending 
conflict.  Fifteen  hundred  Missourians  were  reported  to  have  joined 
the  Warsaw  forces,  and  five  pieces  of  cannon  and  a  supply  of  small 
arms  had  been  forwarded  to  that  point  from  Quincy  and  other  places. 
The  Warsaw  Signal,  edited  by  Thomas  C.  Sharp,  was  active  in  stirring 
up  the  spirit  of  mobocracy.  It  even  advocated  the  massacre  of  the 
whole  Mormon  community.  *  The  following  is  a  sample  of  the 
mobocratic  resolutions  passed  at  Warsaw,  published  in  the  Signal. 
and  afterwards  adopted  at  Carthage  by  acclamation  : 

*  Says  Gregg's  History  of  Hancock  County :  "There  were  at  this  time  and  even  after- 
ward while  the  Mormons  remained,  four  classes  of  citizens  in  the  county:  1.  The 
Mormons  themselves.  2.  A  class  called  Jack-Mormons.  *  *  *  3.  Old  citizens 
who  were  anti-Mormons  at  heart,  but  who  refused  to  countenance  any  but  lawful 
measures  for  redress  of  grievances  ;  and  4.  Anti-Mormons  who,  now  that  the  crisis  had 
come,  advocated  :  war  and  extermination.'  " 


Resolved  that  the  time,  in  our  opinion,  has  arrived,  when  the  adherents  of  Smith,  as 
a  body,  should  be  driven  from  the  surrounding  settlements  into  Nauvoo.  That  the  Prophet 
and  his  miscreant  adherents  should  then  be  demanded  at  their  hands,  and  if  not  surren- 
dered a  war  of  extermination  should  be  waged  to  their  entire  destruction,  if  necessary  for 
our  protection. 

The  situation  at  Nauvoo  was  fast  becoming  serious.  It  was  now 
the  18th  of  June,  and  no  word  had  yet  come  from  the  Governor. 
Mobocratic  threats  were  daily  growing  louder.  Seeing  no  alternative, 
unless  it  were  to  quietly  submit  to  the  threatened  assault  and 
massacre,  the  Prophet,  in  his  capacity  of  Mayor,  now  called  out  the 
Legion  to  defend  the  city,  and  proclaimed  Nauvoo  under  martial 

"  Will  you  stand  by  me,*'  said  he,  as  clothed  in  full  uniform  of 
Lieutenant-General  of  the  Legion,  he  addressed  his  soldiers  and 
fellow-citizens  for  the  last  time, — "  Will  you  stand  by  me  to  the 
death,  and  sustain  at  the  peril  of  your  lives  the  laws  of  our  country, 
and  the  liberties  and  privileges  which  our  fathers  have  transmitted  to 
us,  sealed  with  their  sacred  blood  ?  ("  Aye,"  shouted  thousands.) 
It  is  well.  If  you  had  not  done  it.  I  would  have  gone  out  there 
(pointing  to  the  West)  and  would  have  raised  up  a  mightier  people. 
*  *  *  (Drawing  his  sword  and  presenting  it  to  heaven)  "  I  call 
God  and  angels  to  witness  that  I  have  unsheathed  my  sword  with  a 
firm  and  unalterable  determination  that  this  people  shall  have  their 
legal  rights,  and  be  protected  from  mob  violence,  or  my  blood  shall  be 
spilt  upon  the  ground  like  water,  and  my  body  consigned  to  the  silent 
tomb.  While  I  live  I  will  never  tamely  submit  to  the  dominion  of 
cursed  mobocracy.  *  *  *  I  do  not  regard  my  own  life.  I  am 
ready  to  be  offered  a  sacrifice  for  this  people.      *    *     *     God  has 

*  Governor  Ford,  in  after  years,  wrote  as  follows  regarding  the  designs  of  the  mob 
upon  Nauvoo  :  "  I  gradually  learned,  to  my  entire  satisfaction,  that  there  was  a  plan  to 
get  the  troops  into  Nauvoo  and  then  begin  the  war,  probably  by  some  of  our  own  party, 
or  some  of  the  seceding  Mormons,  taking  advantage  of  the  night  to  fire  on  our  own  force 
and  then  laying  it  on  the  Mormons.  1  was  satisfied  there  were  those  among  us  fully 
capable  of  such  an  act,  hoping  that  in  the  alarm,  bustle  and  confusion  of  a  militia  camp 
the  truth  could  aoi  be  discovered,  and  that  it  might  lead  to  the  desired  collision." 


tried  you.  You  are  a  good  people ;  therefore  I  love  you  with  all  my 
heart.  *  *  *  You  have  stood  by  me  in  the  hour  of  trouble, 
and  I  am  willing  to  sacrifice  my  life  for  your  preservation.'' 

This  was  not  the  first  time  that  the  Prophet  had  predicted  his 
own  death.  He  felt  that  his  enemies  were  thirsting  for  his  blood, 
and  that  if  once  he  fell  into  their  power  his  days  on  earth  were 
numbered.  Neither,  as  seen,  was  it  the  first  time  that  he  had 
indicated  the  great  West  as  the  future  home  of  his  people.  On  the 
20th  of  June  he  wrote  for  the  immediate  return  of  the  absent 

Next  day  Governor  Ford  arrived  at  Carthage.  Placing  himself 
at  the  head  of  the  troops  there  concentrated, — hitherto  an  armed 
mob,  but  now,  by  his  act,  transformed  into  regular  militia,  the 
Governor  demanded  that  martial  law  at  Nauvoo  be  abolished,  and 
that  the  Mayor,  the  City  Council  and  all  persons  concerned  in  the 
destruction  of  the  Expositor  press  come  to  Carthage  to  be  tried  for 

The  Governor's  orders  were  obeyed.  For  a  few  hours  only 
the  Prophet  hesitated.  Life  was  still  dear  to  him  ;  if  not  for  himself 
for  the  sake  of  his  friends  and  family.  On  the  night  of  the  22nd  he 
crossed  the  Mississippi,  and  in  company  with  his  brother  Hyrum, 
Apostles  Richards,  Taylor  and  a  few  other  friends,  started  for  the 
Rocky  Mountains.  Messages  from  home  intercepted  him,  inducing 
him  to  reconsider  his  design,  and  he  returned  to  meet  his  doom. 
"We  are  going  back  to  be  butchered,"  said  he,  and  resigned  himself 
to  his  fate. 

Having  delivered  up,  at  the  Governor's  demand,  the  arms  of  the 
Nauvoo  Legion,  the  Prophet  and  his  friends,  seventeen  in  number,  on 
the  evening  of  the  24th  set  out  for  Carthage. 

It  was  about  midnight  when  they  arrived  there.  Though  so 
late,  the  town  was  alive  and  stirring,  in  anticipation  of  their  arrival. 
They  were  immediately  surrounded  with  troops,  who  yelled  their 
exultation  at  having  them  in  their  power.  Some  of  the  soldiers — 
notably  the  Carthage  Greys — were  very  abusive  and  threatened  to 


shoot  the  Prophet  and  his  party,  who  were  thus  voluntarily  surren- 
dering themselves.  Governor  Ford  pacified  the  would-be  murderers 
and  the  threatened  massacre  was  postponed. 

Next  day  the  Governor  paraded  the  prisoners  before  the  troops 
upon  the  public  square,  where  the  two  principals  were  introduced  as 
"  Generals  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith."  At  this  the  Carthage  Greys 
again  became  angry  and  violent,  deeming  too  much  honor  was  being 

done  "  the  d d  Mormons"  by  bestowing  upon  them  such  titles. 

Soon  afterward  the  Greys  revolted  against  their  commander,  General 
Miner  R.  Deming,  who,  fearing  his  own  assassination,  left  Carthage.* 
Again  the  Governor  placated  the  hostiles  by  assuring  them  that  they 
should  have  "  full  satisfaction,"  while  to  the  prisoners  he  pledged  his 
honor  and  the  faith  of  the  State  of  Illinois  that  they  should  be  pro- 
tected from  violence  and  given  a  fair  trial. 

Before  Justice  Robert  F.  Smith,  a  captain  in  the  Carthage 
Greys,  the  Prophet  and  his  party  were  brought  that  afternoon  and 
admitted  to  bail.  Meanwhile  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith  had  been 
arrested  for  treason.  This  charge  was  based  upon  the  calling  out  of 
the  Legion  and  the  placing  of  Nauvoo  under  martial  law,  proceedings 
construed  into  armed  resistance  to  legal  process.  Nothing  was  done 
in  this  case  until  nightfall,  when  the  accused,  without  a  hearing, 
were  thrust  into  Carthage  jail  by  Justice  Smith,  now  acting  arbi- 
trarily in  his  capacity  of  Captain  of  the  Greys.  Governor  Ford  sanc- 
tioned this  illegal  act,  claiming  afterwards  that  it  was  necessary 
for  the  safety  of  the  prisoners,  though  the  latter  at  the  time 
protested  against  the  incarceration.  John  Taylor,  Willard  Richards 
and  a  few  other  friends  accompanied  Joseph  and  Hyrum  to  prison. 

It  was  the  beginning  of  the  end.  The  plot  was  fast  consummat- 
ing. Once  more,  and  only  once,  did  the  two  brothers  emerge  from 
that  jail  alive.  Their  doom  was  sealed.  "The  law  cannot  reach 
them."  said  their  plotting  murderers,  "but  powder  and  ball  shall." 

*  General  Deming  is  said  to  have  suspected  the  murderous  plot  against  the  Mormon 
leaders,  and  being  powerless  to  prevent  its  execution,  determined  to  have  nothing  to  do 
with  I  he  blood;  deed. 


Governor  Ford,  next  morning,  granted  an  interview  to  the 
Prophet,  coming  to  the  prison  for  that  purpose.  Colonel  Geddes  and 
others  accompanied  him.  During  their  conversation  the  Prophet 
charged  the  Governor  with  knowing  positively  that  he  and  his 
brother  were  innocent  of  treason,  and  that  their  enemies  had  begun 
the  troubles  which  had  culminated  in  the  present  situation. *  He  also 
claimed  that  Ford  had  advised  him  to  use  the  Legion  in  the  way  that 
he  had,  in  the  event  of  a  threatened  mobocratic  assault  uponNauvoo. 
As  to  the  Expositor  affair,  the  Prophet  said  that  he  was  willing  to  be 
tried  again,  and  if  found  guilty  to  make  suitable  reparation.  That 
was  a  matter,  he  maintained,  for  courts  to  decide,  and  not  for  mobs 
to  settle.  Such  was  the  main  substance  of  the  interview.  The  Gov- 
ernor, at  parting,  renewed  his  promise  that  the  prisoners  should  be 
protected,  and  pledged  his  word  that  if  he  went  to  Nauvoo — as  he 
contemplated  doing — he  would  take  Joseph  with  him.  Both  promises 
were  unkept.f 

In  the  afternoon  the  two  brothers  were  arraigned  before  Justice 
Smith  at  the  Court  House  on  the  charge  of  treason.  They  asked 
for  time  to  obtain  witnesses.  The  request  was  reluctantly  granted, 
and  the  court  was  adjourned  until  noon  next  day,  to  enable  the  pris- 
oners to  send  to  Nauvoo — eighteen  miles  distant — for  their  witnesses. 
Subsequently  the  military  justice,  without  notifying  the  prisoners, 
postponed  the  trial  until  the  29th  of  June. 

The  last  night  of  the  brothers  Joseph  and  Hyrum  on  earth  was 

*  Ford  in  his  history  thus  disposes  of  this  question  of  the  alleged  treason  of  the  Mor- 
mon leaders  :  "  Their  actual  guiltiness  of  the  charge  would  depend  upon  circumstances. 
If  their  opponents  had  been  seeking  to  put  the  law  in  force  in  good  faith,  and  nothing  more, 
then  in  array  of  military  force  in  open  resistance  to  the  posse  comitates  and  the  militia  of 
the  state,  mosl  probably  would  have  amounted  to  treason.  But  if  those  opponents  merely 
intended  to  Use  the  powers  of  the  law.  the  militia  of  the  state,  and  the  posse  comitatus  as 
cats"-paws  to  compass  the  possession  of  their  persons  for  the  purpose  of  murdering  them 
afterwards,  as  the  sequel  demonstrated  the  fact  to  he.  it  might  well  he  doubted  whether 
they  were  guilty   of.  treason." 

f  Governor  Ford,  who  seems  to  have  deferred  utterly  to  his  subordinates  and  tlie  anti- 
Mormons  at  thai  time,  tailed  in  lake  tin-  Prophet  in  Nauvoo  because  a  council  of  his  offi- 
cers convinced  him  that  il  "would  lie  highly  inexpedient  and  dangerous." 


shared  with  their  friends  John  Taylor,  Willard  Richards,  John  S. 
Fullmer,  Stephen  Markham  and  Dan  Jones.  They  occupied  an 
up-stair  room  in  the  prison.  Next  day — the  fatal  27th — Fullmer, 
Markham  and  Jones  were  excluded  from  the  jail,  and  the  four  vic- 
tims selected  for  the  sacrifice  were  left  alone.  They  cheered  each 
other  with  sacred  songs  and  by  preaching  in  turn  to  their  guards. 
Some  of  these  were  "pricked  in  their  hearts,"  being  convinced  that 
the  prisoners  were  innocent.  Their  feelings  becoming  known  to 
their  superiors,  they  were  promptly  relieved  and  men  of  sterner  stuff 
put  in  their  place.  During  the  day  Cyrus  H.  Wheelock  was  permitted 
to  visit  the  prisoners.  Before  he  left  he  managed  secretly  to  slip  a 
small  pepper-box  revolver  into  Joseph's  pocket.  This  weapon,  which 
belonged  to  John  Taylor,  and  a  single-barreled  pistol  left  by  John  S. 
Fullmer,  with  two  stout  canes,  were  their  sole  means  of  defense 
against  the  horde  of  armed  assassins  that  soon  afterward  descended 
upon  the  jail. 

Governor  Ford,  that  morning,  regardless  of  his  pledge,  had 
gone  to  Nauvoo,  leaving  the  Prophet,  whom  he  had  promised  to  take 
with  him,  in  prison.  He  had  done  more.  Disbanding  most  of  the 
militia,  he  had  taken  with  him  the  McDonough  County  troops. — of 
all  the  militia  the  best  ordered  and  least  vindictive  against  the  Mor- 
mons,— and  left  the  unruly  and  turbulent  Carthage  Greys,  who  had 
revolted  against  their  own  commander,  and  repeatedly  threatened 
the  lives  of  the  prisoners,  to  guard  the  jail.  Colonel  Buckmaster, 
one  of  the  officers  who  accompanied  the  Governor  to  Nauvoo, 
informed  his  Excellency  of  the  threats  that  had  been  made  against 
the  prisoners,  and  expressed  a  suspicion  that  the  jail  might  be 
attacked  in  their  absence.  But  Ford  seemed  to  have  implicit  confi- 
dence in  the  Carthage  troops,  and  refused  to  believe  that  they  would 
betray  their  trust.  He  had  previously  ignored  similar  warnings  from 
the  Prophet's  friends  at  Carthage.  "  I  could  not  believe,"  said  he, 
"that  anyone  would  attack  the  jail  whilst  we  were  in  Nauvoo.  and 
thereby  expose  my  life  and  the  lives  of  my  companions  to  the  sudden 
vengeance  of  the   Mormons,  upon  hearing  of   the  death   of  their 


was  attempted.  Vengeance  was  left  to  heaven, — to  heaven  indeed : 
for  of  that  band  of  murderers  who  committed  the  crime,  and  that 
other  band,  equally  guilty,  who  set  them  on,  not  one  was  ever 
brought  to  justice. 

The  clay  after  the  tragedy  the  bodies  of  the  murdered  brothers, 
accompanied  by  Willard  Richards  and  Samuel  H.  Smith,  were  taken 
to  Nauvoo  for  burial.  John  Taylor  remained  several  days  at  Carthage, 
— too  seriously  wounded  to  admit  of  his  immediate  removal. 

Of  the  absent  Apostles,  Parley  P.  Pratt  was  the  first  to  return  to 
Nauvoo.  George  A.  Smith  came  next.  Sidney  Rigdon  arrived  a 
little  later  from  Pittsburg.  Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball, 
Orson  Hyde,  Orson  Pratt,  Wilford  Woodruff  and  Lyman  Wight,  who 
were  in  the  Eastern  States  when  the  terrible  tidings  reached  them, 
returned  to  Nauvoo  on  the  6th  of  August,  forty  days  after  the 




Srigham  Young  succeeds  Joseph  smith — the  max  for  the  hour — Sidney  rigdon  rejected 

and  excommunicated factions   and   f0ll0wings the    prophet's    murder  proves  an 

impetus  to    mormonism the    crusade    renewed the    apostles    driven   into  retire- 
ment  the    "  bogus    brigham*'    arrest — repeal    of    the    nauvoo    charter josiah 

lamborn's   opinion   of  the   repeal governor   ford   advises   a    mormon    exodus 

the  prophet's    murderers    acquitted the    anti-mormons    change   their    tactics— 

the  torch  of  the  incendiary  in  lieu  of  the  writ  of  arrest sheriff  backenstos 

the  mobocrats  worsted  and  put  to  flight governor  ford  interposes  to  restore 

order general    hardin    and    the    commissioners the    mormons    agree    to    leave 


iRIGHAM  YOUNG  succeeded  Joseph  Smith  as  leader  of  the 
Latter-day  Saints.  Sidney  Rigdon  claimed  the  leadership.  It 
was  to  secure  it  that  he  came  from  Pittsburg  on  learning  of  the 
Prophet's  death.  Being  his  first  counselor  in  the  Presidency, — 
though  Joseph,  distrusting  his  fidelity,  had  long  since  virtually  cast 
him  off, — Elder  Rigdon  believed,  or  affected  to  believe,  that  this 
entitled  him  to  the  succession.  A  small  faction  of  the  Saints  felt 

But  the  hearts  of  the  people,  as  a  rule,  were  not  with  Sidney. 
Though  an  eloquent  orator,  he  was  not  a  leader. — at  least  not  such  a 
leader  as  the  Saints  now  required;  a  man  to  grapple  with  great  emer- 
gencies. He  had  shown  too  plainly  of  late  years  the  white  feather, 
to  insure  him  the  full  confidence  of  his  people  at  this  critical  point 
in  their  history.  Besides,  Sidney's  claim,  though  plausible,  was  not 
valid  according  to  Church  polity.  The  First  Presidency  to  which  ho 
had  belonged  was  no  more.  Death  had  dissolved  that  council.  The 
Prophet  in  life  had  taught  that  "where  he  was  not  there  was  no  First 
Presidency  over  the  Twelve.'"     Next  in  order  stood  the  Twelve — the 


Apostles — with  Brigham  Young  as  their  President.  Instinctively  the 
people  turned  to  Brigham,  for  they  loved  and  trusted  him,  and  by 
that  "right  divine,"  no  less  than  of  seniority  and  succession  in  the 
Priesthood,  he  became  their  President  and  spiritual  guide. 

Sidney  Rigdon,  after  his  rejection  by  the  Saints,  returned  to 
Pittsburg.  Soon  afterward  he  was  excommunicated.  William 
Marks,  William  Smith,  James  J.  Strang  and  others  followed,  being 
severed  from  the  Church,  some  for  immorality,  others  for  refusing 
like  Elder  Rigdon  to  recognize  the  authority  of  the  Apostles.  Each 
prominent  seceder  had  a  limited  following.  There  were  Rigdonites, 
Smithites,  Strangites,  and  later,  Cutlerites,  Millerites  and  Josephites. 
The  last-named  were  followers  of  the  Prophet's  son  "young  Joseph." 
This  sect,  which  still  exists,  and  calls  itself  the  "Reorganized  Church 
of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,"  did  not  spring  into  existence 
until  many  years  later,  and  was  then  organized  out  of  the  remnants 
of  the  earlier  factions.  But  the  main  body  of  the  Nauvoo  Saints 
adhered  to  Brigham  and  the  Twelve. 

The  chief  Apostle  was  now  in  his  forty-fourth  year, — in  the  full, 
ripe  vigor  of  his  mental  and  physical  powers.  Though  his  life,  like 
those  of  most  of  his  brethren,  had  been  one  of  toil  and  trial,  and 
sickness,  resulting  from  hardship  and  exposure,  had  more  than  once 
preyed  upon  his  matured  and  well-knit  frame,  still  he  was  a  man  of 
iron  mould,  and  of  no  less  iron  will,  whose  practical  wisdom  and 
temperate  habits  had  perpetuated  in  him  the  strength  and  vitality 
of  youth,  and  carried  forward  a  reserve  fund  of  energy  into  his 
prime.  His  mind,  a  master  mind,  far-sighted,  keen,  profound,  born 
to  direct,  to  counsel  and  command,  was  therefore  fittingly  enshrined. 
Nature  had  made  him  great.  Experience  had  educated  that  great- 
ness. Trials  and  afflictions  to  which  weaker  men  had  succumbed, 
had  but  developed  this  son  of  destiny  and  brought  him  to  his  plane 
and  place. 

He  was  unquestionably  the  man  for  the  hour, — an  hour  big  with 
events,  whose  birth  would  yet  astonish  the  world.  His  colleagues, 
the  Apostles,  and  the  Saints  in  general  regarded  him  as  their  divinely 


appointed  leader, — quite  as  much  so  as  the  martyred  Joseph  before 
him.  The  exodus  from  Missouri,  which  he  personally  directed,  and 
his  subsequent  management  of  the  affairs  of  the  British  Mission,  had 
shown  something  of  his  capacity  and  executive  ability,  but  it 
remained  for  the  exodus  of  his  people  to  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and 
the  colonization  of  the  great  interior  Basin,  to  fully  demonstrate  his 
rare  genius  as  a  leader  and  an  organizer.  A  notable  character  in 
life's  grand  tragedy,  one  bloody  scene  of  which  had  so  lately  closed, 
waiting  at  the  wing  he  had  caught  his  cue,  and  the  stirring  stage  of 
Time  was  now  ready  for  his  advent. 

The  special  meeting  of  the  Saints,  at  which  the  claim  of  the 
Apostles  to  lead  the  Church  had  been  recognized,  and  that  of  Elder 
Rigdon  rejected,  was  held  on  the  8th  of  August,  1844.  The  same 
month  witnessed  the  election  of  Brigham  Young  as  Lieutenant- 
General  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion.  Charles  C.  Rich  was  chosen  Major- 
General.  Amasa  M.  Lyman,  previously  ordained  an  Apostle,  was 
admitted  into  the  council  of  the  Twelve,  and  that  body  then  addressed 
an  epistle  to  the  Latter-day  Saints  in  all  the  world,  giving  such  advice 
and  instruction  as  their  situation  and  the  times  demanded.  Wilford 
Woodruff  was  sent  to  Great  Britain  to  preside  over  that  important 
mission.  With  him  went  Elder  Dan  Jones,  destined  to  head  a  very 
successful  missionary  movement  in  Wales.  Parley  P.  Pratt  was 
given  charge  of  Church  affairs  in  the  Eastern  States,  and  other 
Elders,  besides  many  already  in  the  field,  were  going  forth  to  various 
parts  of  the  Union.  Among  those  now  rising  to  prominence  was 
Franklin  D.  Richards,  the  present  Apostle  and  Church  Historian. 

Mormonism,  its  opponents  discovered,  was  not  dead,  though  the 
Church  had  sustained  a  heavy  shock  in  the  death  of  its  Prophet  and 
Patriarch.  "  The  blood  of  the  martyrs"  is  proverbially  "the  seed  of 
the  Church."  The  present  case  proved  no  exception.  The  murder 
of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith  undoubtedly  gave  a  strong  impetus  to 
Mormonism.  Short-sighted  indeed  the  wisdom  (?)  which  thought  it 
would  do  otherwise. 

Immigration  continued  arriving  at  Nauvoo,  where  the  Saints, 


under  the  direction  of  the  Apostles,  now  hurried  on  the  completion  of 
the  Temple.  The  exodus  predicted  and  in  a  measure  prepared  for  by 
their  Prophet,  was  foreseen  to  be  imminent,  and  it  was  their  desire 
to  finish  this  edifice, — another  monument  of  religious  zeal  and  self- 
sacrificing  industry, — before  taking  up  the  cross  of  another  painful 
pilgrimage  and  journeying  toward  the  setting  sun. 

The  anti-Mormons,  their  ranks  now  augmented  by  apostates, 
seemed  bent  upon  compelling  an  early  exodus.  To  this  end  they 
continued  their  former  policy  of  trumping  up  charges  against  the 
chiefs  of  the  Church.  A  murder,  a  theft,  or  any  other  crime, — and 
such  things  were  frequent  in  that  all  but  frontier  region, — committed 
at  or  in  the  vicinity  of  Nauvoo,  was  at  once  laid  to  the  Mormon 
leaders  as  principals  or  accessories,  and  forthwith  the  town  would  be 
inundated  with  sheriffs,  constables  and  their  posses,  armed  with  writs 
of  arrest,  searching  for  the  suspects.  That  some  of  these  crimes 
were  committed  by  citizens  of  Nauvoo  is  cmite  probable.  But  that  all 
the  stealing  and  killing  in  that  region,  or  even  the  greater  part  of  it 
was  done  by  them,  cannot  be  reasonably  supposed,  in  spite  of  the 
aAvful  examples  set  them. 

Brigham  and  his  brethren,  with  the  memory  of  the  murdered 
Joseph  and  Hyrum  ever  before  them, — their  Prophet  and  Patriarch, 
butchered  in  cold  blood  while  in  prison  under  the  pledged  protection 
of  the  State  of  Illinois, — determined  not  to  be  similarly  ensnared. 
Instead  of  surrendering  to  the  officers,  therefore,  they  secreted  them- 
selves whenever  apprised  of  their  approach,  only  to  reappear  when 
they  had  departed  and  all  danger  was  over.  The  celebrated  "bogus 
Brigham"  arrest  occurred  during  this  period.  The  Apostles  and 
other  Elders  were  at  the  Temple,  then  nearing  completion,  when 
some  officers  came  to  the  door  with  a  warrant  for  the  arrest  of 
Brigham  Young.  William  Miller,  who  resembled  the  President, 
throwing  on  Heber  C.  Kimball's  cloak — similar  in  size  and  color  to 
Brigham's — crossed  the  threshold  and  mutely  surrendered  to  the 
officers,  who,  thinking  they  had  secured  their  man,  drove  away  with 
him  to  Carthage.      The  ruse  was  not  discovered  until  they  reached 



his  position  the  Senate  would  afford  no  protection,  but  he  would  be 
dragged  forth  to  gaol  or  the  gallows,  or  be  shot  down  by  a  cowardly 
and  brutal  mob.'" 

In  April  following,  the  Saints  in  general  conference,  attended  by 
many  thousands  of  people,  voted  to  change  the  name  Nauvoo  to  the 
City  of  Joseph,  in  honor  of  their  martyred  Prophet.  A  small  portion 
of  the  city  was  afterwards  incorporated  as  the  town  of  Nauvoo. 

Governor  Ford,  on  the  8th  of  April,  wrote  to  President  Young, 
advising  him  to  migrate  with  his  people  to  California.  In  this  letter 
the  following  passages  occur: 

If  you  can  get  off  by  yourselves  you  may  enjoy  peace ;  but,  surrounded  by  such 
neighbors,  I  confess  that  I  do  not  see  the  time  when  you  will  be  permitted  to 
enjoy  quiet.  I  was  informed  by  General  Joseph  Smith  last  summer  that  he  contemplated 
a  removal  west ;  and  from  what  I  learned  from  him  and  others  at  that  time,  I  think,  if  he 
had  lived,  he  would  have  begun  to  move  in  the  matter  before  this  time.  I  would  be  will- 
ing to  exert  all  my  feeble  abilities  and  influence  to  further  your  views  in  this  respect  if  it 
was  the  wish  of  your  people. 

I  would  suggest  a  matter  in  confidence.  California  now  offers  a  field  for  the  prettiest 
enterprise  that  lias  been  undertaken  in  modern  times.  It  is  but  sparsely  inhabited,  and 
by  none  but  the  Indians  or  imbecile  Mexican  Spaniards.  I  have  not  enquired  enough  to 
know  how  strong  it  is  in  men  and  means.  But  this  we  know,  that  if  conquered  from 
Mexico,  that  country  is  so  physically  weak  and  morally  distracted  that  she  could  never  send 
a  force  there  to  reconquer  it.  Why  should  it  not  be  a  pretty  operation  for  your  people  to 
go  out  there,  take  possession  of  and  conquer  a  portion,  of  that  vacant  country,  and 
establish  an  independent  Government  of  your  own,  subject  only  to  the  laws  of  nations  ? 
You  would  remain  there  a  long  time  before  you  would  be  disturbed  by  the  proximity  of 
other  settlements.  If  you  conclude  to  do  this,  your  design  ought  not  to  be  known,  or 
otherwise  it  would  become  the  duty  of  the  United  States  to  prevent  your  emigration.  If 
once  you  cross  the  line  of  the  United  States  Territories,  you  would  be  in  no  danger  of 
being  interfered  with." 

Brigham  Young,  however,  had  already  decided  upon  his  course. 
It  was  in  this,  as  in  all  else  pertaining  to  the  general  conduct  of 
Mormonism,  to  follow  in  the  footsteps  and  build  upon  the  foundation 
of  his  predecessor.  Never,  it  is  believed,  during  his  entire  adminis- 
tration did  the  President  knowingly  deviate  from  this  fixed  rule.  It 
was  one  of  the  secrets  of  his  great  influence  with  the  Saints.  Let 
not  lack  of  originality  be  imputed  to  him,  however,  because  of  this 
deference  to  the  designs  of  the  Prophet.    Brigham  believed  Joseph  to 


be  inspired.  He  recognized  the  worth  and  wisdom  of  his  plans,  and 
his  own  genius  and  originality  found  ample  play  in  their  execution. 
As  a  designer  Joseph  Smith  was  without  a  peer  among  his  fellows ; 
as  an  executor  Brigham  Young  without  a  parallel.  Each  was  the 
other's  complement,  and  neither  career  alone,  in  the  eternal  fitness 
of  things  would  have  been  complete. 

The  Rocky  Mountains  was  the  place  of  refuge  that  Joseph  had  fore- 
told. California,  Texas,  Oregon  were  but  after-thoughts,  vague  and 
undetermined.  To  the  Piocky  Mountains,  therefore,  the  Saints  would 
go, — possibly  pass  beyond, — but  precisely  how  far  into  that  terra 
incognita,  that  unknown  wilderness  they  might  penetrate,  they  knew 
not,  not  even  their  leaders  knew.  [It  is  a  fact,  however,  that  the 
region  of  the  Great  Basin,  of  which  they  had  read  in  Colonel 
Fremont's  reports,  was  in  their  thoughts,  though  not  as  a  definite 
destination,  when  contemplating  a  removal  from  Illinois.* 

It  was  not  their  destiny  to  colonize  and  people  the  Pacific  coast; 
though  undoubtedly  they  did  much  to  hasten  that  great  achievement. 
If  not  the  first  American  settlers  of  California,  they  were  the  first  to 
establish  there  a  newspaper,  among  the  first  to  turn  up  gold  with  their 
shovels  at  Sutter's  Mill,  and  set  agog  the  excitement  which  rolled,  a 
mighty  billow,  over  the  civilized  world,  and  staid  not  nor  subsided 
till  it  had  revolutionized  the  commerce  of  two  hemispheres.  If  not 
the  very  point,  therefore,  they  certainly  were,  as  we  shall  see,  a  very 
important  part  of  the  entering  wedge  of  western  civilization. 

Nor  was  it  their  design,  in  moving  westward,  to  set  up  an 
independent  government, — at  least  not  in  the  sense  that  Governor 
Ford  and  Senator  Douglas  had  suggested.  Not  knowing  where  they 
were  going  or  what   awaited   them,  whether  the  Union   spreading 

*  The  following  is  an  extract  from  Heber  C.  Kimball's  journal :  "  Nauvoo  Temple, 
December  31st,  1845.  Prest.  Young  and  myself  are  superintending  the  operations  of  the 
day,  examining  maps  with  reference  to  selecting  a  location  for  the  Saints  west  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  and  reading  the  various  works  which  have  been  written  and  published  by 
travelers  in  those  regions." 

Vancouver's  Island  was  suggested  to  the  Mormons  about  this  time  as  a  suitable  place 
for  them  to  settle. 


westward  would  overtake  them,  or  Mexican  or  British  rule  be  their 
portion,  how  could  they  have  formed  any  such  definite  design?  It 
was  certainly  not  their  purpose  to  alienate  themselves  from  that 
government  which  their  forefathers  had  fought  and  bled  to  establish, 
whose  starry  standard  they  revered,  whose  glorious  Constitution 
they  believed  to  have  been  God-inspired.  No ;  they  were  Mormons, 
hated,  despised,  defamed,  but  still  Americans,  loyal  to  their  country 
and  her  cause:  though  that  country  now,  they  could  not  help  but  feel, 
was  acting  the  part  of  a  cold  step-mother  rather  than  of  a  tender 
parent  to  them.  Some  day,  perchance,  their  countrymen  would 
know  them  better,  and  for  past  contempt  and  cruelty  would  make 
amends.     Perhaps  they  felt,  as  felt  the  poet, — "pilgrim  of  eternity."* 

;'  But  I  have  lived,  and  have  not  lived  in  vain  : 
My  mind  may  lose  its  force,  my  blood  its  fire, 

And  my  frame  perish  even  in  conquering  pain  ; 
But  there  is  that  within  me  which  shall  tire 
Torture  and  time,  and  breathe  when  I  expire  ; 

Something  unearthly,  which  they  deem  not  of, 
Like  the  remembered  tone  of  a  mute  lyre, 

Shall  on  their  softened  spirits  sink,  and  move 

In  hearts  all  rocky  now  the  late  remorse  of  love." 

Till  then,  as  pilgrims  too — pilgrims  of  time  and  of  eternity — 
they  would  retire  into  the  wilderness,  taking  with  them  the  starry 
flag,  the  traditions  of  Bunker  Hill  and  Yorktown,  and  seeking  some 
isolated  spot  behind  the  rocky  ramparts  of  the  Everlasting  Hills, 
found  a  new  state  for  the  Union,  foreseen  to  be  spreading  from  sea  to 
sea,  and  patiently  wait  the  fulfillment  of  what  had  been  predicted, — 
that  the  Saints  should  become  a  mighty  people  in  the  midst  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains. 

Before  expatriating  themselves,  they  resolved  to  make  a  last 
appeal  to  the  country  which  they  felt  was  casting  them  forth.  To 
this  end  they  addressed  a  memorial  to  the  President  of  the  United 
States — James  K.  Polk — and  sent  copies  of  the  same  to  the  Governors 

*  The  poet  Shelley  so  styled  Lord  Byron. 


of  all  the  States,  excepting  Missouri  and  Illinois.     This  memorial  ran 
as  follows : 

Nauvoo,  April,  24th,  1845. 
His  Excellency  James  K.  Polk,  President  of  the  United  States. 

Hon.  Sir:  Suffer  us,  in  behalf  of  a  disfranchised  and  long  afflicted  people,  to  prefer  a 
few  suggestions  for  your  serious  consideration,  in  hope  of  a  friendly  and  unequivocal 
response,  at  as  early  a  period  as  may  suit  your  convenience,  and  the  extreme  urgency  of 
the  case  seems  to  demand. 

It  is  not  our  present  design  to  detail  the  multiplied  and  aggravated  wrongs  that  we 
have  received  in  the  midst  of  a  nation  that  gave  us  birth.  Most  of  us  have  long  been 
loyal  citizens  of  some  one  of  these  United  States,  over  which  you  have  the  honor  to  pre- 
side, while  a  few  only  claim  the  privilege  of  peaceable  and  lawful  emigrants,  designing  to 
make  the  Union  our  permanent  residence. 

We  say  we  are  a  disfranchised  people.  We  are  privately  told  by  the  highest  authori- 
ties of  the  State  that  it  is  neither  prudent  nor  safe  for  us  to  vote  at  the  polls  ;  still  we  have 
continued  to  maintain  our  right  to  vote,  until  the  blood  of  our  best  men  has  been  shed, 
both  in  Missouri  and  Illinois,  with  impunity. 

You  are  doubtless  somewhat  familiar  with  the  history  of  our  expulsion  from  the  State 
of  Missouri,  wherein  scores  of  our  brethren  were  massacred.  Hundreds  died  through 
want  and  sickness,  occasioned  by  their  unparalleled  sufferings.  Some  millions  worth  of 
our  property  was  destroyed,  and  some  fifteen  thousand  souls  fled  for  their  lives  to  the  then 
hospitable  and  peaceful  shores  of  Illinois  ;  and  that  the  State  of  Illinois  granted  to  us 
a  liberal  charter,  for  the  term  of  perpetual  succession,  under  whose  provision  private 
rights  have  become  invested,  and  the  largest  city  in  the  State  has  grown  up,  numbering 
about  twenty  thousand  inhabitants. 

But,  sir,  the  startling  attitude  recently  assumed  by  the  State  of  Illinois,  forbids  us  to 
think  that  her  designs  are  any  less  vindictive  than  those  of  Missouri.  She  has  already 
used  the  military  of  the  State,  with  the  executive  at  their  head,  to  coerce  and  surrender  up 
our  best  men  to  unparalleled  murder,  and  that  too  under  the  most  sacred  pledges  of  pro- 
tection and  safety.  As  a  salve  for  such  unearthly  perfidy  and  guilt,  she  told  us,  through 
her  highest  executive  officers,  that  the  laws  should  be  magnified  and  the  murderers 
brought  to  justice  ;  but  the  blood  of  her  innocent  victims  had  not  been  wholly  wiped  from 
the  floor  of  the  awful  arena,  ere  the  Senate  of  that  State  rescued  one  of  the  indicted  actors 
in  that  mournful  tragedy  from  the  sheriff  of  Hancock  County,  and  gave  him  a  seat  in  her 
hall  of  legislation  ;  and  all  who  were  indicted  by  the  grand  jury  of  Hancock  County  for  the 
murder  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith,  are  suffered  to  roam  at  large,  watching  for  further  prey. 

To  crown  the  climax  of  those  bloody  deeds,  the  State  has  repealed  those  chartered 
rights,  by  which  we  might  have  lawfully  defended  ourselves  against  aggressors.  If  we 
defend  ourselves  hereafter  against  violence,  whether  it  comes  under  the  shadow  of  law  or 
otherwise  (for  we  have  reason  to  expect  it  in  both  ways),  we  shall  then  be  charged  with 
treason  and  suffer  the  penalty  ;  and  if  we  continue  passive  and  non-resistant,  we  must 
certainly  expect  In  perish,  for  our  enemies  have  sworn  it.  . 

And  here,  sir,  permit  us  to  state  that  General  Joseph  Smith,  during  his  short  life,  was 
arraigned  at  the  bar  of  his  country  about  fifty  times,  charged  with  criminal  offences,  bul 


was  acquitted  every  lime  by  his  country ;  his  enemies,  or  rather  his  religious  opponents, 
almost  invariably  being  his  judges.  And  we  further  testify  that,  as  a  people,  we  are  law- 
abiding,  peaceable  and  without  crime  ;  and  we  challenge  the  world  to  prove  to  tbe  contrary  ; 
and  while  other  less  cities  in  Illinois  have  had  special  courts  instituted  to  try  their 
criminals,  we  have  been  stript  of  every  source  of  arraigning  marauders  and  murderers  who 
are  prowling  around  to  destroy  us,  except  the  common  magistracy. 

With  these  facts  before  you,  sir,  will  you  write  to  us  without  delay  as  a  father  and  a 
friend,  and  advise  us  what  to  do.  We  are  members  of  the  same  great  confederacy.  Our 
fathers,  yea  some  of  us,  have-  fought  and  bled  for  our  country,  and  we  love  her  constitu- 
tion dearly. 

In  the  name  of  Israel's  God,  and  by  virtue  of  multiplied  ties  of  country  and  kindred, 
we  ask  your  friendly  interposition  in  our  favor.  Will  it  be  too  much  for  us  to  ask  you  to 
convene  a  special  session  of  Congress,  and  furnish  us  an  asylum,  where  we  can  enjoy  our 
rights  of  conscience  and  religion  unmolested?  Or  will  you,  in  a  special  message  to  that 
body,  when  convened,  recommend  a  remonstrance  against  such  unhallowed  acts  of  oppres- 
sion and  expatriation  as  this  people  have  continued  to  receive  from  the  States  of  Missouri 
and  Illinois  '?  Or  will  you  favor  us  by  your  personal  influence  and  by  your  official  rank  ? 
Or  will  you  express  your  views  concerning  what  is  called  the  "Great  Western  Measure" 
of  colonizing  the  Latter-day  Saints  in  Oregon,  the  north-western  Territory,  or  some  loca- 
tion remote  from  tbe  States,  where  the  hand  of  oppression  shall  not  crush  every  noble 
principle  and  extinguish  every  patriotic  feeling  ? 

And  now,  honored  sir,  having  reached  out  our  imploring  hands  to  you,  with  deep 
solemnity,  we  would  importune  you  as  a  father,  a  friend,  a  patriot  and  the  head  of  a  mighty 
nation,  by  the  constitution  of  American  liberty,  by  the  blood  of  our  fathers  who  have  fought 
for  the  independence  of  this  republic,  by  the  blood  of  the  martyrs  which  has  been  shed  in 
our  midst,  by  the  waitings  of  the  widows  and  orphans,  by  our  murdered  fathers  and 
mothers,  brothers  and  sisters,  wives  and  children,  by  the  dread  of  immediate  destruction 
from  secret  combinations,  now  forming  for  our  overthrow,  and  by  every  endearing  tie  that 
binds  man  to  man  and  renders  life  bearable,  and  that  too,  for  aught  we  know,  for  the  last 
time, — that  you  will  lend  your  immediate  aid  to  quell  the  violence  of  mobocracy,  and  exert 
your  influence  to  establish  us  as  a  people  in  our  civil  and  religious  rights,  where  we  now 
are,  or  in  some  part  of  the  United  States,  or  in  some  place  remote  therefrom,  where  we 
may  colonize  in  peace  and  safety  as  soon  as  circumstances  will  permit. 

We  sincerely  hope  that  your  future  prompt  measures  toward  us  will  be  dictated  by  the 
best  feelings  that  dwell  in  the  bosom  of  humanity,  and  the  blessings  of  a  grateful  people,  and 
many  ready  to  perish,  shall  come  upon  you. 

We  are.  sir,  with  great  respect,  your  obedient  servants, 

Brigham  Young, 

Willard  Richards, 

Orson  Spencer. 

Orson  Pratt, 

W.  W.  Phelps, 

A.  W.  Babbitt, 

J.  M.  Bernhisel, 
In  behalf  of  Hie  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  at  Nauvoo, 


P.  S. — As  many  of  our  communications,  post  marked  at  Nauvoo,  have  failed  of  their 
destination,  and  the  mails  around  us  have  been  intercepted  by  our  enemies,  we  shall  send 
this  to  some  distant  office  by  the  hand  of  a  special  messenger. 

The  appeals  were  unanswered  save  in  a  single  instance,  that  of 
the  Governor  of  Arkansas,  who  replied  in  a  respectful  and  sympa- 
thetic epistle. 

On  the  19th  of  May,  1845,  began  the  trial,  at  Carthage,  of  certain 
men  who  had  been  indicted  for  the  murder  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum 
Smith.  Sixty  names  had  been  presented  to  the  Grand  Jury  of  the 
Hancock  Circuit  Court  in  October,  1844,  as  being  implicated  in  the 
assassination.  Only  nine,  however,  had  been  indicted.  They  were 
Levi   Williams,   Jacob   C.   Davis,   Mark  Aldrich,  Thomas  C.  Sharp, 

William  Voras.  John  Wills,  William  N.  Grover, Gallagher,  and 


Of  these,  Levi  Williams,  as  stated,  was  a  Baptist  preacher ; 
Jacob  C.  Davis  a  State  Senator,  and  Thomas  C.  Sharp  the  editor  of 
the  Warsaw  Signal.  Judge  Richard  M.  Young  presided  at  the  trial, 
and  James  H.  Ralston  and  Josiah  Lamborn  conducted  the  prosecu- 
tion. The  defense  was  represented  by  William  A.  Richardson,  0.  H. 
Browning,  Calvin  A.  Warren,  Archibald  Williams,  0.  C.  Skinner  and 
Thomas  Morrison.  The  panel  of  the  trial  jury  was  as  follows  :  Jesse 
Griffits,  Joseph  Jones,  William  Robertson,  William  Smith,  Joseph 
Massey,  Silas  Grifltts,  Jonathan  Foy,  Solomon  J.  Hill,  James  Gittings, 
F.  M.  Walton,  Jabez  A.  Beebe  and  Gilmore  Callison. 

The  trial  lasted  until  May  30th.*  During  its  progress,  Calvin 
A.  Warren,  Esq,  of  counsel  for  the  defense,  in  the  course  of  his  plea 
is  said  to  have  argued  that  if  the  prisoners  were  guilty  of  murder, 
then  he  himself  was  guilty  ;  that  it  was  the  public  opinion  that  the 
Smiths  ought  to  be  killed,  and  public  opinion  made  the  laws,  conse- 
quently it  was   not  murder  to  kill  them.     Evidently  this  logic  had 

*  •■  The  Judge,"  snys  Governor  Ford,  -'was  compelled  to  admit  the  presence  oi 
armed  bands  to  browbeat  and  overawe  the  administration  of  justice.  *  *  * 
The  Judge  himself  was  in  duress,  and  informed  me  that  he  did  not  consider  his  life  secure 
any  part  of  the  time.  The  consequence  was  thai  tin'  cmwd  had  everything  theirown  way." 


its  weight  with  the  jury,  for  they  promptly  returned  a  verdict  of 
not  guilty.* 

Emboldened  by  the  outcome  of  the  trial,  the  tactics  of  the  anti- 
Mormons  now  underwent  a  radical  range.  Trumping  up  charges 
against  the  Mormon  leaders  it  was  found  would  not  effect  the  desired 
purpose.  Extreme  measures  only  would  avail,  and  these  the  uncon- 
scionable crusaders  were  now  prepared  to  execute,  regardless  of  every 
consideration  of  right.  Their  own  writers  admit  as  much.  Thomas 
Gregg,  the  historian  of  Hancock  County,  Illinois,  whom  none  familiar 
with  his  work-  will  accuse  of  partiality  to  the  Mormons,  is  constrained 
to  allow  that  the  acts  of  their  opponents  now  in  question  were 
absolutely  unjustifiable.  "Acts,"  says  he,  "which  had  no  warrant 
in  law  or  order,  and  which  cannot  be  reconciled  with  any  correct 
principles  of  reasoning,  and  which  we  then  thought,  and  still  think, 
were  condemned  by  every  consideration  looking  to  good  government; 
acts  which  had  for  their  object,  and  which  finally  resulted  in  the 
forcible  expulsion  of  the  Mormon  people  from  the  county.*' 

At  a  Mormon  settlement  called  Morley,  a  few  miles  from  Nauvoo, 
a  band  of  incendiaries,  on  the  night  of  September  10th,  began  opera- 
tions. Deliberately  setting  fire  to  the  house  of  Edmund  Durfee  they 
turned  the  inmates  out  of  doors  and  threatened  them  with  death  if 
they  did  not  at  once  leave  the  settlement.  Durfee  they  subsequently 
killed.  The  mob  continued  its  nefarious  work  until  Morley  was  in 
ashes,  and  its  people  homeless.  Green  Plains  and  Bear  Creek, 
localities  also  settled  by  the  Saints,  were  next  visited  by  the  house- 
burners,  and  in  like  manner  devastated.!    Such  scenes  continued  for 

*  Colonel  John  Hay,  of  the  State  Department  at  Washington,  in  the  Atlantic 
Monthly  for  December,  18(59,  in  an  article  reminiscent  of  the  Prophet's  murder  and  the 
trial  of  his  assassins,  says;  "The  case  was  closed.  There  was  not  a  man  on  the  jury,  in 
the  court,  in  the  county,  that  did  not  know  the  defendants  had  done  the  murder.  But  it 
was  not  proven,  and  the  verdict  of  Not  Guilty  was  right  in  law." 

f  "At  Lima  and  Green  Plains,"  says  Governor  Ford,  "the  anti-Mormons  appointed 
persons  to  fire  a  few  harmless  shots  at  their  own  meeting-house  where  services  were  in 
progress,  whereupon  the  conspirators  and  their  dupes  rode  all  over  the  country  and  spread 


a  week,  during  which  nearly  two  hundred  houses,  shops  and  sheds 
were  destroyed  and  the  people  driven  away.  A  hundred  and  thirty- 
five  teams  went  out  from  Nauvoo  to  bring  in  the  homeless  refugees, 
with  what  grain  had  been  saved  from  the  flames. 

Intense  excitement  now  reigned,  not  only  at  Nauvoo,  and  the 
out-lying  Mormon  settlements  that  nightly  anticipated  attack,  but 
throughout  Hancock  County.  Non-Mormons  not  of  the  radical  class 
disapproved  of  these  deeds  of  vandalism,*  and  Sheriff  Backenstos, 
of  Carthage — to  his  honor  be  it  said — did  everything  in  his  power  to 
quell  the  riots  and  punish  the  guilty  parties.  He  first  issued  a 
proclamation,  demanding  that  they  desist.  This  order  they  ignored. 
He  then  called  upon  the  posse  comitatus — the  power  of  the  County — 
to  assist  him  in  dispersing  the  rioters.  But  there  was  no  response. 
Finally  he  applied  to  the  Mormons  for  a  posse,  which  was  furnished 
him,  and  he  proceeded  at  once  against  the  house-burners. 

In  the  encounters  that  ensued  two  mobocrats  were  killed.  One 
of  these  was  Frank  A.  Worrell,  the  same  who,  as  sergeant  of  the 
Carthage  Greys,  had  charge  of  the  Jail  when  Joseph  and  Hyrum 
Smith  were  murdered.  Worrell  was  shot  by  Porter  Rockwell  at  the 
order  of  Sheriff  Backenstos.  Worrell  at  the  time  was  approaching 
the  Sheriff  who,  fearing  for  his  own  life,  ordered  B.ockwell  to  fire. 
The  two  were  tried  for  murder  in  this  case,  but  were  acquitted.  The 
other  man  killed  was  Samuel  McBratney,  who  was  among  the  house- 
burners  on  Bear  Creek.  The  Sheriff  and  his  posse,  after  scattering 
the  mob,  surrounded  Carthage  and  made  several  arrests.    But  most  of 

dire  alarm.  As  a  result  a  mob  arose  and  burnt  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  houses  and 
huts  belonging  to  Mormons,  who  fled  for  their  lives  in  utter  destitution,  in  the  middle  of 
the   sickly  season." 

*  The  Quincy    Whig,  edited   by  a  Mr.   Bartlett,  said:     "  Seriously,  these  outrages 

should  be  put  a  stop  to  at  once;  if  the  Mormons  have  been  guilty  of  crime,  why  punish 
them,  but  do  not  visit  their  sins  upon  defenseless  women  and  children.  This  is  as  bad  as 
the  savages.  *  *  *  It  is  feared  thai  this  rising  against  the  Mormons  is  not 
confined  to  the  Morley  settlement,  but  that  there  is  an  understanding  among  the  :mti<-s  in 
the  northern  part  of  this  and  Hancock  counties  to  make  a  general  sweep,  burning  and 
destroying  the  property  of  the  Mormons  wherever  il  can  be  found." 

2-46  HISTORY  OF   UTAH. 

the  rioters  had  fled.  The  Mormon  settlements  around  Nauvoo  were 
now  evacuated,  the  people,  fearing  pillage  and  massacre,  gathering 
into  the  city  for  protection. 

At  this  juncture  Governor  Ford  put  forth  his  hand  to  restore 
order.  General  John  J.  Hardin,  with  troops,  was  sent  into  Hancock 
County  for  that  purpose.  Accompanying  him  were  J.  A.  McDougal, 
Attorney-General  of  Illinois-;  Senator  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  and  Major 
W.  B.  Warren.  Having  issued  a  proclamation  to  the  people  of  the 
county,  enjoining  peace,  good  order,  and  obedience  to  law  and 
authority,  General  Hardin  and  his  associates  next  held  a  consultation 
with  the  Mormon  leaders  at  Nauvoo.  The  result  was  an  agreement 
by  the  Latter-day  Saints  to  leave  Illinois;  the  exodus  to  begin  in  the 
spring.  This  demand  came  from  a  meeting  of  representatives  of 
nine  counties  of  the  State,  assembled  at  Carthage.  The  following 
correspondence,  in  relation  to  the  proposed  exodus,  passed  between 
General  Hardin  and  his  friends — representing  Governor  Ford  and  the 
anti-Mormons — and  the  Church  leaders  at  Nauvoo : 

Nauvoo,  Oct.  1,  1845. 
To  the  First  President  and  Council  of  the  Church  at  Nauvoo  : 

Having  had  a  free  and  full  conversation  with  you  this  day,  in  reference  to  your  pro- 
posed removal  from  this  county,  together  with  the  members  of  your  Church,  we  have  to 
request  you  to  submit  the  facts  and  intentions  stated  to  us  in  said  conversation  to  writing, 
in  order  that  we  may  lay  them  before  the  Governor  and  people  of  the  State.  We  hope 
that  by  so  doing  it  will  have  a  tendency  to  allay  the  excitement  at  present  existing  in  the 
public  mind. 

We  have  the  honor  to  subscribe  ourselves,  respectfully  yours,  etc., 

John  J.  Hardin, 
S.  A.  Douglas, 
W.   B.  Warren, 
J.  A.  McDougal. 

Nauvoo,  October  1,  1845. 
To  Gen.  John  J.  Hardin,  W.  B.  Warren,  S.  A.  Douglas,  and  J.  A.  McDougal  : 

Messrs  : — In  reply  to  your  letter  of  this  date,  requesting  us  to  "  submit  the  facts  and 
intentions  stated  by  us  to  writing,  in  order  that  you  may  lay  them  before  the  Governor  and 
people  of  the  State,"  we  would  refer  you  to  our  communication  of  the  24th  ultimo,  to  the 
"  Quincy  Committee,"  etc,  a  copy  of  which  is  herewith  inclosed. 

In  addition  to  this,  we  would  say,  that  we  had  commenced   making  arrangements  to 


remove  from  this  county  previous  to  the  recent  disturbances ;  that  we  now  have  four  com- 
panies organized,  of  one  hundred  families  each,  and  .six  more  companies  now 
organizing  of  the  same  number  each,  preparatory  lo  removal.  That  one  thou- 
sand families,  including  the  Twelve,  the  High  Council,  the  Trustees  and  general 
authorities  of  the  Church,  are  fully  determined  to  remove  in  the  spring,  independent  of  the 
contingency  of  selling  our  property,  and  that  this  company  will  comprise  from  five  to  six 
thousand  souls. 

That  the  Church,  as  a  body,  desires  to  remove  with  us,  and  will,  if  sales  can  he 
effected,  so  as  to  raise  the  necessary  means. 

That  the  organization  of  the  Church  we  represent  is  such,  that  there  never  can  exist 
but  one  head  or  presidency  at  any  one  time,  and  all  good  members  wish  to  be  with  the 
organization  ;  and  all  are  determined  to  remove  to  some  distant  point  where  we  shall 
neither  infringe  nor  be  infringed  upon,  so  soon  as  time  and  means  will  permit. 

That  we  have  some  hundreds  of  farms  and  some  two  thousand  or  more  houses  for 
sale  in  this  city  and  county,  and  we  request  all  good  citizens  to  assist  in  the  disposal  of  our 

That  we  do  not  expect  to  find  purchasers  for  our  Temple  and  other  public  buildings  ; 
but  we  are  willing  to  rent  them  to  a  respectable  community  who  may  inhabit  the  city. 

That  we  wish  it  distinctly  understood,  that,  although  we  may  not  find  purchasers  for 
our  property,  we  will  not  sacrifice  or  give  it  away,  or  suffer  it  illegally  to  be  wrested  from 

That  we  do  not  intend  to  sow  any  wheat  this  fall,  and  should  we  all  sell  we  shall  not 
put  in  any  more  crops  of  any  description. 

That  as  soon  as  practicable  we  will  appoint  committees  for  this  city,  La  Harpe, 
Macedonia,  Bear  Greek,  and  all  necessary  places  in  the  county,  to  give  information  to 

That  if  these  testimonies  are  not  sufficient  to  satisfy  any  people  that  we  are  in 
earnest,  we  will  soon  give  them  a  sign  that  cannot  be  mistaken — vie  will  leave  them  ! 

In  behalf  of  the  Council,  respectfully  yours,  etc., 

Brigham  Young,  President. 

WlLLARD    BlCHARDS,   Clerk. 




The  exodus — brigham   young  leads   his    people  WESTWARD SUGAR    CREEK SAMUEL   bran- 
nan     AND     THE     SHIP     "  BROOKLYN  " GARDEN     GROVE     AND     MOUNT     PISGAH THE     SAINTS 



THE     BATTLE     OK      NAUVOO — EXPULSION     OF     THE      MORMON      REMNANT     FROM      THE     CITY 

COLONEL     kane's     DESCRIPTION    OF     NAUVOO THE    church     in     THE     WILDERNESS WINTER 


PURSUANT  to  the  terms  of  the  agreement,  which  satisfied 
General  Hardin  and  his  associate  commissioners,  and  appeased 
for  a  time  the  anti-Mormons,  preparations  went  forward  all 
during  the  fall  and  winter  for  the  spring  exodus.  Houses  and  lands 
in  and  around  Nauvoo  were  sold,  leased  or  abandoned.  Wagons  by 
hundreds  were  purchased  or  manufactured,  and  horses,  mules,  oxen, 
riding,  draft  and  pack  animals  in  general,  procured  in  large  numbers. 
Clothing,  bedding,  provisions,  tents,  tools,  household  goods,  family 
relics  and  camp  equipage  composed  the  lading,  wherewith  animals 
and  vehicles  were  packed  and  loaded  until  little  or  no  room 

At  length,  all  being  ready  for  a  start,  on  the  4th  of  February, 
1846,  the  exodus  of  the  Mormons  from  Illinois  began.  Charles 
Shumway,  afterwards  one  of  the  original  Utah  pioneers,  was  the  first 
to  cross  the  Mississippi.  Colonel  Hosea  Stout  with  a  strong  force  of 
police  had  charge  of  the  ferries,  which  were  kept  busy  night  and 
day  until  the  river  froze  over.  The  companies  then  crossed  on  the 
ice.  By  the  middle  of  February  a  thousand  souls,  with  their  wagons, 
teams  and  effects  had  been  landed  on  the  Iowa  shore. 


Sugar  Creek,  nine  miles  westward,  was  made  the  rendezvous 
and  starting-point  of  the  great  overland  pilgrimage.  Here  the 
advance  companies  pitched  their  tents,  and  awaited  the  coming  of 
their  leaders.  The  weather  was  bitter  cold,  the  ground  snow-covered 
and  frozen,  and  the  general  prospect  before  the  pilgrims  so  cheerless 
and  desolate  as  to  have  dismayed  souls  less  trustful  in  Providence, 
less  inured  to  hardship  and  suffering  than  they.  It  was  February 
5th  that  the  first  camp  formed  on  Sugar  Creek.  That  night — a  bitter 
night — nine  wives  became  mothers ;  nine  children  were  born  in  tents 
and  wagons  in  that  wintry  camp.  How  these  tender  babes,  these 
sick  and  delicate  women  were  cared  for  under  such  conditions,  is  left 
to  the  imagination  of  the  sensitive  reader.  How  these  Mormon 
exiles,  outcasts  of  civilization,  carrying  their  aged,  infirm  and  help- 
less across  the  desolate  plains  and  prairies,  were  tracked  and  trailed 
thereafter  by  the  nameless  graves  of  their  dead,  is  a  tale  which, 
though  often  attempted,  has  never  been  and  never  will  be  fully  told.* 

On  the  15th  of  February,  Brigham  Young,  the  leading  spirit  of 
the  exodus,  arrived  at  the  camps  on  Sugar  Creek.  He  was  accom- 
panied by  Willard  Richards  and  George  A.  Smith,  with  their  families. 
Two  days  later  Heber  C.  Kimball  and  Bishop  Whitney  joined  them. 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  who  had  returned  from  the  east,  was  already  there, 
but  encamped  at  some  distance  from  the  main  body.  Other  leading 
men,  such  as  had  not  preceded  these,  soon  followed.  After  the  final 
departure  of  the  Apostles  from  Nauvoo,  Church  affairs  at  that  place 

*  "  There  is  no  parallel  in  the  world's  history  to  this  migration  from  Nauvoo.  The 
exodus  from  Egypt  was  from  a  heathen  land,  a  land  of  idolaters,  to  a  fertile  region  desig- 
nated by  the  Lord  for  His  chosen  people,  the  land  of  Canaan.  The  pilgrim  fathers  in 
fleeing  to  America  came  from  a  bigoted  and  despotic  people — a  people  making  few  preten- 
sions to  civil  or  religious  liberty.  It  was  from  these  same  people  who  had  lied  from  old- 
world  persecutions  that  they  might  enjoy  liberty  of  conscience  in  the  wilds  of  America, 
from  their  descendants  and  associates,  that  other  of  their  descendants,  who  claimed  the 
right  to  differ  from  them  in   opinion  and  practice,  were  now  fleeing.  *         *         * 

Before  this  the  Mormons  had  been  driven  to  the  outskirts  of  civilization,  where  they  had 
built  themselves  a  city ;  this  they  must  now  abandon,  ami  throw  themselves  upon  the 
mercy  of  savages." — Bancroft's  History  of  Utah,  page  217. 


were  left  in  charge  of  a  committee  consisting  of  Almon  W.  Babbitt, 
Joseph  L.  Heywood  and  John  S.  Fullmer. 

Two  days  after  Brigham's  arrival  on  Sugar  Creek, — during 
which  interim  he  was  busy  with  his  brethren  in  organizing  the 
camps  for  traveling, — he  called  together  the  Apostles  who  were  with 
him  and  held  a  council.  There  were  present  Brigham  Young,  Heber 
C.  Kimball,  Orson  Hyde,  Orson  Pratt,  John  Taylor,  George  A.  Smith 
and  Willard  Richards.  The  subject  considered  by  these  leaders  was 
as  follows:  It  seems  that  about  the  time  of  the  beginning  of  the 
exodus  from  Nauvoo,  there  had  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  ship 
Brooklyn  a  company  of  Latter-day  Saints  bound  for  the  Bay  of  San 
Francisco.  They  numbered  two  hundred  and  thirty-five  souls,  and 
were  in  charge  of  Elder  Samuel  Brannan.  The  company  were  well 
supplied  with  farming  implements,  and  all  tools  necessary  for  the 
formation  of  a  new  settlement,  which  they  proposed  founding  some- 
where on  the  Californian  coast.  Elder  Brannan  believed  that  that 
would  be  the  ultimate  destination  of  the  main  body  of  his  people. 
These  Mormon  colonists,  who  were  probably  the  first  American 
emigrants  to  land  on  the  coast  of  California,  carried  with  them  a 
printing  press,  type,  paper  and  other  materials,  with  which  was  after- 
wards published  the  California  Star,  the  pioneer  newspaper  of  the 
Golden  State.  Elder  Brannan,  in  New  York,  had  edited  a  paper 
called  The  Prophet,  published  in  the  interests  of  the  Latter-day 
Saints.  He  was  a  man  of  considerable  energy  and  ability,  but  of 
speculative  tendencies,  and  bent  more  to  worldly  ends  than  to 
spiritual  aims. 

Prior  to  sailing  for  San  Francisco — then  Yerba  Buena — Brannan 
had  entered  into  a  peculiar  compact  with  one  A.  G.  Benson,  repre- 
senting certain  politicians  and  financial  sharpers  at  Washington, 
who,  being  aware  of  the  contemplated  Mormon  exodus,  proposed  if 
possible  to  profit  by  it.  This  compact,  which  Brannan  had  sent  to 
Nauvoo  for  the  Church  leaders  to  sign  and  then  return  to  Mr. 
Benson,  required  that  the  Mormons  transfer  to  A.  G.  Benson  and 
Company,  and  to  their  heirs  and  assigns,  the  odd  numbers  of  all  the 




ilies  were  supplied  with  provisions  for  several  months,  but  some 
were  quite  destitute,  or  had  only  sufficient  to  last  for  a  few  days. 
None,  however,  were  permitted  to  lack  food.  The  "  share  and  share 
alike"  principle  and  practice  of  the  Mormon  community  prevented 
this.  But  the  weather  continuing  very  cold,  some  suffering  was 
experienced  on  that  score. 

The  "Camp  of  Israel"  being  organized,  and  the  Governor  of 
Iowa  having  been  petitioned  by  the  Saints  for  protection  while  pass- 
ing through  that  Territory,  President  Young,  on  Sunday,  March  1st, 
gave  the  order  for  a  general  advance.  It  was  not  the  design,  nor  the 
subsequent  practice  of  the  Mormons  to  travel  on  Sundays.  In  all 
their  migrations,  except  when  necessity  compelled,  they  were  careful 
to  keep  the  Sabbath  day  holy.  But  to  get  farther  away  from  Nauvoo, 
which  parties  from  the  camps  were  frequently  visiting,  thus  causing 
the  anti-Mormons  to  suspect,  or  at  least  assert,  that  the  exodus  was 
not  genuine,  the  President,  on  the  opening  day  of  spring,  ordered 
the  companies  to  move  forward.  Bishop  George  Miller's  wagons  had 
already  departed.  By  noon  all  tents  had  been  struck  and  the  Camp 
began  to  move.  In  the  van  went  Colonel  Stephen  Markham,  with  a 
hundred  pioneers,  to  prepare  the  road  before  the  main  body.  Colonel 
Hosea  Stout  with  a  company  of  riflemen — mounted  police — guarded 
the  wagons,  and  Colonel  John  Scott,  with  another  hundred  men, 
accompanied  the  artillery.  William  Clayton  had  been  appointed 
clerk  of  the  Camp,  and  Willard  Richards,  a  graphic  and  ready  writer, 
its  historian. 

Traveling  five  miles  in  a  north-westerly  direction,  the  Camp 
halted  for  the  night, — still  on  Sugar  Creek.  Scraping  away  the 
snow,  pitching  their  tents  and  corralling  their  wagons,  quite  a  primi- 
tive little  city  soon  sprang  up,  as  if  by  magic,  from  the  frozen  earth. 
Large  fires  were  built  to  dispel  the  gathering  darkness,  thaw  out 
cold-benumbed  fingers  and  features,  and  cook  the  evening  meal. 
Despite  the  dreary  situation  and  forbidding  surroundings,  a  spirit  of 
remarkable  cheerfulness  reigned  throughout  the  Camp.  Everybody 
seemed  happy  and  determined  to  "make  the  best  of  it."      In  so 


doing,  no  people,  under  such  circumstances,  ever  succeed  better  than 
the  Mormons.  Were  it  not  the  Sabbath,  the  merriest  of  songs  would 
be  sung,  the  jolliest  of  jokes  cracked,  the  funniest  of  stories  told, 
ad  infinitum.  Captain  Pitts'  Brass  Band  would  tune  their  instru- 
ments, and  awaken  with  soul-stirring,  heart-cheering  strains  the 
prairie  solitudes.  At  all  events  such  was  their  custom  during  that 
long  and  dreary  journey  to  the  Missouri  River  and  beyond.  But  at  a 
seasonable  hour  all  merriment  would  be  hushed ;  heads  and  hearts 
bowed  in  reverent  prayer,  thanks  returned  to  heaven  for  mercies 
already  bestowed,  and  God's  blessing  invoked  upon  Israel, — these 
whose  habitation  was  to  be  for  many  months  the  houseless  plain  and 
prairie,  and  the  remnant  left  behind  in  the  doomed  city  of  Nauvoo. 

Thus,  from  day  to  day,  slowly  and  wearily  traveling,  went  the 
exiled  Saints  across  the  undulating  surface  of  snow-covered  Iowa. 
The  roads  were  very  bad,  the  weather  cold  and  stormy,  and  the 
streams,  now  frozen,  now  swollen  by  spring  freshets,  almost  and  at 
times  quite  impassable.  Again  and  again  they  were  obliged  to  double 
teams  on  the  heavily  loaded  wagons,  to  drag  them  through  deep 
streams  and  miry  marshes  on  their  line  of  travel.  Some  days  three 
or  four  miles  would  be  the  extent  of  their  journey.  Many  a  halt 
was  made,  at  times  for  weeks.  Their  able-bodied  men  often  found 
employment  at  the  nearest  settlements,  even  crossing  over  the  line 
into  Missouri  to  obtain  work,  exchanging  their  labor  with  their  old 
enemies  for  needed  provisions  and  supplies. 

On  the  27th  of  March,  on  Shoal  Creek,  in  the  Chariton  Biver 
region,  where  for  three  weeks  they  were  delayed  by  the  freshets,  the 
Camp  was  more  thoroughly  organized.  Companies  of  "hundreds," 
"fifties,"  and  "tens"  were  formed,  and  captains  appointed  over  them. 
Each  company  had  its  commissary,  and  there  was  a  Commissary 
General.  Henry  G.  Sherwood  was  that  officer.  David  D.  Yearsley, 
W.  H.  Edwards,  Peter  Haws,  Samuel  Gulley  and  Joseph  Warburton 
were  contracting  commissaries.  There  were  still  others  whose  duty 
it  was  to  distribute  equitably  among  the  various  companies,  grain, 
provisions  and  other  commodities   furnished   for  their   use.      The 


Apostles,  who  had  hitherto  been  acting  as  captains  of  companies 
were  relieved  of  those  commands  and  made  presidents  of  divisions. 
The  Camp  consisted  of  two  grand  divisions,  presided  over  by 
Brigham  Young  and  Heber  C.  Kimball;  the  former  as  President  and 
General-in-chief,  directing  the  whole. 

The  laws  of  the  Camp  were  strict  without  being  oppressive. 
The  President  had  said,  while  on  Sugar  Creek :  "We  will  have  no 
laws  we  cannot  keep,  but  we  will  have  order  in  the  camp.  If  any 
want  to  live  in  peace  when  we  have  left  this  place,  they  must  toe 
the  mark."  Honesty  and  morality  were  strictly  enjoined;  decency 
and  decorum  likewise.  Thieving  was  not  tolerated,  either  by  Mor- 
mons or  non-Mormons.  In  one  or  two  instances  where  stolen 
property  was  found  in  camp, — some  wayside  trapper  or  farmer  being 
the  victim, — the  thief  was  compelled  to  return  it  in  person,  and 
make  clue  reparation.  Profanity  and  irreverence  were  forbidden. 
Amusement  and  recreation,  to  a  proper  extent,  were  encouraged,  as 
tending  to  divert  the  minds  of  the  people  from  their  past  troubles 
and  lighten  their  present  toils,  but  excess  of  mirth  and  loud  laughter 
were  discountenanced. 

At  various  points  between  the  Mississippi  and  the  Missouri  the 
Mormons  founded  temporary  settlements,  or,  as  they  called  them, 
"  traveling  stakes  of  Zion,"  fencing  the  land,  building  log  cabins, 
and  putting  in  crops  for  their  own  use  or  for  the  benefit  of  their 
people  who  came  after  them.  Two  of  these  "  stakes"  were  named 
Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah  ;  the  former  on  the  east  fork  of 
Grand  River,  one  hundred  and  forty-five  miles  from  Nauvoo,  and  the 
latter  near  the  middle  fork  of  the  Grand,  twenty-seven  miles  farther 
west.     Mount  Pisgah  was  on  the  Pottawatomie  Indian  lands. 

A  thousand  west-bound  wagons  of  the  Saints  were  now  rolling 
over  the  prairies  of  Iowa.  Amos  Fielding,  traveling  back  to  Nauvoo, 
counted  over  nine  hundred  of  their  vehicles  in  three  days.  Many 
more  were  preparing  to  follow.  Winter  was  past ;  the  snow  had  dis- 
appeared, the  icy  streams  had  melted,  the  grass  was  growing,  flowers 
blooming  and   birds  singing.      Summer  had  come,  and  all   nature 

HISTORY  OF   UTAH.         *  255 

smiled  in  welcome.  The  vanguard  of  the  migrating  trains,  under 
Brigham  Young,  reached  the  Missouri  River  about  the  middle  of 
June.  They  were  cordially  welcomed  by  the  Pottawatomie  and 
Omaha  Indians,  upon  whose  lands  the  Saints  temporarily  settled. 

Before  reaching  the  Missouri  the  Mormon  leaders  had  planned 
to  leave  the  main  body  of  their  people  there,  and  at  the  various 
settlements  founded  along  the  way,  and  while  the  remnants  in  the 
rear  were  gathering  to  those  places,  to  push  on  that  season, 
with  a  picked  band  of  pioneers,  and  explore  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains. Apostle  Woodruff,  who  was  back  from  Europe,  and  had 
arrived  at  Mount  Pisgah,  received  word  from  the  President  at  Council 
Bluffs  *  to  furnish  one  hundred  mounted  men  for  the  expedition. 
Sixty  had  volunteered,  and  the  muster  was  still  in  progress,  when  an 
event  occurred  to  materially  change  the  program,  and  delay  the 
departure  of  the  pioneers  until  the  following  spring.  It  was  the  call 
for  the  Mormon  Battalion.' 

In  April,  1846,  war  had  broken  out  between  the  United  States 
and  Mexico.  The  original  cause  was  the  annexation  of  Texas  in 
1845,  but  the  immediate  casus  belli  was  the  occupation  by  United 
States  troops,  in  March,  1846,  of  disputed  territory  on  the  Texan 
frontier,  an  act  regarded  by  Mexico  as  a  virtual  declaration  of  war. 
She  resented  it  as  such,  and  in  April  began  hostilities.  The  victories 
of  Palo  Alto  and  Resaca  de  la  Palma,  won  by  General  Zachary 
Taylor  on  the  8th  and  9th  of  May,  drove  the  Mexicans  across  the  Rio 
Grande,  and  here  the  war,  in  the  opinion  of  many  Americans,  should 
have  ended.  But  the  majority  of  the  nation,  especially  the  South — 
bent  upon  extending  slavery  and  preserving  her  balance  of  power — 
wished  the  strife  continued,  having  set  their  hearts  upon  more. 
Nothing  now  would  suffice  but  the  extension  of  the  boundaries  of  the 
Union  to  the  Pacific  Coast  of  California.  This  meant,  in  plain  terms. 
the  wresting  from  Mexico  of  her  two  provinces  of  New  Mexico  and 

*  So  called  from  the  fad  (hat  the  Indian  tribes  of  thai  region  wore  in  the  habit  of 

inldiii"  1 1 1 < •  i I-  rulllii-ils  thi'iv. 


California,  lying  directly  in  the  path  of  the  Republic  in  its  proposed 
march  to  the  sea.  Great  Britain,  still  claiming  Oregon,  also  coveted 
California,  and  it  was  to  checkmate  that  power  in  her  ambitious 
designs,  as  well  as  to  acquire  more  territory  for  future  states,  that  the 
war  with  Mexico  was  continued. 

President  Polk,  having  announced  to  Congress  that  war  with 
Mexico  existed  by  her  own  act,  was  authorized  to  issue  a  call  for  fifty 
thousand  volunteers.  At  the  same  time  ten  million  dollars  were  voted 
for  war  purposes.  The  plan  was  to  strike  Mexico  in  three  places. 
General  Stephen  F.  Kearney  was  to  invade  New  Mexico  and  Cali- 
fornia, General  Taylor  to  continue  operations  along  the  Rio  Grande, 
and  General  Winfield  Scott,  commander-in-chief,  to  invade  Mexico 
from  the  Gulf  coast,  carrying  the  war  into  the  heart  of  the  enemy's 
country.  So  much  for  the  subject  in  general.  The  call  for  the 
Mormon  Battalion  was  a  portion  of  the  plan  matured  at  Washington 
for  the  invasion  by  General  Kearney  of  the  northern  provinces  of 

Let  us  now  go  back  a  little  further.  Shortly  before  the  war 
broke  out,  and  soon  after  the  beginning  of  the  exodus  from  Nauvoo, 
Elder  Jesse  C.  Little,  at  the  suggestion  of  President  Young,  visited 
Washington  for  the  purpose  of  soliciting  governmental  aid  for  his 
people  in  their  exodus.  No  gift  of  money  or  of  other  means  was 
asked,  but  it  was  thought  that  the  national  authorities  might  wish  to 
employ  the  Saints  in  freighting  provisions  and  naval  stores  to  Oregon 
or  other  points  on  the  Pacific  coast.  Elder  Little,  who  was  in  the 
east  when  he  received  his  instructions  from  Nauvoo,  carried  with 
him  to  the  capital  letters  of  introduction  from  Governor  Steele,  of 
New  Hampshire,  and  Colonel  Thomas  L.  Kane,  of  Philadelphia;  the 
former  an  old  acquaintance  of  Elder  Little's,  and  the  latter — Colonel 
Kane — one  of  those  brave  and  chivalric  souls,  too  rarely  met  with  in 
this  world,  ever  ready  to  espouse,  from  a  pure  sense  of  justice  and 
knightly  valor,  the  cause  of  the  oppressed.  Such  a  class  he 
believed  the  Mormons  to  be.  Colonel  Kane  was  brother  to  Dr.  Kane, 
the  famous  Arctic  explorer.     Governor  Steele's  letter  was  addressed  to 


Secretary  Bancroft,  of  the  U.  S.  Navy ;  that  of  Colonel  Kane  to  Vice- 
President  George  M.  Dallas. 

Through  ex-Postmaster-General  Amos  Kendall,  Elder  Little 
obtained  an  introduction  to  President  Polk  and  other  distinguished 
personages,  with  whom  he  had  several  interviews,  laying  before  them 
the  situation  and  prospects  of  his  people  and  their  application  for 
governmental  aid.  He-  was  kindly  received  by  the  President,  who 
referred  to  the  Saints  in  favorable  terms.  He  stated  that  he  had  no 
prejudice  against  them,  but  believed  them  to  be  good  citizens  and 
loyal  Americans;  as  such  he  was  "willing  to  do  them  all  the  good  in 
his  power,  consistently."  Elder  Little,  after  his  first  interview  with 
the  President,  addressed  to  him  a  petition  which  closed  as  follows : 

From  twelve  to  fifteen  thousand  Mormons  have  already  left  Nauvoo  for  California, 
and  many  others  are  making  ready  to  go  ;  some  have  gone  around  Cape  Horn,  and  I  trust, 
before  this  time,  have  landed  at  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco.  We  have  about  forty  thousand 
in  the  British  Isles,  all  determined  to  gather  to  this  land,  and  thousands  will  sail  this  Fall. 
There  are  also  many  thousands  scattered  through  the  States,  besides  the  great  number  in 
and  around  Nauvoo,  who  will  go  to  California  as  soon  as  possible,  but  many  are  destitute 
of  money  to  pay  their  passage  either  by  sea  or  land. 

We  are  true-hearted  Americans,  true  to  our  native  country,  true  to  its  laws,  true  to  its 
glorious  institutions ;  and  we  have  a  desire  to  go  under  the  outstretched  wings  of  the 
American  Eagle ;  we  would  disdain  to  receive  assistance  from  a  foreign  power,  although  it 
should  be  proffered,  unless  our  Government  shall  turn  us  off  in  this  great  crisis,  and  compel 
us  to  be  foreigners. 

If  you  will  assist  us  in  this  crisis,  I  hereby  pledge  my  honor,  as  the  representative  of 
this  people,  that  the  whole  body  will  stand  ready  at  your  call,  and  act  as  one  man  in  the 
land  to  which  we  are  going;  and  should  our  territory  be  invaded,  we  will  hold  ourselves 
ready  to  enter  the  field  of  battle,  and  then  like  our  patriotic  fathers,  make  the  battle-field 
our  grave,  or  gain  our  liberty. 

Just  at  this  juncture  the  news  reached  Washington  that  the  con- 
flict for  some  time  pending  between  the  United  States  and  Mexico  had 
begun,  General  Taylor  having  fought  his  first  two  battles  with  the 
Mexicans.  This  news,  which  set  all  Washington  aflame,  determined 
President  Polk  upon  the  project  of  taking  immediate  possession  of 
California,  and  of  using  the  migrating  Mormons  for  that  purpose. 
His  plan,  as  laid  before  his  cabinet,  was  to  send  Elder  Little  direct  to 
the  Mormon  camps  in  Iowa,  to  raise  a  thousand  picked  men  "to  make 


a  dash  into  California  and  take  possession  of  it  in  the  name  of  the 
United  States."  This  battalion  was  to  be  officered  by  its  own  men. 
with  the  exception  of  the  commander,  who  was  to  be  appointed  by 
the  President.  They  were  to  be  armed  and  equipped  by  the  govern- 
ment, and  furnished  with  cannon  and  everything  necessary  to  defend 
the  country  they  conquered.  A  thousand  more  Mormons  from  the 
eastern  states  were  to  be  sent  via  Cape  Horn  in  a  U.  S.  transport  for 
the  same  purpose.  The  plan  was  fully  matured,  and  about  to  be 
executed,  when  it  was  changed  through  the  influence  of  Senator 
Thomas  Benton,  of  Missouri.  Then  came  the  adoption  of  the 
general  plan  of  operations,  involving  a  call  for  five  hundred  Mormon 
volunteers  to  form  ;a  portion  of  General  Kearney's  force  to  invade 
New  Mexico  and  California. 

About  the  middle  of  June  Elder  Little  left  Washington  for  the 
west.  He  was  accompanied  by  Colonel  Thomas  L.  Kane,  who  had 
been  commissioned  by  the  President  to  carry  special  dispatches  to 
-General   Kearney,   at   Fort    Leavenworth,   relative   to   tbe   Mormon 

The  commander  of  the  Army  of  the  West,  who  was  about  to 
start  for  Santa  Fe,  on  receiving  these  dispatches,  at  once  detailed 
Captain  James  Allen  to  proceed  to  the  camps  of  the  Saints,  muster 
the  battalion,  and  march  them  to  Fort  Leavenworth,  where  they 
would  be  armed  and  prepared  for  the  field.  Thence  he  was  to  lead 
them  to  Santa  Fe,  in  the  trail  of  General  Kearney  and  the  main 
army.  Captain  Allen,  accompanied  by  three  dragoons,  reached  Mount 
Pisgah  on  the  26th  of  June.  Elder  Little  and  Colonel  Kane,  who 
were  on  the  way  thither,  had  not  yet  arrived.  Here  we  touch  the 
point  in  our  narrative  from  which  digression  was  made  in  order  to 
explain  more  fully  the  call  for  the  Mormon  Battalion. 

At  sight  of  the  recruiting  officer  and  his  men,  the  Mormons  at 
Mount  Pisgah  were  at  first  somewhat  alarmed,  supposing  them  to  be 
the  vanguard  of  a  United  States  army  sent  to  intercept  them.  The 
threat  of  Messrs.  Benson  and  Company,  conveyed  in  Elder  Brannan's 
letter,  relative  to  disarming  and  dispersing  the  Saints  if  their  leaders 


refused  to  sign  away  their  rights,  was  probably  known  at  Mount 
Pisgah,  and  its  fulfillment  now  seemed  imminent.  But  Captain  Allen 
soon  explained  his  errand  to  Apostle  Woodruff  and  the  High  Council 
of  the  Stake,*  and  the  first  thrill  of  excitement  subsided.  The  fol- 
lowing "Circular  to  the  Mormoms"  set  forth  more  in  detail  the 
import  of  the  officer's  visit : 


I  have  come  among  you,  instructed  by  Col.  S.  F.  Kearney  of  the  U.  S.  army,  now 
commanding  the  Army  of  the  West,  to  visit  the  Mormon  camp,  and  to  accept  the  service 
for  twelve  months  of  four  or  five  companies  of  Mormon  men  who  may  be  willing  to  serve 
their  country  for  that  period  in  our  present  war  with  Mexico  ;  this  force  to  unite  with  the 
Army  of  the  West  at  Santa  Fe,  and  be  marched  thence  to  California,  where  they  will  he 

They  will  receive  pay  and  rations,  and  other  allowances,  such  as  other  volunteers  or 
regular  soldiers  receive,  from  the  day  they  shall  be  mustered  into  the  service,  and  will  be 
entitled  to  all  comforts  and  benefits  of  regular  soldiers  of  the  army,  and  when  discharged, 
as  contemplated,  at  California,  they  will  be  given  gratis  their  arms  and  accoutrements, 
with  which  they  will  be  fully  equipped  at  Fort  Leavenworth.  This  is  offered  to  the  Mor 
mon  people  now.  This  year  an  opportunity  of  sending  a  portion  of  their  young 
intelligent  men  to  the  ultimate  destination  of  their  whole  people,  and  entirely  at 
expense  of  the  United  States,  and  this  advanced  party  can  thus  pave  the  way  and  look  01 
the  land  for  their  brethren  to  come  after  them. 

Those  of  the  Mormons  who  are  desirous  of  serving  their  country,  on  the  conditions 
here  enumerated,  are  requested  to  jmeet  me  without  delay  at  their  principal  camp  al  the 
Council  Bluffs,  whither  I  am  going  to  consult  with  their  principal  men,  and  to  receive  and 
organize  the  force  contemplated  to  be  raised. 

1  will  receive  all  healthy,  able-bodied  men  of  from  eighteen  to  forty-five  years  of  age. 

J.  Allen,  Captain  1st  Dragoons. 

Camp  of  the  Mormons,  at  Mount  Pisgah,  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  miles  east  of 
Council  Bluffs,  June  26th,  1846. 

Note. — I  hope  to  complete  the  organization  of  this  battalion  in  six  days  after  my 
reaching  Council  Bluffs,  or  within  nine  days  from  this  time. 

Carrying  letters  of  introduction  from  the  authorities  at  Mount 
Pisgah  to  the  leaders  at  Council  Bluffs.  Captain  Allen  hurried  on  to 
the  Missouri,  whither  he  was  preceded  by  a  special  messenger,  sent  by 
Apostle  Woodruff  to  inform  the  President  of  his  coming. 


*  These  "traveling  Stakes  of  Zion,"  like  oilier  slakes,  had   their  High  Councils  and 
all  needful  equipment,  spiritual  and  temporal. 


The  surprise,  almost  dismay,  with  which  the  main  body  of  the 
Mormons  received  the  startling  news — startling  indeed  to  them — 
that  the  United  States  government  had  demanded  five  hundred 
of  their  best  men,  to  march  to  California  and  take  part  in  the  war 
against  Mexico,  may  well  be  imagined.  What !  the  nation  which, 
according  to  their  view,  had  virtually  thrust  them  from  its  borders, 
permitted  mobs  to  plunder  them,  rob  them  of  their  homes,  murder 
their  prophets,  and  drive  them  into  the  wilderness,  now  calling  upon 
them  for  aid  ?  Had  that  nation  ever  helped  them  in  their  extremity  ? 
Had  not  their  appeals  for  succor  and  protection,  addressed  to  Gover- 
nors, Judges  and  Presidents  invariably  been  ignored  or  denied?  Five 
hundred  able-bodied  men,  the  pick  and  flower  of  the  camp,  wanted. 
And  that,  too,  in  an  Indian  country,  in  the  midst  of  an  exodus 
unparalleled  for  dangers  and  hardships,  when  every  active  man  was 
needed  as  a  bulwark  of  defense  and  a  staff  for  the  aged  and  feeble. 
Even  delicate  women,  thus  far,  in  some  instances  had  been  driving 
teams  and  tending  stock,  owing  to  the  limited  number  of  men  avail- 
able. And  had  they  not  already  buried,  in  lonely  prairie  graves, 
many  of  their  sick  and  helpless  ones,  who  had  perished  from  sheer 
lack  of  needed  care  impossible  to  bestow?  Such  was  the  subject  as 
it  presented  itself  to  them.  Such  were  among  their  thoughts  and 
reflections  at  that  hour. 

And  yet  it  was  their  country  calling;  that  country  to  which  their 
pilgrim  ancestors  had  fled;  for  which  their  patriot  sires  had  fought 
and  suffered,  whose  deeds  of  heroism  were  among  their  highest  and 
holiest  traditions.  America,  land  of  liberty,  land  of  Zion,  the  place 
for  the  Holy  City  which  they  or  their  children  must  yet  uprear  upon 
her  chosen  and  consecrated  soil!  Such  also  were  among  their 

What  was  to  be  done?  What  would  their  leaders  decide  to  do? 
Queries,  these,  that  flew  like  lightning,  as  the  news  of  the  coming  of 
the  government's  agent  sped  from  place  to  place,  and  from  tent  to 
tent,  through  all  the  "Camps  of  Israel.*'  Not  long  were  they  left 

tA/%,    '/uc/i  a  ^fCJ 


After  a  farewell  ball  in  Father  Taylor's  "bowery,"*  where  to  the 
music  of  violin,  horn,  triangle,  bells  and  tamborine,  the  glowing 
hours  of  a  midsummer  afternoon  were  cheerily,  merrily  chased  and 
consumed,  the  advance  companies  of  the  Battalion  set  out  for  Fort 
Leavenworth.  The  date  of  the  enlistment  was  the  16th  of  July.  In 
all,  the  Battalion  numbered  five  hundred  and  forty-nine  souls.  As 
many  of  these  volunteers  had  much  to  do  with  the  early  settlement 
of  Utah  and  were  virtually  among  the  pioneers  of  the  Territory,  we 
deem  it  but  proper  to  here  preserve  the  record  of  their  names.  The 
various  companies  and  the  personnel  of  each  were  as  follows : 



Jefferson  Hunt,  Captain.  Alexander  McCord,  4th  Sergeant. 

George  W.  Oman,  1st  Lieutenant.  Gilbert  Hunt,  1st  Corporal. 

Lorenzo  Clark,  2nd  Lieutenant.  Lafayette  N.  Frost,  2nd  Corporal. 

William    W.    Willis,   3rd  Lieutenant,  (1st       Thomas  Weir,  3rd  Corporal  (Private  at  M. 

Sergeant  at  Muster  In.)  0.) 

James  Ferguson,  Sergeant  Major.  William   S.  Muir,  4th  Corporal  (Private  at 

Phinehas  R.  Wright,  1st  Sergeant  (Private  M.  I.,  1st  Sergeant  at  Muster  Out.) 

at  Muster  Out.)  Elisha  Everett,  Musician. 

Ebenezer  Brown,  2nd  Sergeant.  Joseph  W.   Richards.   Musician,    (Died   at 

Reddick  X.  Allred,  3rd  Sergeant.  Pueblo.) 

*  Says  Colonel  Kane:  "It  was  the  custom,  whenever  the  larger  camps  rested  for  a 
few  days  together,  to  make  great  arbors,  or  boweries,  as  they  called  them,  of  poles,  and 
brush,  and  wattling,  as  places  of  shelter  for  their  meetings  of  devotion  or  conference. 
In  one  of  these,         *  *         was  gathered  now  the  mirth  and  beauty  of  the  Mormon 


"  If  anything  told  that  the  Mormons  had  been  bred  to  other  lives,  il  was  the  appear- 
ance of  the  women  as  they  assembled  here.  Before  their  lliglil  they  had  sold  their 
watches  and  trinkets  as  the  most  available  recourse  for  raising  ready  money;  and  hence 
like  their  partners,  who  wore  waistcoats  cut  with  useless  watch  pockets,  they,  although 
their  ears  were  pierced  and  bore  the  marks  of  rejected  pendants,  were  without  earrings, 
chains  or  broaches.  Except  such  ornaments,  however,  they  lacked  nothing  most  becom- 
ing the  attire  of  decorus  maidens.  The  neatly  darned  white  stockings,  and  clean  white 
petticoal.  Hie  clear-starched  collar  and  cheiuiselle.  Hie  soinclhing  laded,  <>nl\  because  too- 
well  washed  lawn  or  gingham  gown,  thai  fitted  modishly  to  the  waist  of  its  prettj  wears 
— these,  if  any  of  them  spoke  of  poverty,  spoke  of  a  poverty  thai  had  known  better  .lays." 




1  Allen,  Rufus  C. 

2  Allred,  James  R. 

3  Allred,  James  T.  S. 

4  Allred,  Reuben  W. 

5  Allen,  Albern 

6  Brown,  John 

7  Butterfield,  Jacob  K. 

8  Bailey,  James 

9  Brunson,  Clinton  D. 

10  Brass,  Benjamin 

11  Blanchard,  Mervin  S. 

12  Beckstead,  Gordon  S. 

13  Beckstead,  Orin  M. 

14  Bickmore,  Gilbert 

15  Brown,  William  W. 

16  Beran,  James 

17  Bryant,  John  S. 

18  Curtis,  Josiah 

19  Cox,  Henderson 

20  Chase,  Hiram  B. 

21  Calkins,  Alva  C. 

22  Casper,  William  W. 

23  Calkins,  James  W. 

24  Calkins,  Sylvanus 

25  Calkins,  Edwin  R. 

26  Colman,  George 

27  Clark,  Joseph 

28  Clark,  Riley  G. 

29  Decker,  Zechariah  B. 

30  Dobson,  Joseph 

31  Dodson,  Eli 

32  Earl.  James  C. 

33  Egbert,  Robert  C. 

34  Fairbanks,  Henry 

35  Frederick,  David 

36  Glines.  James   H.  (Q.  M. 

Sergeant  at  M.   I.,  Pri- 
vate at  M.  0.) 

37  Garner,  David 

38  Gordon,  Gilman 

39  Goodwin,  Andrew 

40  Hulett,  Schuyler 

41  Holden,  Elijah  E. 

42  Hampton,  James  (died  at 

camp  on  Bio  Grande.) 

43  Hawkins,  Benjamin 

44  Hiekenlooper,  William  F. 

45  Hunt.  Martial 

46  Hewett,  Eli  B. 

47  Hudson,  Wilford 

48  Hoyt,  Timothy  S. 

49  Hoyt.  Henry  P. 

50  Ivy,  Richard  A. 

51  Jackson,  Charles  A. 

52  Johnson,  Henry 

53  Kelly,  William 

54  Kelley,  Nicholas 

55  Kibley,  James 

56  Lemon,  James  W. 

57  Lake,  Barnabas 

58  Moss,  David 

59  Maxwell,  Maxie 

60  May  field,  Benjamin  F. 

61  Naile,  Conrad 

62  Oyler,  Melcher 

63  Packard,  Henry,   (M.   C. 

as  Corporal.) 

64  Persons,  Ebenezer 

65  Roe,  Cariatat  C. 

66  Riter,  John 

67  Steele,  George  E. 

68  Steele,  Isaiah  C. 

69  Sessions,  Richard 

70  Shepherd,  Lafayette,  (M. 

O.  as  Corporal.) 

71  Swartout  Hamilton 

72  Sexton,  George 

73  Sessions,  John 

74  Sessions,  William  B. 

75  Taylor,  Joseph 

76  Thompson,  John 

77  Vrandenburg  Adna 

78  Weaver,  Miles 

79  Wriston,  John  P. 

80  Wriston,  Isaac  N. 

81  Weaver,  Franklin 

82  Wilson,  Alfred  G. 

83  Wheeler,  Merrill  W. 

84  White.  Samuel  S.  (Sam- 

uel F.  in  original) 

85  Webb,  Charles  Y. 

86  Winn,  Dennis 

87  Woodworth,  Lysander 

88  White,  Joseph 

89  Willey,  Jeremiah 

Jesse  D.  Hunter,  Captain. 
Elam  Luddington,  1st  Lieutenant. 
Ruel  Barrus,  2nd  Lieutenant. 
Philemon  C.  Merrill,  3rd  Lieutenant. 
William  Coray,  1st  Orderly  Sergeant. 
William  Hyde,  2nd  Orderly  Sergeant. 

David  P.  Bainey,  1st  Corporal. 
Thomas  Dunn,  2nd  Corporal. 
John  D.  Chase,  3rd  Corporal. 
William  Hunter,  Musician. 
George  W.  Taggart,  Musician. 
Albert  Smith,  3rd  Orderly  Sergeant. 



1  Allen,  George 


Evans,  William 

61  Noler,  Christian 

2  Allen,  Elijah 


Eastman,  Marcus  N. 

62  Owens,  Robert 

3  Alexander,  Horace  M. 


Freeman,  Elijah  N. 

63  Pearson,  Ephraim 

4  Allen,  Franklin 

34  Follett,  William  A. 

64  Persons,  Harmon  D. 

5  Bush,  Richard 


Fife,  Peter 

65  Prouse,  William 

6  Bird,  William 


Green,  Ephraim 

66  Park,  James  1st 

7  Bingham,  Thomas 


Garner,  William  A. 

67  Park,  James  2nd 

8  Bingham,  Erastus 


Garner,  Phillip 

68  Richards,  Peter  F. 

9  Billings,  Orson 


Hawk,  Nathan 

69  Rogers,  Samuel  H. 

10  Bigler,  Henry  W. 


Huntsman,  Isaiah 

70  Study,  David 

11  Boley,  Samuel  (died 

on  41 

Hoffheins,  Jacob 

71  Smith,  Azariah 

Missouri  River) 


Hanks,  Ephraim  R. 

72  Stevens,  Lyman 

12  Barrowman,  John 


Hawk,  William 

73  Stoddard,  Rufus 

13  Brackenberry,  Benj.  B 


Hinkley,  Arza   E.    (Ezra  74  Simmons,  William  A 

14  Brown,  Francis 

on  original) 

75  Sly,  James  C. 

15  Bliss,  Robert  S. 


Hunter,  Edward 

76  Steers,  Andrew  J. 

16  Bybee,  John 


Haskell,  George 

77  Stillman,  Dexter 

17  Clark,  George  S. 


Harris,  Silas 

78  Workman,  Andrew  J. 

18  Colton,  Philander 

48  Jones,  David  H. 

79  Walker,  William 

19  Cheney,  Zacheus 


Keyser,  Guy  M. 

80  Willis,  Ira 

20  Callahan,  Thomas  W. 

50  King,  John  M. 

81  Workman,  Oliver  G. 

21  Church,  Haden  W. 


Kirk,  Thomas 

82  Willis,  W.  S.  S. 

22  Camp,  J.  G. 


Lawson,  John 

83  Watts,  John 

23  Carter,  P.  J. 


Morris,  Thomas 

84  Whitney,  Francis  T. 

24  Curtis,  Dorr  P. 


McCarty,  Nelson 

85  Wright,  Charles 

25  Carter,  B. 


Mount,  Hiram  B. 

86  Wilcox,  Edward 

26  Dayton,  William  J. 


Martin,  Jesse  B. 

87  Wilcox.  Henry 

27  Dutcher,  Thomas  P. 


Murdock,  John  R. 

88  Wheeler,  John  L. 

28  Dolton,  Henry  S. 

58  Murdock,  Price 

89  Winters,  Jacob 

29  Dunham,  Albert 

59  Myers,  Samuel 

90  Zabriskie.  Jerome 

30  Evans,  Israel 


Miles,  Samuel 

James  Brown,  Captain. 
George  W.  Rosecrans,  1st  Lieutenai 
Samuel  Thompson,  2nd  Lieutenant, 
Robert  CM,  (Promoted  limn  Ordei 

geant  to  3rd  Lieutenant.) 
Orson  B.  Adams,  1st  Sergeant  at  M. 

Sergeant  at  M.  O. 
Elijah  Elmer,  2ml  Sergeant  al  M. 

Sergeant  at  M.  O. 

company  c. 

Joel  J.Terrill,  3rd  Sergeant,)  I  'rivate  at  M.O.) 
David  Wilken,  4th  Sergeant;  (PrivateatM.  0.) 
Jabez  Nowlin,  1st  Corporal  :  (Private  at  M.  O.) 

ier-     Alexander  Brown,  2nd  Corporal. 

Edward    Martin,  3rd    Corporal;    (2nd    Ser- 

2 ml  geant  at  M.  O. 

Daniel  Tyler,4th  Corporal;  (3rd  Sergt.  at  M.O.) 

lsl      Richard  ll.  Sprague,  Musician. 

Russell  G.Brownell,  Musician;  (Corp'l  at  M.O.) 



1  Adair,  Wesley 


Gould,  Samuel 

62  Peck,    Thorit,    (Corporal 

2  Boyle,  Henry  G.  (Henry  32 

Gibson,  Thomas 

at  M.  O.) 

B.  Miller  on  original) 


Green,  John 

63  Peck,  Isaac 

3  Burt,  William 


Hatch,  Meltliah 

64  Pulsipher,  David 

4  Barney,  Walter 


Hatch,  Orin 

65  Persons,  Judson 

5  Babcock,  Lorenzo 


Holt,  William 

66  Richie,  Benjamin 

6  Brown,  Jesse  J. 


Harmon,  Ebenezer 

67  Bust,  William  W. 

7  Bailey,  Addison 


Harmon,  Lorenzo  F. 

68  Richmond,  Benjamin 

8  Bailey,  Jefferson 


Holdaway,  Shadrach 

69  Reynolds,  William 

9  Beckstead,  William  E. 


Hendrickson,  James 

70  Riser,  John  J. 

10  Brimhall,  John 


Hancock,  Charles 

71   Smith,  Milton 

11  Blackburn,  Abner 


Hancock,  George  W. 

72  Smith,  Richard 

12  Bybee,  Henry  G. 


Tvie,  Thomas  C. 

73  Shupe,  James 

13  Glit't,  James 

44  Johnston,  William  J. 

74  Shupe,  Andrew  J. 

14  Covil,  John  Q.  A. 


Johnston,  Jesse  W. 

75  Shipley,  Joseph 

15  Condit,  Jeptha 

46  Johnson,  Jarvis 

76  Squires,   William,   (Cor- 

16 Carpenter,  Isaac 


Lay  ton,  Christopher 

poral  at  M.  O.) 

17  Carpenter,  William  H. 


Larson,  Thurston 

77  Shumway,  Aurora 

18  Calvert,  John 


Landers,  Ebenezer 

78  Thompson,  James  L. 

19  Catlin,  George  W. 


Lewis,  Samuel 

79  Thomas,  Nathan  T. 

20  Donald,  Neal 


Myler,  James 

80  Thomas,  Elijah 

21  Dunn,  James 


McCullough,  Levi  H. 

81  Tuttle,  Elanson 

22  Dalton,  Harry 


Morey,  Harley 

82  Truman,  Jacob  M. 

23  Dalton,  Edward 


Maggard,  Benjamin 

83  Tindell,  Solomon 

24  Durphy,  Francillo 


Mowrey,  John  T. 

84  Wade,  Edward  W. 

25  Dodge,  Augustus  E. 


Mead,  Orlando  F. 

85  Wade,  Moses 

26  Forbush,  Lorin 


More,  Calvin  W.     . 

86  Wood,  William 

27  Fellows,  Hiram  W. 


Olmstead,  Hiram 

87  White,  John  J. 

28  Fife,  John 


Perkins,  David 

88  Wilcox,  Matthew 

29  Fifield,  Levi 


Perkins,  John 

89  Welsh,  Madison 

30  Gould,  John  C. 


Pickup,  George 



90  Wheeler,  Henry 

Nelson  Higgins,  Captain. 
George  P.  Dykes,  1st  Lieutenant. 
Sylvester  Hulett,  2nd  Lieutenant. 
Cyrus  G.  Canfield,  3rd  Lieutenant. 
Nathaniel  V.  Jones,  1st  Sergeant  :  (Pr 

at  M.  O.) 
Thomas  Williams,  2nd  Sergeant. 
Luther  T.  Tuttle,  3rd  Sergeant. 

Alpheus  P.  Haws,  4th  Sergeant. 
Arnold  Stephens,  1st  Corporal. 
John  Buchanan,  2nd  Corporal. 
William  Goon,  3rd  Corporal. 
Lewis  Lane,  4th  Corporal;  (Private  at  M.  O.) 
Willard  Smith.  Musician. 
Henry  W.  Jackson.  (Henry  J.  on  original.) 




1  Abbott,  Joshua 

2  Averett,  Juthan 

3  Brown,  James  1st 

4  Brown,  James  S 

5  Badlam,  Samuel 

6  Button,  Montgomery 

7  Brizzee,  Henry  W. 

8  Boyd,  George  W. 

9  Boyd,  William 

10  Barger,  William  W. 

11  Compton,  Allen 

12  Cole,  James  B. 

13  Casto,  William 

14  Casto,  James 

15  Curtis  Foster 

16  Clawson,  John  R. 

17  Cox,  Amos 

18  Collins,  Robert  H. 

19  Chase,  Abner 

20  Davis,  Sterling 

21  Davis,  Eleazer 

22  Davis,  James 

23  Douglas.  Ralph 

24  Douglas,  James 

25  Flecther,  Philander 

26  Frazier,  Thomas 

27  Fatoute,  Ezra 

28  Forsgreen  John 

29  Finlay,  Thomas 

30  Gilbert,  John 

31  Gifford,  William  W. 

32  Gribble,  William 

33  Hoagland,  Lucas 

34  Henry,  Daniel 

35  Hirons  James 

36  Huntington,  Dimick  B. 

37  Hendricks,  Wm.  D. 

38  Holmes,  Jonathan 

39  Higgins,  Alfred 

40  Hunsaker,  Abraham,  (1st 

Sergt.  at  M.  0.) 

41  Jacobs,  Sanford,  (Corporal 

at  M.  O.) 

42  Kenny,  Loren  E. 

43  Lamb,  Lisbon 

44  Laughlin,  David  S. 

45  Maxwell,  William 

46  Meeseck,  Peter  J. 

47  Meacham,  Erastus 

48  Bingham,  Erastus 

49  Merrill,  Ferdinand 

50  McArthur,  Henry 

51  Oakley,  James 

52  Owen,  James 

53  Peck,  Edwin  M. 

54  Perrin,  Charles 

55  Pettegrew,  James  P. 

56  Rollins,  John 

57  Rawson,  Daniel  B. 

58  Roberts,  Benjamin 

59  Runyan.   Levi 

60  Rowe,  William 

61  Richmond,  William 

62  Robinson,  William 

63  Raymond,  Almon  P. 

64  Smith.  John  G. 

65  Stephens,  Alexander 

66  Spencer,  William  W. 

67  Stewart,  Benjamin 

68  Stewart,  James 

69  Stewart,  Robert  B. 

70  Sargent,  Abel  M. 

71  Savage,  Levi 

72  Stillman,  Clark 

73  Swarthout,  Nathan 

74  Sharp,  Albert 

75  Sharp,  Norman 

76  Shelton,  Sebert  C. 

77  Sanderson.  Henry  W, 

78  Steele,  John 

79  Thompson,  Henry 

80  Thompson,  Miles 

81  Tanner,  Myron 

82  Twitchel,  Anciel 

83  Tubbs,  William 

84  Treat,  Thomas 

85  Hayward,  Thomas 

86  Tippets,  John 

87  Walker,  Edwin 

88  Woodward,  Francis 

89  Whiting.  Almon 

90  Whiting,  Edmond 



Daniel  C.  Davis.  Captain. 
lames  Pace,  1st.  Lieut. 
Andrew  Lytle,  2d.  Lieut. 
Samuel  L.  Gully,  3rd.  Lieut. 
Samuel  L.  Brown.  1st.  Sergt. 
Richard  Brazier,  2nd.  Sergt. 

Ebenezer  Hanks.  3rd.  Sergt. 
Daniel  Browett,  4th.  Sergt. 
James  A.  Sell,  Corp.  (died  al   Purl 
Levi  W.  Hancock,  Musician. 
Jesse  Earl. 



1  Allen    John,     (drummed 

28  Harmon,  Oliver  N. 

56  Pugmire,  Jonathan,  jun. 

out    of     service,     non- 

29  Harris,  Robert 

57  Rollins 

"  Mormon") 

30  Harrison,  Isaac 

58  Richardson,  Thomas 

2  Allen,  George 

31  Hart,  James  S. 

59  Richards,  L. 

3  Bentley,  John 

32  Harrison,  Israel 

60  Roberts,  L. 

4  Beers,  William 

33  Hess,  John  W. 

61  Sanders,  Richard  T. 

5  Brown,  Daniel 

34  Hickmot,  John 

62  Scott,  Leonard  M. 

6  Buckley,  Newman 

35  Hopkins,  Charles 

63  Scott,  James  R. 

7  Bunker,  Edward 

36  Hoskins,  Henry 

64  Skein,  Joseph 

8  Caldwell,  Matthew 

37  Howell,  T.  C.  D. 

65  Spidle,  John 

9  Campbell,  Samuel 

38  Howell,  William 

66  Slater,  Richard 

10  Campbell,  Jonathan 

39  Jacobs,  Bailey 

67  Snyder,  John 

11  Cazier,  James 

40  Judd,  Hiram 

68  Smith,  Lot 

12  Cazier,  John 

41  Judd,  Zadock  K. 

69  Smith,  David 

13  Clark,  Samuel 

42  Jimmerson,  Charles 

70  Smith,  Elisha 

14  Clark,  Albert 

43  Knapp,  Albert 

71  Smith,  John 

15  Chapin,  Samuel 

44  Kelley,  George 

72  St.  John,  Stephen  M. 

16  Cox,  John 

45  Karren,  Thomas 

73  Stephens,  Roswell 

17  Cummings,  George 

46  Lance,  William 

74  Standage,  Henry 

18  Day,  Abraham 

47  McLelland,  Wm.  C. 

75  Strong,  William 

19  Dyke,  Simon 

48  Miller,  Daniel 

76  Tanner,  Albert 

20  Dennett,  Daniel  Q. 

49  McBride.  Haslam 

77  West,  Benj. 

21   Earl,  Jacob 

50  Miller,  Miles 

78  Wilson,  George 

22  Ewell,  Wm. 

51  Park,  Wm.  A. 

79  Woolsey,  Thomas 

23  Ewell,  Martin  F. 

52  Pettegrew,  David 

80  Williams,  James  V. 

24  Earl,  Justice  C. 

53  Pixton,  Robert 

81  Whitworth,Wm. 

25  Findlay,  John 

54  Phelps,    Alva,    (died 


26  Follett,  William  T. 

the  Arkansas) 

27  Glazier,  Luther  W. 

55  Porter,  Sanford 

Several  families  of  women  and  children  accompanied  their  hus- 
bands and  fathers  in  the  Battalion,  and  these,  with  the  officers' 
servants,  brought  the  full  number  up  to  five  hundred  and  forty-nine. 

Captain  James  Allen,  whose  brave  and  generous  spirit  had  from 
the  first  endeared  him  to  every  soul  in  the  Battalion,  to  the  great 
grief  of  all  fell  sick  and  died  at  Fort  Leavenworth  on  the  23rd  of 
August.  Lieutenant  A.  J.  Smith,  an  officer  not  so  highly  esteemed 
by  them,  then  took  command  of  the  Battalion  and  marched  them  to 
Santa  Fe,  which  town  had  already  been  captured  by  General 


On  October  13th,  by  order  of  the  General,  Colonel  Philip  St. 
George  Cooke,  a  brusque  and  eccentric  though  brave  and  manly 
officer,  assumed  command  of  the  Mormon  Battalion.  Then  began 
their  arduous  and  heroic  march  across  the  burning  plains  and 
rugged  mountains  of  New  Mexico  to  southern  California.  In  all,  the 
Battalion  marched,  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Pacific,  a  distance  of 
over  two  thousand  miles,  pioneering  much  of  the  way  through  an 
untrodden  wilderness,  braving  dangers  and  enduring  hardships  com- 
pared with  which  fighting  would  have  been  mere  sport.  Said  Col- 
onel Cooke,  their  commander  :  "  History  may  be  searched  in  vain  for 
an  equal  march  of  infantry." 

Short  rations,  lack  of  water,  excessive  toil  in  road-making,  well- 
digging  and  over-marching,  caused  much  suffering,  sickness  and  some 
deaths  among  the  Battalion.  Even  before  reaching  Santa  Fe  their 
sufferings  were  severe,  and  many  were  disabled  and  prevented  from 
proceeding  farther.  These  disabled  detachments,  with  most  of  the 
women  of  the  Battalion,  were  placed  in  charge  of  Captain  James 
Brown  and  ordered  to  Pueblo  on  the  head-waters  of  the  Arkansas 
River,  while  their  comrades,  the  main  body,  including  four  women* 
who  accompanied  their  husbands,  pushed  on  to  the  Pacific  coast. 
They  arrived  near  San  Diego  late  in  January,  1847. 

General  Kearney  had  reached  California  some  time  before,  but 
with  only  a  few  men,  having  disbanded  most  of  his  force  on  being 
informed  en  route  that  California  was  already  in  the  possession  of 
the  United  States.  Colonel  John  C.  Fremont,  who  with  sixty  men 
was  exploring  west  of  the  Sierras  when  the  war  broke  out,  had  ral- 
lied the  American  settlers  of  Sacramento  Valley — a  few  hundred 
strong — and  with  the  co-operation  of  Commodores  Sloat  and  Stock- 
ton, all  but  subdued  the  country  before  Kearney  came.  A  few 
skirmishes  then  took  place,  and  the  conquest  was  complete.  The 
war  in  California  being  virtually  over  before  Colonel  Cooke's  command 

*  These  four  women  were  Mrs.  Melissa  Burton   Coray,  wife  of   Sergeant  Goray ; 
Mrs.  Captain  Davis,  Mrs.  Captain  Hunter  (who  died  in  California)  and  Mrs.  Ebenezer  Brown. 


could  reach  the  coast,  the  Mormon  Battalion  did  not  take  part  in  any 
engagement.  Fort-building  and  garrison  service  were  about  all  that 
was  required  of  them.  Nevertheless  they  did  much  work  as 
mechanics  and  laborers.  They  performed  their  duties  in  such  a  man- 
ner as  to  elicit  the  commendation  of  their  military  superiors,  and  win 
the  sincere  esteem  of  the  native  Californians.*  Fremont  and  some 
of  his  men  were  their  foes.f  But  General  Kearney,  Governor  Mason 
and  others  in  authority  spoke  in  high  praise  of  the  patience,  subor- 
dination and  general  good  conduct  of  the  Mormon  soldiers.!  " 

Prior  to  Kearney's  arrival  Colonel  Fremont — authorized,  it  is 
said,  by  Commodore  Stockton — had  made  himself  military  governor 
of  California.  As  such  he  refused  to  recognize  Kearney's  author- 
ity. Thereupon  the  latter,  backed  by  Colonel  Cooke  and  the  Mormon 
Battalion — the  principal  force  then  at  his  command — had  Fremont 
arrested  for  insubordination  and  taken  to  Washington,  where  he 
was  court-martialed. 

While  some  of  these  events  were  taking  place  on  the  Pacific 
coast,  other  scenes  of  a  military  character  were  being  enacted  on  the 
distant  shores  of  the  Mississippi.  After  the  departure  of  the  Mormon 
leaders  from  Nauvoo  in  February,  1846,  the.  exodus  of   their  people 

*  Says  Henry  G.  Boyle,  one  of  the  Battalion:  "  I  think  I  whitewashed  all  San  Diego. 
We  did  their  blacksmithing,  put  up  a  bakery,  made  and  repaired  carts,  and,  in  fine,  did  all 
we  could  to  benefit  ourselves  as  well  as  the  citizens.  We  never  had  any  trouble  with  the 
Californians  or  Indians,  nor  they  with  us.  The  citizens  became  so  attached  to  us  that 
before  our  term  of  service  expired  they  got  up  a  petition  to  the  Governor  to  use  his  influ- 
ence to  keep  us  in  the  service.     The  petition  was  signed  by  every  citizen  in  the  town." 

f  Fremont  was  son-in-law  to  Senator  Benton  of  Missouri. 

J  Governor  R.  B.  Mason,  General  Kearney's  successor  as  military  commandant  of 
California,  in  his  report  to  the  Adjutant-General  September  18th,  1847,  wrote  :  "  Of  the 
services  of  the  Battalion,  of  their  patience,  subordination  and  general  good  conduct  you 
have  already  heard,  and  I  take  great  pleasure  in  adding  that  as  a  body  of  men  they  have 
religiously  respected  the  rights  and  feelings  of  this  conquered  people,  and  not  a  syllable  of 
complaint  has  reached  my  ear  of  a  single  insult  offered  or  outrage  done  by  a  Mormon 
volunteer.  So  high  an  opinion  did  I  entertain  of  the  Battalion  and  of  their  special  fitness 
for  the  duties  now  performed  by  the  garrisons  in  this  country,  that  I  made  strenuous  efforts 
to  engage  their  services  for  another  year." 


continued  without  cessation.  The  Saints  were  anxious  that  their 
enemies  should  have  no  ground  upon  which  to  base  an  accusation  of 
bad  faith,  and  no  excuse  for  committing  further  outrages  upon  them. 
Major  W.  B.  Warren,  who  with  a  small  force  of  militia  remained  in 
Hancock  County  to  preserve  order,  and  doubtless  to  help  on  the 
exodus,  thus  reported  to  the  Quincy  Whiff  on  May  20th:  "  The  Mor- 
mons are  leaving  the  city  with  all  possible  dispatch.  During  the 
week  four  hundred  teams  have  crossed  at  three  points,  or  about  1,350 
souls.  The  demonstrations  made  by  the  Mormon  population  are 
unequivocal.  They  are  leaving  the  State,  and  preparing  to  leave,  with 
every  means  God  and  nature  have  placed  in  their  hands.  This  ought 
to  be  satisfactory."  The  Warsaw  Sic/nal,  the  anti-Mormon  organ, 
published  similar  reports  from  Major  Warren. 

As  the  Major  says,  this  ought  to  have  been  satisfactory,  but  it 
was  not.  Men  who  were  not  sated  at  having  imbrued  their  hands  in 
blood  to  gratify  political  and  religious  animosities,  are  hard  to  satisfy. 
There  was  too  good  plundering  at  Nauvoo  to  permit  the  Mormons  to 
dispose  of  their  property  and  depart  in  peace,  as  they  desired.  Major 
Warren's  reports,  confirmed  by  events  that  were  taking  place  daily, 
should  have  convinced  reasonable  men  that  the  Mormons  were  in 
earnest  in  their  exodus.  But  if  convinced,  the  anti-Mormons  failed 
to  act  upon  their  convictions.  On  the  contrary,  they  continued  to 
assert  the  falsehood  that  the  Mormons  did  not  intend  to  leave  the 
State,  and  even  raised  troops  at  Carthage  to  march  against  Nauvoo. 
Governor  Ford  in  his  writings  refers  to  these  early  settlers  of  Han- 
cock County  as  "  hard  cases.'**  No  fair-minded  person,  cognizant  of 
the  facts,  will  dispute  the  correctness  of  his  estimate.  A  meeting 
between  the  leaders  of  the  military  mob  and  a  committee  of  "new 
citizens"  of  Nauvoo — persons  who  had  purchased  Mormon  properties 
and  moved  into  the  city — averted,  but  only  for  a  little  season,  the 
threatened  assault. 

*The  Governor's  comment  is  as  follows  :  "I  had  a  good  opportunity  to  know  the 
early  settlers  of  Hancock  County,  and  to  my  certain  knowledge  the  early  settlers,  with 
some  honorable  exceptions,  were,  in  popular  language,  hard  cases." 


In  July  a  party  of  Mormons  from  Nauvoo,  ignoring  a  mobocratic 
edict  ordering  all  of  their  faith  to  remain  in  the  city  except  when  leav- 
ing for  the  west,  went  into  the  country  near  a  place  called  Pontoosuc, 
to  help  some  of  their  brethren  harvest  a  field  of  grain.  While  there 
they  were  set  upon  by  a  larger  party  of  anti-Mormons,  severely 
whipped  and  driven  away.  The  last  act  in  the  drama  of  Mormonism 
in  Illinois  was  thus  begun.  Several  persons  were  arrested  for  this 
assault  and  taken  to  Nauvoo.  The  anti-Mormons  retaliated  by 
taking  several  of  the  Saints  prisoners  and  holding  them  as  hostages. 
The  men  held  at  Nauvoo,  regaining  their  liberty,  sued  out  writs 
against  their  captors  for  false  imprisonment,  which  writs  were  placed 
in  the  hands  of  a  deputy  sheriff,  one  John  Carlin  of  Carthage,  to 
serve.  Meeting  some  difficulty  in  executing  these  processes,  he  called 
out  the  posse  comitatus,  and  having  raised  two  regiments  of  troops 
started  for  Nauvoo. 

Governor  Ford,  being  apprised  of  this  movement,  ordered  Major 
John  R.  Parker  to  muster  a  force  of  volunteers  and  defend  the  city. 
Parker  and  Carlin  were  thus  placed  in  direct  antagonism.  Each 
styled  the  other's  force  "a  mob."  A  treaty  of  peace  between  Major 
Parker  and  Colonel  Singleton — in  immediate  command  of  the  posse — 
being  rejected  by  the  Colonel's  men  as  too  favorable  to  the  Mormons, 
Singleton  in  disgust  resigned,  and  Carlin  appointed  Colonel  Brock- 
man  in  his  stead.  Governor  Ford  describes  Brockman  as  "a  Camp- 
bellite  preacher,  nominally  belonging  to  the  Democratic  party,  a 
large,  awkward,  uncouth,  ignorant,  semi-barbarian,  ambitious  of 
officer,  and  bent  upon  acquiring  notoriety."  On  assuming  command, 
Brockman  and  his  "regulators" — as  the  posse  was  styled — advanced 
upon  Nauvoo,  and  on  the  10th  of  September  began  to  bombard  the 

The  citizens,  though  such  as  bore  arms  were  greatly  outnum- 
bered by  the  attacking  force,  banded  together  for  defense,  and 
hastily  fortifying  the  approaches  to  the  city,  returned  the  enemy's 
fire  with  spirit.  Having  no  artillery,  while  Brockman's  force  was 
well  supplied   with   cannon,   they    converted   some   old   steam-boat 


shafts  into  guns,  and  placing  them  in  position  compelled  the  enemy 
to  retire. 

Major  Parker  for  some  reason  had  left  Nauvoo,  and  Colonel 
Johnson  was  now  in  command  of  the  citizen  force,  which  numbered 
about  four  hundred  men.  Brockman  is  conceded  by  anti-Mormon 
estimates  to  have  had  twice  that  many.  The  main  stay  of  the 
defense  was  a  select  body  of  riflemen  called  the  "Spartan  Band,"  of 
which  William  Anderson  and  Alexander  McRae  were  first  and 
second  captains. 

On  the  12th  of  September  occurred  the  battle  of  Nauvoo,  a 
spirited  action  of  an  hour  and  a  quarter's  duration,  between 
Brockman's  force,  which  now  renewed  the  attack  with  fury,  and  the 
overmatched  but  gallant  defenders  of  the  city.  Colonel  Johnson 
having  fallen  sick,  Lieutenant-Colonel  William  E.  Cutler  directed  the 
defense,  with  Daniel  H.  Wells  as  his  aide.  During  the  fight,  which 
resulted  in  another  repulse  for  the  "regulators,"  Captain  Anderson, 
his  son  Augustus  and  Isaac  Morris  were  killed,  and  several  others  of 
the  defenders  wounded.  On  his  side  Brockman  reported  none  killed, 
but  twelve  wounded.  The  siege  lasted  for  several  days.  Finally, 
through  the  mediation  of  a  citizen's  committee  from  Quincy,  a 
treaty  was  agreed  upon  between  the  forces  militant.  This  treaty 
was  as  follows : 

1.  The  City  of  Nauvoo  will  surrender.  The  force  of  Colonel  Brockman  to  enter 
and  take  possession  of  the  city  tomorrow,  the  17th  of  September,  at  3  o'clock  p.  m. 

2.  The  arms  to  be  delivered  to  the  Quincy  Committee,  to  be  returned  on  the  cross- 
ing of  the  river. 

3.  The  Quincy  Committee  pledge  themselves  to  use  their  influence  for  the  protection 
of  persons  and  property  from  all  violence ;  and  the  officers  of  the  camp  and  the  men 
pledge  themselves  to  protect  all  persons  and  property  from  violence. 

4.  The  sick  and  helpless  to  be  protected  and  treated  with  humanity. 

5.  The  Mormon  population  of  the  city  to  leave  the  State,  or  disperse,  as  soon  as 
they  can  cross  the  river. 

6.  Five  men,  including  the  trustees  of  the  Church,  and  five  clerks,  with  their  fam- 
ilies (William  Pickett*  not  one  of  the  number)  to  be  permitted  to  remain  in  the  city  for 
the  disposition  of  property,  free  from  all  molestation  and  personal  violence, 

Pickett's  offense  consisted  in  taking  from  one  of  the  mob  party— -  Major  McCalla 
n  stolen  from  one  of  the  Mormons  who  had  been  whipped  and  robbed  at  1'imloc.suc. 


7.  Hostilities  to  cease  immediately,  and  ten  men  of  the  Quincy  Committee  to  enter 
the  city  in  the  execution  of  their  duty  as  soon  as  they  think  proper. 

We,  the  undersigned,  subscribe  to,  ratify  and  confirm  the  foregoing  articles  of  accom- 
modation, treaty  and  agreement,  the  day  and  year  first  above  written. 

Signed  by :  Almon  W.  Babbitt,  Joseph  L.  Heywood,  John  S.  Fullmer,  Trustees  in 
Trust  for  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints ;  Andrew  Johnson,  Chairman  of 
the  Committee  of  Quincy ;  Thomas  S.  Brockman,  commanding  posse ;  John  Carlin, 
Special  Constable. 

The  terms  of  the  treaty  were  outrageously  violated  by  Brock- 
man  and  his  regulators,  as  soon  as  they  found  themselves  in  full 
possession  of  the  city.  "A  grim  and  unawed  tyrant,"  says  Ford  of 
the  mob  leader;  "a  self-constituted  and  irresponsible  power,"  he 
styles  the  so-called  posse,  who,  now  that  Nauvoo  was  prostrate  at 
their  feet,  proceeded  to  work  their  will  upon  the  helpless  inhab- 
itants. Mormons  and  non-Mormons,  all  who  had  defended  the  city 
or  otherwise  incurred  the-  displeasure  of  the  lawless  horde,  were 
treated  with  every  indignity.  Some  of  the  "new  citizens"  were 
mockingly  baptized  in  the  river  in  the  name  of  Brockman  and  other 
leaders  of  the  mob,  and  then  driven  out  of  town.  Houses  were 
plundered,  and  the  aged  and  infirm  abused  and  threatened.  Finally, 
all  the  Mormons,  such  as  had  not  already  fled,  were  forced  from 
their  homes  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet,  and  thrown,  men,  women 
and  children,  sick,  dying  and  shelterless,  upon  the  western  shore  of 
the  Mississippi.  And  this — shades  of  the  patriots! — while  their 
brethren  of  the  Mormon  Battalion  were  marching  to  fight  their 
country's  battles  on  the  plains  of  Mexico. 

Colonel  Thomas  L.  Kane,  who  was  now  returning  east  from  his 
visit  to  the  Mormon  camps  on  the  Missouri,  touched  at  Nauvoo  just 
after  this  final  expulsion.  What  he  saw  there  he  graphically  and 
eloquently  told  in  a  lecture  delivered  a  few  years  later  before  the 
Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania.  An  extract  from  his  lecture  is 
here  inserted : 

A  few  years  ago,  ascending  the  Upper  Mississippi,  in  the  autumn,  when  its  waters 
were  low,  I  was  compelled  to  travel  by  land  past  the  region  of  the  rapids.  My  road  lay 
through  the  half-breed  tract,  a  fine  section  of  Iowa  which  the  unsettled  state  of  its  land- 
titles  had  appropriated  as  a  sanctuary  for  coiners,  horse  thieves,  and  other  outlaws.     I  had 


left  my  steamer  at  Keokuk,  at  the  foot  of  the  lower  fall,  to  hire  a  carriage,  and  to  contend 
for  some  fragment  of  a  dirty  meal  with  the  swarming  flies,  the  only  scavengers  of  the 
locality.  From  this  place  to  where  the  deep  waters  of  the  river  return,  my  eye  wearied 
to  see  everywhere  sordid  vagabonds  and  idle  settlers  ;  and  a  country  marred,  without 
being  improved,  by  their  careless  hands. 

I  was  descending  the  last  hill-side  upon  my  journey,  when  a  landscape  in  delightful 
contrast  broke  upon  my  view.  Half-encircled  by  the  bend  of  the  river,  a  beautiful  city 
lay  glittering  in  the  fresh  morning  sun  ;  its  bright  new  dwellings,  set  in  cool,  green 
gardens,  ranging  up  around  a  stately  dome-shaped  hill  which  was  crowned  by  a  noble 
marble  edifice  whose  high  tapering  spire  was  radiant  with  white  and  gold.  The  city 
appeared  to  cover  several  miles  ;  and  beyond  it,  in  the  back-ground,  there  rolled  off  a  fail- 
country,  checjuered  by  the  careful  lines  of  fruitful  husbandry.  The  unmistakeahle  marks 
of  industry,  enterprise  and  educated  wealth  everywhere,  made  the  scene  one  of  singular 
and  most  striking  beauty. 

It  was  a  natural  impulse  to  visit  this  inviting  region.  I  procured  a  skiff,  and  rowing 
across  the  river,  landed  at  the  chief  wharf  of  the  city.  No  one  met  me  there.  I  looked 
and  saw  no  one.  I  could  hear  no  one  move,  though  the  quiet  everywhere  was  such  that 
I  heard  the  flies  buzz,  and  the  water-ripples  break  against  the  shallow  of  the  beach.  I 
walked  through  the  solitary  streets.  The  town  lay  as  in  a  dream,  under  some  deadening 
spell  of  loneliness,  from  which  I  almost  feared  to  wake  it ;  for  plainly  it  had  not  slept 
long.  There  was  no  grass  growing  up  in  the  paved  ways ;  rains  had  not  entirely  washed 
away  the  prints  of  dusty  footsteps. 

Yet  I  went  about  unchecked.  I  went  into  empty  workshops,  ropewalks  and  smithies. 
The  spinner's  wheel  was  idle ;  the  carpenter  had  gone  from  his  work-bench  and  shav- 
ings, his  unfinished  sash  and  casing.  Fresh  bark  was  in  the  tanner's  vat,  and  the  fresh- 
chopped  lightwood  stood  piled  against  the  baker's  oven.  The  blacksmith's  shop  was 
cold  ;  but  his  coal  heap,  and  ladling  pool,  and  crooked  water-horn  were  all  there  as  if  he 
had  just  gone  off  for  a  holiday.  No  work  people  anywhere  looked  to  know  my  errand. 
If  I  went  into  the  gardens,  clinking  the  wicket-latch  after  me,  to  pull  the  marigolds, 
heart's-ease  and  lady  slippers,  and  draw  a  drink  with  the  water-sodden  water  bucket  and 
its  noisy  chain,  or  knocking  off  with  my  stick  the  tall,  heavy-headed  dahlias  and  sun- 
flowers, hunting  over  the  beds  for  cucumbers  and  love-apples ;  no  one  called  out  to  me 
from  any  open  window,  or  dog  sprang  forward  to  bark  an  alarm.  I  could  bave  supposed 
the  people  hidden  in  their  houses,  but  the  doors  were  unfastened ;  and  when  at  last  I 
timidly  entered  them,  I  found  dead  ashes  white  upon  the  hearths,  and  had  to  tread  a-tip- 
toe,  as  if  walking  down  the  aisle  of  a  country  church,  to  avoid  rousing  irreverent  echoes 
from  the  naked  floors. 

On  the  outskirts  of  the  town  was  the  city  graveyard  :  but  there  was  no  record  of 
plague  there;  nor  did  it  in  anywise  differ  touch  from  other  Protestant  American  cemeter- 
ies. Some  of  the  mounds  were  not  long  sodded;  some  of  the  st.mrs  were  newly  set, 
their  dates  recent,  and  their  black  inscriptions  glossy  in  the  mason's  hardly  dried  letter- 
ink.  Beyond  the  graveyards,  out  in  the  fields,  I  saw  on  a  spot  hard  by  Where  the  fruited 
boughs  of  a  young  orchard  had  been  roughly  lorn  down,  the  still  smouldering  remains  of 
a  barbecue  fire,  that  had  been  constructed  of  rails  from  the  fencing  round  it.     It  was   the 


latest  sign  of  life  there.  Fields  upon  fields  of  heavy  headed  yellow  grain  lay  rotting 
ungathered  upon  the  ground.  No  one  was  at  hand  to  take  in  their  rich  harvest.  As  far 
as  the  eye  could  reach,  they  stretched  away — they  sleeping,  too,  in  the  hazy  air  of 

Only  two  portions  of  the  city  seemed  to  suggest  the  import  of  this  mysterious  soli- 
tude. On  the  southern  suburb,  the  houses  looking  out  upon  the  country  showed,  by  their 
splintered  woodwork,  and  walls  battered  to  the  foundation,  that  they  had  lately  been  the 
mark  of  a  destructive  cannonade.  And  in  and  around  the  splendid  temple  which  had 
been  the  chief  object  of  my  admiration,  armed  men  were  barracked,  surrounded  by  their 
stacks  of  musketry  and  pieces  of  heavy  ordnance.  These  challenged  me  to  render  an 
account  of  myself,  and  why  I  had  had  the  temerity  to  cross  the  water  without  a  written 
permit  from  a  leader  of  their  band. 

Though  these  men  were  generally  more  or  less  under  the  influence  of  ardent  spirits, 
after  1  had  explained  myself  as  a  passing  stranger,  they  seemed  anxious  to  gain  my  good 
opinion.  They  told  the  story  of  the  dead  city;  that  it  had  been  a  notable  manufacturing 
and  commercial  mart,  sheltering  over  20,000  persons  ;  that  they  had  waged  war  with  its 
inhabitants  for  several  years,  and  been  finally  successful  only  a  few  days  before  my  visit, 
in  an  action  brought  in  front  of  the  ruined  suburb,  after  which  they  had  driven  them 
forth  at  the  point  of  the  sword.  The  defence,  they  said,  was  obstinate,  but  gave  way  on 
the  third  day's  bombardment.  They  boasted  greatly  of  their  prowess,  especially  in  this 
battle  as  they  called  it ;  but  I  discovered  that  they  were  not  of  one  mind  as  to  certain  of 
the  exploits  that  had  distinguished  it ;  one  of  which,  as  I  remember,  was,  that  they  had 
slain  a  father  and  his  son,  a  boy  of  fifteen,  not  long  residents  of  the  fated  city,  whom  they 
admitted  had  borne  a  character  without  reproach. 

They  also  conducted  me  inside  the  massive  sculptured  walls  of  the  curious  temple, 
in  which  they  said  the  banished  inhabitants  were  accustomed  to  celebrate  the  mystic  rites 
of  an  unhallowed  worship.  They  particularly  pointed  out  to  me  certain  features  of  the 
building,  which  having  been  the  peculiar  objects  of  a  former  superstitious  regard,  thay  had, 
as  a  matter  of  duty,  sedulously  defiled  and  defaced.  The  reputed  sites  of  certain  shrines 
they  had  thus  particularly  noticed ;  and  various  sheltered  chambers,  in  one  of  which  was 
a  deep  well,  constructed,  they  believed,  with  a  dreadful  design.  Besides  these,  they  led 
me  to  see  a  large  and  deep  chiseled  marble  vase  or  basin,  supported  by  twelve  oxen,  also 
of  marble,  and  of  the  size  of  life,  of  which  they  told  some  romantic  stories.  They  said 
the  deluded  persons,  most  of  whom  were  emigrants  from  a  great  distance,  believed  their 
deity  countenanced  their  reception  here  of  a  baptism  of  regeneration,  as  proxies  for 
whomsoever  they  held  in  warm  affection  in  the  countries  from  which  they  had  come. 
That  here  parents  went  into  the  water  for  their  spouses,  and  young  persons  for  their  lov- 
ers. That  thus  the  great  vase  came  to  be  for  them  associated  with  all  dear  and  distant 
memories,  and  was,  therefore,  the  object  of  all  others  in  the  building  to  which  they 
attached  the  greatest  degree  of  idolatrous  affection.  On  this  account  the  victors  had  so 
diligently  desecrated  it,  as  to  render  the  apartment  in  which  it  was  contained  too  noisome 
to  abide  in. 

They  permitted  me  also  to  ascend  into  the  steeple  to  see  where  it  had  been  lightning- 
struck  on  the  Sabbath  before,  and  to  look  out  east  and  south,  on  wasted  farms  like  those  I 


had  seen  near  the  city,  extending  till  they  were  lost  in  the  distance.  There,  in  the  face  of 
the  pure  day,  close  by  the  scar  of  divine  wrath  left  by  the  thunderbolt,  were  fragments  of 
food,  cruises  of  liquor,  and  broken  drinking  vessels,  with  a  brass  drum  and  a  steamboat 
signal-bell,  of  which  I  afterwards  learned  with  pain. 

It  was  after  nightfall  when  I  was  ready  to  cross  the  river  on  my  return.  The  wind 
had  freshened  since  the  sunset,  and  the  water  beating  roughly  into  my  little  boat,  I  hedged 
higher  up  the  stream  than  the  point  I  had  left  in  the  morning,  and  landed  where  a  faint 
glimmering  light  invited  me  to  steer. 

There,  among  the  dock  and  rushes,  sheltered  only  by  the  darkness,  without  roof 
between  them  and  sky,  I  came  upon  a  crowd  of  several  hundred  human  creatures,  whom 
my  movements  roused  from  uneasy  slumber  upon  the  ground. 

Passing  these  on  my  way  to  the  light,  I  found  it  came  from  a  tallow  candle  in  a 
paper  funnel  shade,  such  as  is  used  by  street  venders  of  apples  and  peanuts,  and  which, 
flaming  and  guttering  away  in  the  bleak  air  off  the  water,  shone  flickeringly  on  the 
emaciated  features  of  a  man  in  the  last  stage  of  a  bilious  remittent  fever.  They  had  done 
their  best  for  him.  Over  his  head  was  something  like  a  tent,  made  of  a  sheet  or  two, 
and  he  rested  on  a  partially  ripped  open  old  straw  mattress,  with  a  hair  sofa  cushion 
under  his  head  for  a  pillow.  His  gaping  jaw  and  glaring  eye  told  how  short  a  time  he 
would  monopolize  these  luxuries ;  though  a  seemingly  bewildered  and  excited  person,  who 
might  have  been  his  wife,  seemed  to  find  hope  in  occasionally  forcing  him  to  swallow 
awkwardly  sips  of  the  tepid  river  water,  from  a  burned  and  battered,  bitter-smelling  tin 
coffee-pot.  Those  who  knew  better  had  furnished  the  apothecary  he  needed ;  a  toothless 
old  bald-head,  whose  manner  had  the  repulsive  dullness  of  a  man  familiar  with  death 
scenes.  He,  so  long  as  I  remained,  mumbled  in  his  patient's  ear  a  monotonous  and  mel- 
ancholy prayer,  between  the  pauses  of  which  I  heard  the  hiccup  and  sobbing  of  two  little 
girls  who  were  sitting  upon  a  piece  of  driftwood  outside. 

Dreadful,  indeed,  was  the  suffering  of  these  forsaken  beings,  bowed  and  cramped  by 
cold  and  sunburn,  alternating  as  each  weary  day  and  night  dragged  on.  They  were, 
almost  all  of  them,  the  crippled  victims  of  disease.  They  were  there  because  they  had 
no  homes,  nor  hospital,  nor  poor  house,  nor  friends  to  offer  them  any.  They  could  not 
satisfy  the  feeble  cravings  of  their  sick;  they  had  not  bread  to  quiet  the  fractious  hunger- 
cries  of  their  children.  Mothers  and  babes,  daughters  and  grandparents,  all  of  them 
alike,  were  bivouacked  in  tatters,  wanting  even  covering  to  comfort  those  whom  the  sick 
shiver  of  fever  was  searching  to  the  marrow. 

These  were  Mormons  in  Lee  County,  Iowa,  in  the  fourth  week  of  the  month  of  Sep- 
tember, in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1846.  The  city— it  was  Nauvoo,  Illinois.  The  Mormons 
were  the  owners  of  that  city,  and  the  smiling  country  around.  And  those  who  had 
stopped  their  plows,  who  had  silenced  their  hammers,  their  axes,  their  shuttles,  and  their 
workshop  wheels  ;  those  who  had  put  out  their  fires,  who  had  eaten  their  food,  spoiled 
their  orchards,  and  trampled  under  foot  their  thousands  of  acres  of  unharvested  bread — 
these  were  the  keepers  of  their  dwellings,  the  carousers  in  their  temple,  whose  drunken 
riot  insulted  the  ears  of  the  dying. 

I  think  it  was  as  I  turned  from  the  wretched  night  watch  of  which  1  have  spoken, 
that  I  first  listened  to  the  sounds  of  revel  of  a  party  of  the  guard  within  the  city.      Above 


the  distant  hum  of  the  voices  of  many,  occasionally  rose  distinct  the  loud  oath-tainted 
exclamation,  and  the  falsely  intonated  scrap  of  vulgar  song;  but  lest  this  requiem  should 
go  unheeded,  every  now  and  then,  when  their  boisterous  orgies  strove  to  attain  a  sort  of 
ecstatic  climax,  a  cruel  spirit  of  insulting  frolic  carried  some  of  them  up  into  the  high 
belfry  of  the  Temple  steeple,  and  there,  with  the  wicked  childishness  of  inebriates,  they 
whooped,  and  shrieked,  and  beat  the  drum  that  I  had  seen,  and  rang,  in  charivaric 
unison,  their  loud-tongued  steamboat  bell. 

There  were,  all  told,  not  more  than  six  hundred  and  forty  persons  who  were  thus 
lying  upon  the  river  flats.  But  the  Mormons  in  Nauvoo  and  its  dependencies  had  been 
numbered  the  year  before  at  over  twenty  thousand.  Where  were  they  ?  They  had  last 
been  seen,  carrying  in  mournful  train  their  sick  and  wounded,  halt  and  blind,  to  disappear 
behind  the  western  horizon,  pursuing  the  phantom  of  another  home.  Hardly  anything 
else  was  known  of  them  ;  and  people  asked  with  curiosity,  what  had  been  their  fate — 
what  their  fortune. 

Returning  now  to  the  Mormons  on  the  Missouri.  With  the 
departure  of  the  Battalion  in  the  summer  of  1846,  went  every  pros- 
pect, for  that  season,  of  the  pioneer  journey  to  the  Rocky  Mountains. 
The  "Gamp  of  Israel"  now  prepared  to  go  into  winter  quarters. 
Apostles  Orson  Hyde,  Parley  P.  Pratt-,  John  Taylor,  Elder  Franklin 
D.  Richards  and  others  had  been  sent  to  England,  the  first  three  to 
set  in  order  the  affairs  of  the  British  Mission,  now  greatly  demor- 
alized through  certain  financial  operations  of  Elder  Reuben  Hedlock 
and  others.  They  had  inaugurated  a  Joint  Stock  Company,  the  chief 
object  of  which  was  to  assist  in  emigrating  the  Saints  to  America. 
Through  mismanagement  the  scheme,  originally  a  good  one,  had 
become  a  sad  failure.*  The  residue  of  the  Twelve — Ezra  T.  Benson 
now  being  one  of  their  number — remained  with  their  people  in  the 
wilderness.  During  the  sojourn  upon  the  Missouri,  Alpheus  Cutler 
and  Bishop  George  Miller  fell  away  from  the  Church,  each  being  fol- 
lowed by  a  small  faction,  thenceforth  known  as  Cutlerites  and 

Some  of  the  Mormons  had  early  crossed  to  the  west  side  of  the 
river,  constructing  a  ferry-boat  for  that  purpose,  and  settled,  by 
permission  of  the  Indians — Omahas — upon  the  lands  set  apart  for 

The  original  project  was   devised  by  Joseph  Smith,   in  conjunction   with 
and  Newel  K.  Whitney,  at  Nauvoo,  early  in  1842. 


their  use  by  the  Federal  Government.  These  lands,  which  are  now 
included  in  the  State  of  Nebraska,  were  a  portion  of  the  vast  tract 
once  known  as  the  Province  of  Louisiana,  ceded  by  France  to  the 
United  States  in  1803.  A  very  friendly  feeling  existed  between  the 
Pottawatomie  and  Omaha  Indians  and  their  Mormon  "brothers"* — 
probably  from  the  fact  that  both  felt  aggrieved  at  the  treatment  they 
had  received  from  their  white  neighbors  farther  east.  The  Indians 
complained  bitterly  of  being  removed  from  their  pleasant  lands 
beyond  the  Mississippi  to  the  damp  and  unhealthy  bottoms  of  the 
Missouri.  In  return  for  permission  from  the  Omahas — who  were  west, 
while  the  Pottawatomies  were  east  of  the  river— to  temporarily  settle 
upon  their  lands  and  use  what  timber  they  required,  the  Mormons 
assisted  the  Indians  to  harvest  and  build,  besides  trading  with  them 
to  mutual  advantage.  Major  Harvey,  the  Indian  Superintendent, 
did  not  approve  of  this  arrangement,  and  tried  to  have  the  Mormons 
ejected;  but  President  Polk,  being  appealed  to  through  Colonel  Kane, 
gave  full  permission  for  them  to  remain.  Out  of  gratitude  to  Colonel 
Kane,  the  Saints  afterwards  named  a  settlement  which  they  estab- 
lished on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  Kanesville. 

As  the  season  advanced  the  settlers  on  the  west  side  were 
instructed  to  congregate  in  one  place,  and  a  site  being  chosen  for  that 
purpose  they  there  founded  their  celebrated  Winter  Quarters.  This 
place  is  now  Florence,  Nebraska,  live  miles  above  the  city  of  Omaha. 
It  then  consisted  of  seven  hundred  houses  of  log,  turf,  and  other 
primitive  materials,  neatly  arranged  and  laid  out  with  streets  and 
byways,  with  workshops,  mills,  etc.,  and  a  tabernacle  of  worship  in 
the  midst;  the  whole  arising  from  a  pretty  plateau  overlooking  the 
river,  and  well  fortified  with  breast-work,  stockade  and  block-houses, 
after  the  fashion  of  the  frontier.  Such  was  Winter  Quarters.  The 
settlement  was  divided  into  twenty-two  wards,  with  a  Bishop  over 
each.  There  was  also  a  High  Council.  The  population  of  the  place 
was  about  four  thousand.     Award  east  of  the  river  contained  a  little 

*  Several  Pottawatomie  chiefe,  and  delegations  from  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  had  visited 
Joseph  Smith  at  Nauvoo. 


over  two  hundred  souls.  Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah  were  also 
still  inhabited;  their  numbers  now  swelled  by  the  refugees  from 
Nauvoo.  Here  in  these  humble  prairie  settlements,  surrounded  by 
Indians,  hopeful  and  even  happy,  though  enduring  much  sickness 
and  privation,  which  resulted  in  many  deaths,  the  pilgrim  Mormons 
passed  the  winter  of  1846-7. 




The  beginning  of    utah    history — why    the    mormons    did    not    colonize   the    pacific 

coast the    great   basin utah's    physical     features daniel    webster    on    the 

"worthless    west" early  spanish    explorations escalante   in   utah  valley la 

hontan's  hearsays american  trappers  on    the    shores    of  the  great  salt  lake 

colonel    bridger captain    bonneville colonel    fremont early  emigrations  from 

the  missouri  to  the   pacific the  donner  disaster. 

TjYE  HAVE  now  traced  the  history  of  the  Mormon  people  from  the 
VA/  birth  of  their  Prophet  and  the  inception  of  their  religious 
organization  down  to  that  point  where  their  record  as  founders  of 
Utah  is  about  to  begin.  These  preliminary  chapters,  dealing  with  early 
Mormonism,  have  been  deemed  indispensable  to  the  proper  under- 
standing of  a  subject  at  once  so  unique  and  complex,  so  interesting 
and  important  as  the  history  of  our  Territory.  As  premised  at  the 
opening,  one  cannot  completely  describe  a  lake  or  large  body  of  water 
without  giving  some  account  of  the  origin,  course  and  character  of 
the  streams  flowing  into  and  forming  it ;  nor  fully  and  faithfully  nar- 
rate the  history  of  a  country  and  its  inhabitants,  if  ignoring  utterly 
their  antecedents. 

This  is  the  author's  explanation, — and  he  feels  assured  that 
the  thoughtful  reader  will  appreciate  his  motive  and  labors  in  this 
connection, — for  entering  more  or  less  into  detail  with  early 
Mormon  annals.  From  this  point  begins  the  history  of  Utah  proper; 
the  narrative  of  early  explorations  in  this  region,  and  the  settle- 
ment and  formation  of  the  Territory. 

The  opening  of  the  year  1847  at  the  camps  of  the  Saints  east 
and  west  of  the  Missouri,  saw  preparations  in  progress  for  the  con- 
templated pioneer  journey  to  the  mountains.     And  not  only  for  this, 


but  for  the  continued  exodus  of  the  entire  Church,  so  soon  as  a 
place  of  refuge  suitable  for  their  reception  could  be  found. 

It  was  pretty  well  decided  in  the  minds  of  the  Mormon  leaders, 
by  this  time,  that  the  Pacific  coast, — to  which  it  was  generally  sup- 
posed they  were  migrating, — in  spite  of  its  many  natural  advantages, 
was  no  place  for  the  main  body  of  their  people  to  settle.  It  might  do 
for  a  colony,  such  as  that  of  the  ship  Brooklyn,  to  make  its  way  to 
California  and  there  found  a  settlement, —  as  Elder  Brannan  and  his 
company  were  now  doing, — and  other  Mormon  towns  might  spring 
up  on  the  Pacific  slope.  But  for  the  headquarters  of  the  Church, 
and  a  permanent  abiding  place  for  the  majority  of  the  Saints,  Califor- 
nia proper  or  any  part  of  the  coast  was  exceedingly  undesirable. 

The  reasons  were  these :  that  toward  that  favored  land,  that  M 
Dorado, — though  gold  in  California  had  not  yet  been  discovered, — 
large  numbers  of  emigrants,  from  Missouri  and  other  border  states, 
were  now  wending  their  way.  Many  had  gone  and  were  still  going 
to  Oregon,  which  Great  Britain  had  finally  relinquished,  while  others, 
as  early  as  1841,  had  bent  their  course  to  the  future  land  of  gold. 
Colonel  Fremont,  as  seen,  at  the  out-break  of  the  Mexican  war,  had 
found  enough  American  settlers  in  the  Sacramento  Valley  to  form,  with 
his  exploring  party,  a  small  army.  And  now  that  California,  like 
Oregon  and  Texas,  was  a  part  of  the  American  domain, — only  await- 
ing the  formality  of  its  cession  to  the  great  Republic, — emigration 
thither  was  bound  to  increase  manifold. 

For  the  Mormons  to  have  mingled  with  or  settled  any  where 
near  their  old  enemies,  the  Missourians,  or  people  holding  similar 
prejudices  against  their  religious  views  and  social  customs, 
would  simply  have  been  io  invite  a  repetition,  sooner  or  later,  of  the 
very  evils  which  had  caused  them  so  much  suffering,  and  from  which 
they  were  then  fleeing.  So  thought  Brigham  Young.  So  thought 
his  fellow  chiefs  of  the  migrating  Church.  Who,  from  their  stand- 
point, can  question  the  wisdom  of  their  decision? — a  decision  to  halt 
midway,  if  possible,  between  the  Missouri  and  the  Pacific,  in  some 
spot  undesired,  uncoveted  by  others,  where  they  might  be  free  to 


worship  God  in  their  own  way,  and  work  out  their  religious  and 
social  problems  unmolested. 

It  was  not  for  gold  and  silver,  broad  acres  and  teeming  fields  that 
these  Latter-day  Saints  had  left  their  homes,  in  this  or  in  foreign 
lands.  "After  such  things  do  the  Gentiles  seek,"  and  the  Saints, 
according  to  their  faith,  were  no  longer  Gentiles,  but  of  Israel.  The 
children  of  Japheth  perhaps  had  a  mission  in  temporal  things.  If 
so,  let  them  work  it  out,  as  best  they  might,  before  Him  to  whom  all 
men  are  accountable.  But  as  for  Israel — for  Ephraim — his  mission 
was  in  spiritual  things;  comprehending  indeed  the  temporal,  but  not 
to  be  absorbed  and  swallowed  up  by  it.  Religious  liberty,  freedom 
to  worship  God  and  prepare  themselves  for  their  future  work  of 
building  up  Zion, — these  were  the  prime  objects  the  migrating  Mor- 
mons had  in  view.  Gold  and  silver,  houses  and  lands,  flocks,  herds, 
orchards,  vineyards — though  to  all  mortals  more  or  less  desirable — 
were  but  as  dust  beneath  their  feet  by  comparison. 

Nor  is  this  an  exaggeration.  The  Mormons  were  essentially  a 
religious  people,  deeply,  earnestly  religious,  as  much  so  as  were  the 
Albegois  of  France,  the  Covenanters  of  Scotland  or  the  Pilgrims  of 
New  England.  Unquestionably  such  were  the  motives  and  feelings 
of  the  vast  majority  of  the  Saints  in  their  exodus.  They  had  proved 
it  by  that  exodus,  in  which  many  had  forsaken,  not  for  the  first,  but 
for  the  fourth  and  fifth  times,  for  conscience'  sake,  their  earthly 

Zion,  not  Babylon,  was  in  their  thoughts.  They  had  not 
relinquished  their  hopes  concerning  Jackson  County.  Many,  perhaps 
most  of  those  who  had  lived  upon  that  land  had  sacredly  kept  the 
deeds  to  the  homes  from  which  they  had  been  driven;  while  the  few 
who  had  disposed  of  their  possessions  "in  Zion,"  were  believed  by 
the  others  to  have  practically  denied  the  faith.* 

They  were  but  going  into  the  wilderness  for  a  season,  where, 
free  from  contact  with  those  who  understood  them  not,  or  persisted 

*  See  remarks  of  Lyman  Wight  at  a  conference  in   Far  West,  February  5th,  1838, 

in  relation  to  selling  lands  in  Jackson  County. 


in  misinterpreting  their  motives,  they  might  peaceably  prepare  them- 
selves for  the  time  when,  unless  Joseph  Smith  was  a  false  prophet  and 
Brigham  Young  a  blind  leader  of  the  blind,  they  or  their  children  must 
needs  return  and  build  up  Zion.  Isolation,  therefore,  was  what  they 
sought,  was  what  they  must  have,  if  they  were  to  have  peace,  and  fit 
and  prepare  themselves  for  what  they  believed  was  in  their  destiny. 

True,  there  was  the  alternative,  ever  open,  of  relinquishing 
their  religious  faith,  and  becoming  in  every  respect  homogeneous 
with  the  Gentiles.  But  this  was  utterly  out  of  the  question. 
Friendly  with  the  Gentiles  they  would  gladly  have  been,  mingling 
with  them,  so  far  as  need  be,  in  society,  in  business  and  in  politics. 
But  to  relinquish  their  religion  for  the  sake  of  peace, — the  very 
thought  were  treason.  It  would  have  made  of  their  high  professions 
a  mockery,  of  their  past  experience,  written  in  blood  and  tears,  a 
farce.  The  life-stream  of  their  martyred  Prophet  would  have 
smoked  to  heaven  in  vain.  No;  come  what  would,  they  must  cling 
to  their  principles,  however  unpopular,  and  stand  or  fall  with  them. 

Such  were  their  thoughts  and  feelings.  Such  were  the  motives 
that  impelled  them  westward.  Such  were  their  reasons  for  not 
settling,  as  a  people,  on  the  Pacific  coast,  and  for  isolating  them- 
selves, instead,  in  the  tops  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  a  thousand  miles 
from  civilization. 

While  the  Saints  are  preparing  to  prosecute  their  journey,  and 
their  vanguard  is  making  ready  for  its  memorable  march  across  the 
vast  prairies  and  desolate  plains  lying  west  of  the  Missouri  River, 
will  be  an  appropriate  time  to  pioneer  the  way  before  them  into  the 
region  they  are  about  to  enter. 

Beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains,  the  so-called  "back-bone  of  the 
American  continent," — the  great  water-shed  dividing  the  streams 
flowing  toward  the  Pacific  from  those  which  seek  the  Atlantic  through 
the  Mississippi  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, — lies  the  region  known  in 
topographical  parlance  as  the  "Great  Basin."  It  is  a  vast  inter- 
mountain  plateau,  extending  four  or  five  hundred  miles  from  east  to 
west,  and  about  the  same  distance  from  north  to  south.      Its  eastern 


edge  does  not  touch  the  Rocky  Mountains  proper,  but  is  rimmed  by  a 
smaller  and  almost  parallel  range  called  the  Wasatch,  between  which 
and  the  great  spinal  column — the  Rockies — is  the  region  through 
which  flow  the  Green  and  Grand  Rivers.  These,  uniting  with  other 
streams,  form  the  Colorado.  The  western  rim  of  the  Basin  is  the 
Sierra  Nevada  range,  nearly  parallel  with,  but  much  longer  than  the 
Wasatch,  and  separating  the  great  plateau  from  the  Pacific  coast. 

The  Basin  on  the  north  converges  toward  the  Blue  Mountains 
of  Oregon,  and  on  the  south  in  the  direction  of  the  Colorado  plateau. 
It  is  traversed  north  and  south  by  numerous  mountain  ranges,  some 
of  which  are  as  high  as  those  composing  the  rim.  For  this  reason 
the  term  "Basin,"  bestowed  by  the  famous  explorer,  Colonel  Fre- 
mont, on  a  partial  acquaintance  with  the  region,  is  now  deemed  a 
misnomer.  Instead  of  being  one  basin  it  is  many,  a  group  of  basins, 
each  containing  a  "sink,"  or  lake,  whose  waters  have  no  visible  out- 
let to  the  sea.  The  more  prominent  of  these  are  the  basin  of  the 
Great  Salt  Lake,  whose  lowest  point  of  altitude  is  4,170  feet  above 
the  sea  level;  Sevier  Lake  basin,  with  an  altitude  of  4,690  feet; 
Humboldt  River  basin,  4,147  feet;  Carson  River  basin,  at  Carson 
Lake,  3,840  feet ;  and  the  Walker  River  basin,  the  lowest  point  of 
which  is  4,072  feet  above  the  ocean. 

It  is  supposed  by  many,  and  the  supposition  is  confirmed  by 
geological  signs,  such  as  ripple-marks  on  the  mountain  sides,  shells 
on  the  slopes  and  summits,  etc.,  that  this  great  elevated  plateau  was 
once  a  broad  inland  sea  communicating  with  the  Pacific.  At  that 
time  these  mountain  tops  were  so  many  islands,  laved  or  lashed  by 
its  briny  waves.  These  sinks,  or  some  of  them,  are  believed  to  be 
the  remains  of  that  pre-historic  sea,  which  for  some  reason  disap- 
peared centuries  before  the  foot  of  the  European  pressed  the  soil  of 
the  new  world. 

The  great  drawbacks  to  this  otherwise  rich  and  valuable  region 
are  scarcity  of  timber  and  fresh  water.  The  former  is  only  to  be 
found  in  the  mountains  or  along  the  water  courses,  and  these,  in  this 
arid  region,  are  few  and  far  between.     Though  artesian  wells  and 


irrigation  have  done  much  of  late  years  to  redeem  the  desert  land, 
vast  tracts  of  country  still  remain  in  statu  quo,  bare  and  unproduc- 
tive. But  the  mountains  are  full  of  minerals,  from  the  precious 
metals  down,  and  the  term  "  treasure  house  of  the  nation"  has  not 
been  inaptly  bestowed  upon  this  portion  of  the  public  domain. 

Among  the  remarkable  features  of  the  Great  Basin,  which  com- 
prises the  western  part  of  what  is  now  Utah  Territory,  and  nearly 
the  entire  State  of  Nevada,  are  the  Great  Salt  Lake  and  its  neighbor- 
ing desert.  The  lake  is  wholly  in  Utah,  and  the  desert  lies  along  its 
western  shore,  stretching  away  to  the  south  and  west  a  hundred 
miles  or  more.  This  lake — the  famous  "Dead  Sea  of  America" — is 
one  of  the  most  wonderful  natural  objects  in  all  the  West.  Laving 
the  base  of  the  Wasatch  range  in  northern  Utah,  it  extends  north 
and  south  for  seventy-five  miles,  having  a  mean  breadth  of  about 
thirty.  Its  extreme  depth  is  sixty  or  seventy  feet.  Jutting  up  from 
its  briny  bosom  are  no  less  than  eight  mountain  islands,  lifting  their 
craggy  crests  almost  level  with  the  rugged  ranges  surrounding  them. 
Though  constantly  augmented  by  fresh  rivers  and  streams,  the 
waters  of  the  lake  remain  ever  intensely  salt,  As  said,  it  has  no 
outlet — at  least  none  visible — its  waters,  far  brinier  than  those  of  the 
ocean,  and  wonderfully  buoyant  withal,  either  evaporating  to  the 
clouds,  sinking  mysteriously  in  subterranean  depths,  or  solidifying 
under  the  sun's  rays  and  banking  up  in  bright  crystals  and  glittering 
incrustations  along  its  shores.  These  waters  were  once  supposed  to 
be  absolutely  lifeless,  but  of  late  years  some  species  of  animalculce 
have  been  discovered  therein.  Fish  cannot  live  in  the  Great  Salt 
Lake,  but  several  varieties  abound  in  the  fresh  lakes  and  streams  of 
this  region.  One  of  the  main  affluents  of  the  Salt  Lake  is  the  river 
Jordan,  the  outlet  of  Lake  Utah,  forty  miles  southward. 

As  stated,  the  Wasatch  Mountains  are  the  eastern  rim  of  the 
Great   Basin,:!: — at  least  they   form  the  main  portion  of    that   rim. 

*  Specifically   the   Coal  Range,  a  portion  of  the  Wasatch  system  twenty  or   thirty 
miles  east  of  Salt  Lake  Valley,  is  the  eastern  rim. 


Traversing  Utah  from  north-east  to  south-west,  they  divide  the  Ter- 
ritory into  two  unequal  parts.  Through  the  eastern  section,  which 
is  not  included  in  the  Great  Basin,  run  the  Green  and  Grand  Rivers 
and  their  tributaries.  Eastward  from  and  forming  a  spur  of  the 
Wasatch,  near  the  Wyoming  line,  extends  the  Uintah  range.  West 
of  the  Wasatch,  and  running  parallel  therewith,  are  the  Oquirrh 
hills,  and  west  of  them  the  Onaquis.  To  the  south-east  and  through 
southern  Utah  generally  are  other  ranges  and  broken  ridges,  diversi- 
fied with  valleys  and  plateaus. 

Utah's  lakes  are  mostly  in  the  north,  the  principal  one  being  the 
Great  Salt  Lake,  previously  mentioned.  Of  the  fresh  water  lakes  the 
Utah  and  the  Bear — the  last-named  partly  in  Idaho — are  the 
more  notable.  Sevier  Lake  is  a  shallow,  brackish  body  fifty  or  sixty 
miles  south  of  Lake  Utab.  Parowan  Lake,  formerly  known  as  Little 
Salt  Lake,  is  a  small  salt  water  sheet  still  farther  south.  The  rivers 
feeding  these  lakes  are  formed  principally  of  smaller  streams,  owing 
their  origin  to  the  snows  of  winter  packed  in  the  mountain  tops  and 
gradually  melted  by  the  rays  of  summer. 

Along  the  bases  of  the  mountains,  wherever  these  streams 
descend, — often  spilling  from  the  brims  of  little  lakes  among  the 
summits,  tumbling  over  high  cliffs,  forming  beautiful  cascades, 
and  emerging  into  the  valleys  through  deep  gorges  called  canyons, — 
the  soil  as  a  rule  is  fertile,  and  if  irrigated,  susceptible  of  high  culti- 
vation. In  other  parts,  where  not  pure  desert,  hopelessly  barren,  it 
is  so  devoid  of  moisture  and  so  strongly  impregnated  with  salt  and 
alkali,  as  to  be  all  but  irredeemable.  Hot  and  warm  sulphur  springs, 
the  waters  of  which  are  highly  curative,  also  gush  forth  from  the 
bases  of  these  mighty  hills. 

The  rainfall  of  Utah  averages  twenty  inches  for  the  year,  four- 
tenths  coming  in  the  spring,  one-tenth  in  summer,  three-tenths  in 
autumn,  and  the  rest  during  the  winter.  Owing  to  its  scarcity  in 
summer,  irrigation  is  resorted  to  for  crop-raising.  The  ground,  dur- 
ing the  heated  term,  is  fairly  parched  and  blistered  by  the  sun,  and 
the  climate,  though  ordinarily  temperate   and  delightful — the  atmos- 


pheric  rarity  counteracting  to  a  great  extent  the  heat — is  at  times 
almost  tropical.  The  climate  of  south-western  Utah — the  Santa 
Clara  region — is  well  nigh  tropical  the  whole  year  round. 

In  the  canyons  along  the  water-courses  spring  groves  of  quak- 
ing-asp, maple  and  pine,  and  in  spring  and  early  summer  rich  grasses 
and  wild  flowers  cover  the  sides  of  the  ravines.  But  the  valleys, 
when  Utah  was  first  settled,  save  for  the  slight  symptoms  of  verdure 
following  the  trail  of  winding  streams  in  their  weary  pilgrimage 
across  barren  plains,  had  neither  groves  nor  grass  to  hide  their 
nakedness.  Like  the  brown  and  sun-burnt  hill-sides  above  them, 
they  were  either  utterly  bare,  or  clothed  with  sagebrush,  sun-flowers 
and  other  wild  and  worthless  growths  springing  prolifically  on  every 

Such  is  or  was  Utah,  in  the  year  1847,  a  land  of  mountains,  val- 
leys, lakes,  rivers  and  sandy  wastes;  directly  in  the  path  of  early 
overland  emigration  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Pacific,  but  shunned  by 
all  passers  because  of  its  sterile  and  forbidding  aspect.  The  "Great 
American  Desert," — such  was  its  name  upon  the  maps  and  in  the 
school  books  of  that  period. 

Its  only  human  dwellers  at  that  time, — save  here  and  there  a 
few  trappers  or  mountaineers,  exiles  of  civilization,  consorting  with 
savages,  and  dwelling  in  some  isolated  fort  or  cave  or  hut  among  the 
hills,  —  were  roving  bands  of  Indians,  some  of  them  the  most 
degraded  of  their  race.  These  savages,  who  subsisted  by  fishing, 
hunting,  root-digging  and  insect-eating,  shared  with  wild  beasts  and 
venomous  reptiles  the  then  barren  and  desolate,  but  now  fruitful  and 
lovely  land  of  Utah. 

The  popular  estimate  of  this  whole  western  region,  including  the 
Pacific  Coast,  at  that  early  day,  is  expressed  in  the  following  words 
of  a  speech  by  Daniel  Webster  on  the  floor  of  the  United  States 
Senate.  He  was  denouncing  a  proposition  to  establish  a  mail  route 
from  Independence,  Missouri,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River. 
Says  the  great  orator  and  statesman :  "What  do  we  want  with  this 
vast,  worthless  area?    This  region   of  savages  and  wild  beasts,  of 


deserts,  of  shifting  sands  and  whirlwinds  of  dust,  of  cactus  and 
prairie  dogs?  To  what  use  could  we  ever  hope  to  put  these  great 
deserts,  or  those  endless  mountain  ranges,  impenetrable,  and  covered 
to  their  very  base  with  eternal  snow?  What  can  we  ever  hope  to  do 
with  the  western  coast,  a  coast  of  3,000  miles,  rock-bound,  cheerless, 
uninviting,  and  not  a  harbor  on  it?  Mr.  President,  I  will  never  vote 
one  cent  from  the  public  treasury  to  place  the  Pacific  Coast  one  inch 
nearer  to  Boston  than  it  now  is." 

Yet  it  was  to  the  very  heart  of  this  inhospitable  region,  "a  thou- 
sand miles  from  anywhere,"  that  Brigham  Young,  America's  greatest 
colonizer,  led  his  exiled  people ;  and  by  his  genius  and  energy,  and 
their  united  industry,  under  the  blessing  of  divine  providence,  sub- 
dued the  desert,  made  the  wilderness  to  blossom,  and  became  the 
founder  of  a  hundred  cities. 

So  far  as  known,  the  first  white  men,  moderns,  to  approach  and 
partly  penetrate  the  Utah  region,  were  a  small  band  of  Spaniards, 
a  detachment  of  the  army  of  Francisco  Vazquez  de  Coronado,  the 
famous  explorer  of  New  Mexico.  Being  at  Zuni — then  Cibola — in 
1540,  and  having  heard  of  a  great  river  to  the  north-west,  Coronado 
despatched  Captain  Garcia  Lopez  de  Cardenas  with  twelve  men  to 
explore  it.  This  party  is  supposed  to  have  proceeded  by  way  of  the 
Moquis  villages — previously  captured  by  the  Spaniards — to  the  banks 
of  the  Colorado,  just  within  Utah's  southern  boundary.  They  did 
not  cross  the  river,  but  returned  soon  to  report  to  Coronado  at 

In  July,  1776, — that  immortal  month  of  an  immortal  year, — two 
Franciscan  friars,  Francisco  Antanasio  Dominguez  and  Silvester 
Velez  de  Escalante,  Spanish  officials  of  New  Mexico,  with  seven  men 
set  out  from  Santa  Fe  in  quest  of  a  direct  route  to  Monterey  on  the 
Californian  sea-coast.  Pursuing  a  devious,  north-westerly  course,  Esca- 
lante and  his  comrades  traversed  what  is  now  western  Colorado  and 
crossed  White  River,  flowing  west,  near  the  Utah  line.  White  River 
was  called  by  them  San  Clemente.  They  then  passed  Green  River — 
San  Buenaventura — and  following  up  the  Uintah  and  crossing  the 


mountains  came  to  a  stream  which  they  at  first  named  Purisima, 
probably  from  the  purity  of  its  waters.  This  was  no  other  than  the 
Timpanogos  or  Provo  River,  which  they  followed  down  to  Utah 

The  Spaniards  were  kindly  received  by  the  native  Utahs — 
dwelling  in  willow  huts  in  the  valley — from  whom  they  derived 
considerable  information  regarding  that  and  adjacent  parts.  But 
they  could  learn  nothing  of  a  route  to  the  sea,  nor  of  Spanish 
settlers  in  all  that  region.  Among  other  things  they  were  told  of  a 
valley  to  the  northward,  in  which  there  was  a  large  salt  lake, 
covering  many  leagues,  with  which  their  own  fresh  lake — Timpanogos 
— communicated.  The  waters  of  the  larger  lake  were  described  as 
extremely  salt  and  injurious, — a  fact  many  times  since  proven  by  the 
hapless  bather  unfortunate  enough  to  swallow  much  of  the  saline 
liquid.  The  Utahs,  or,  as  Escalante  styles  them,  "Timpanois" 
further  said  that  he  who  wet  any  part  of  his  body  with  this  water 
immediately  felt  an  itching  in  the  wet  part.  Near  this  lake  dwelt  the 
Puaguampe,  or  Sorcerers,  "a  numerous  and  quiet  nation,"  speaking 
the  language  of,  but  not  otherwise  emulating  the  hostile  Comanches, 
whom  the  Utahs  greatly  dreaded.  The  Puaguampe  dwelt  in  "little 
houses  of  grass  and  earth"  and  drank  from  "various  fountains  or 
springs  of  good  water"  which  were  "about  the  lake." 

Escalante  describes  Utah  Valley — north  of  which  his  party  did 
not  go — as  extending  from  north-east  to  south-west  sixteen  Spanish 
leagues,  and  having  a  width  of  ten  or  twelve  leagues.  It  was  quite 
level,  and,  excepting  the  marshes  on  the  lake-shore,  arable.  Provo 
River  they  renamed  San  Antonio.  To  the  Jordan  they  gave  the 
name  of  Santa  Ana,  and  christened  other  streams  in  the  vicinity. 
The  Indians  subsisted  then,  as  later,  by  fishing  and  hunting.  Bear, 
deer  and  buffalo  ranged  the  region  freely,  and  the  bounding  jack- 
rabbit,  still  so  plentiful,  was  not  lacking.  The  streams  were  filled 
with  fish,  and  the  marshes  with  wild  fowl. 

Late  in  September  the  Spaniards,  accompanied  by  two  native 
guides,  resumed  their  journey,  turning  now  to  the  south-west  in  the 


direction  of  Monterey.  Passing  down  the  Sevier,  which  river  they 
named  Santa  Isabel,  they  skirted  the  eastern  shore  of  the  lake  and 
crossed  Beaver  River.  They  then  visited  the  valley  now  bearing  the 
name  of  Escalante.  There,  owing  to  the  exhaustion  of  their  food 
supplies,  and  the  prospect  of  a  long  and  arduous  journey  to  the  sea- 
coast — for  still  they  could  learn  of  no  open  route  to  the  Pacific — they 
reluctantly  abandoned  the  expedition.  Turning  eastward  they 
traveled  toward  the  Colorado,  purchasing  from  the  natives,  as  they 
went,  seeds  with  which  to  make  bread.  Reaching  the  river,  they 
found,  after  much  difficulty,  a  ford  in  latitude  37°, — near  where  Utah 
and  Arizona  now  divide.  Passing  thence  by  way  of  the  Moquis 
villages  they  reached  Zuni  and  in  due  time  Santa  Fe.  They  arrived 
there  January  2nd,  1777. 

To  establish  beyond  dispute  the  identity  of  the  discoverer  of 
the  Great  Salt  Lake  would  prove  a  difficult  if  not  an  impossible  task. 
The  first  to  hear  of  it — if  credence  may  be  given  to  his  very  fanciful 
narrative — was  Baron  La  Hontan,  lord-lieutenant  of  the  French 
colony  at  Placentia,  Newfoundland.  La  Hontan,  whose  narrative 
was  first  published  in  English  in  1735,  tells  how  in  1689  he  sailed 
for  six  weeks  up  a  certain  affluent  of  the  Mississippi  called  Long 
River,  passing  through  various  savage  tribes  till  he  came  near  the 
nation  of  the  Gnacsitares.  There  he  met  four  Mozeemlek  slaves, 
captives  of  the  Gnacsitares,  who  gave  him  a  description  of  the 
country  from  which  they  originally  hailed.  Their  villages,  they  said, 
stood  upon  a  river  springing  out  of  a  ridge  of  mountains,  whence 
Long  River  likewise  derived  its  source.  The  Mozeemleks  were 
numerous  and  powerful.  The  slaves  informed  La  Hontan  that  at  a 
distance  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  leagues  from  where  he  then  stood 
their  principal  river  emptied  itself  into  a  salt  lake,  three  hundred 
leagues  in  circumference  by  thirty  in  breadth,  the  mouth  of  the  river 
being  two  leagues  broad.  The  lower  part  of  the  stream  was  adorned 
with  "six  noble  cities,"  and  there  were  above  a  hundred  towns,  great 
and  small,  "round  that  sort  of  sea."  The  lake  was  navigated  with 
boats.     The  government  of   the  land  was  despotic,  and  was  "lodged 


in  the  hands  of  one  great  head''  to  whom  the  rest  paid  "trembling 
submission,"  etc.     So  much  for  La  Hontan  and  his  hearsays. 

Now,  as  to  the  actual  discovery  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  Many 
are  the  rival  claims  and  accounts  concerning  it.  Some  of  these  are 
easily  disposed  of  in  the  negative.  Others  must  stand  for  what 
they  are  worth  until  disproved  or  more  thoroughly  established.  Col- 
onel John  G.  Fremont  claimed  the  honor  of  discovery  as  late  as  1843; 
he  having  that  year  passed  the  Rocky  Mountains  on  his  second 
exploring  expedition  to  the  West.  The  year  before  he  had  gone  only 
as  far  as  South  Pass,  that  great  gateway  of  overland  travel,  which  he 
elaborately  described  in  his  report  to  Congress.  He  now  penetrated 
to  the  Great  Basin,  accompanied  by  the  noted  scout  Kit  Carson  and 
other  daring  spirits,  and  on  the  6th  of  September,  from  the  crest  of 
an  elevated  peninsula*  a  little  north  of  Weber  River,  caught  his  first 
glimpse  of  America's  Dead  Sea. 

Launching  his  rubber  boat  upon  the  briny  waters,  he  explored 
the  island  now  known  as  Fremont  Island — so  named  by  Captain 
Stansbury  in  1849 — but  which  Fremont  himself  called  Disappoint- 
ment Island,  from  failing  to  find  there  the  fertile  fields  and  abundant 
game  he  had  anticipated.  Fremont  supposed  himself  to  be  the  first 
white  man,  not  only  to  embark  upon,  but  to  see  the  Great  Salt 
Lake.  In  both  conjectures  he  was  in  error.  The  lake  had  been 
discovered,  and  boats  launched  upon  it  by  American  trappers  nearly 
twenty  years  before  the  advent  of  the  "Pathfinder"  into  the  Great 
Basin.  As  early  as  the  "twenties,"  if  not  before,  this  whole  region 
was  overrun  by  American  and  British  fur-hunters,  trapping,  explor- 
ing, building  forts,  trading  and  fighting  with  the  Indians,  from 
British  America  to  Mexico.  The  celebrated  Hudson's  Bay  Company 
and  the  scarcely  less  famous  North  American  Fur  Company,  were 
among  the  earliest,  if  not  the  very  earliest  organizations  to  engage  in 
these  lucrative  though  perilous  pursuits. 

Bancroft,  the  Pacific  States  historian,  is  disposed  to  accord  the 

*  This  peninsula  is  known  in  Weber  County  as  Little  or  Low  Mountain. 


honor  of  discovering  the  Lake  to  Colonel  James  Bridger,  founder 
of  the  once  celebrated  fort,  bearing  his  name,  situated  on  Black's 
Fork  of  Green  River.  Bridger,  it  is  said,  who  in  1825  was 
trapping  in  the  Bear  River  region,  in  Cache  or  Willow  Valley,  in 
order  to  decide  a  wager  among  his  men  as  to  the  probable  course 
of  the  Bear,  followed  that  stream  through  the  mountains  till 
he  stood  upon  the  shores  and  tasted  of  the  briny  waters  of  the  great 
inland  sea.  In  the  spring  of  1826  four  men,  it  is  said,  explored  the 
lake  in  skin  boats,  and  reported  that  it  had  no  outlet.  So  little  was 
known  of  the  great  West  at  that  time,  even  by  the  adventurous 
spirits  who  traversed  it,  that  they  thought  it  quite  probable  this  lake 
was  an  arm  of  the  Pacific  ocean. 

Other  claims,  not  so  well  authenticated  as  Bridger's,  place  the 
time  of  probable  discovery  at  about  1820.  A  trapper  named  Provost — 
for  whom  Provo  River  presumably  was  named — is  said  to  have  been 
in  this  vicinity  during  that  year.  By  some,  William  N.  Ashley  is 
thought  to  have  preceded  Bridger.  Mr.  Ashley,  in  1825-6,  led  a  large 
company  from  St  Louis  through  South  Pass  and  founded  on  Utah 
Lake,  Fort  Ashley*.  He  is  said  to  have  named  the  Sweetwater  and 
Green  rivers, — the  latter  after  one  of  his  party.  His  own  name 
still  clings  to  Ashley's  Fork. 

Among  the  notable  characters  traversing  the  Great  Basin  about 
this  time  was  Peter  Skeen  Ogden,  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company, 
who  gave  his  name  to  the  Ogden  or  Humboldt  river.f  Another  was 
Jedediah  S.  Smith,  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company,  who,  in 
1826-7  penetrated  with  a  party  from  the  shores  of  the  Great  Salt 
Lake  to  California;  thence  recrossing  the  Sierras  and  returning  to 
this  region.  Smith  and  his  associates,  William  L.  Sublette  and 
David  E.  Jackson,  are  reputed  to  have  taken  the  first  wagons  from 
the  Missouri  River  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Their  wagons,  however, 
were  left  at  Wind  River,  and  did  not  pass  the  Rockies. 

In    1832-3,    came    the    renowned    Captain    Bonneville,   whose 

*  Utah  Lake  was  formerly  called  Lake  Ashley. 

f  Weber  River  was  also  named  for  a  trapper  in  that  region. 


adventures  in  this  region  were  afterwards  immortalized  by  Washing- 
ton Irving.  His  name  has  been  given  to  the  great  fossil  lake  or 
prehistoric  sea  supposed  to  have  once  existed  in  the  Great  Basin. 
Bonneville  was  by  birth  a  Frenchman,  but  at  that  time  a  United 
States  army  officer  on  leave.*  His  wagons,  twenty  in  number,  laden 
with  Indian  goods,  provisions  and  ammunition,  are  believed  to  have 
been  the  first  to  roll  down  the  western  slope  of  the  Rockies.  He  is 
thought  to  have  been  the  first  also  to  use  ox-teams  upon  this  line  of 

From  1834  to  1839  parties  of  missionaries,  men  and  women, 
crossed  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  shores  of  the  Pacific.  Mrs. 
Narcissa  Whiteman  and  a  Mrs.  Spalding  are  reputed  to  have  been 
the  first  white  women  to  perform  this  long  and  perilous  pilgrimage. 

And  all  this  and  more  before  Colonel  Fremont  stood  upon  these 
desolate,  brine-washed  shores,  and  imagined  himself  a  second 
Balboa  discovering  another  Pacific,  in  this  already  many  times  dis- 
covered inland  sea. 

Overland  emigration  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Pacific  began 
about  the  year  1841.  It  was  small  at  first,  but  increased  yearly, 
until  at  the  close  of  1844  two  or  three  thousand  men,  women  and 
children  had  settled  on  the  Pacific  coast.  Most  of  these  were  in 
Oregon,  but  California  from  the  first  had  her  share.  Among  those 
who  reached  "the  land  of  gold"  via  the  Utah  region  in  1841,  were 
John  Bidwell  and  Josiah  Belden.  Some  of  Mr.  Bidwell's  pioneer 
reminiscences  have  recently  appeared  in  the  Century  Magazine. 

The  usual  route  of  travel  from  the  Missouri  at  that  time  was 
up  the  Platte  River,  along  the  Sweetwater  and  through  South 
Pass.  Beyond  that  point,  those  going  to  Oregon  would  bend  their 
course  northward  to  Soda  Springs  and  Fort  Hall,  one  of  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company's  stations;  while  those  for  California  would  follow 
Bear  River  to  within  a  few  miles  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake,  and  then 
turn  westward,  crossing  the  country  to  the  Sierras.      Later,  a  new 

*  Bonneville,  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Colonel,  was  in  1849  the  commanding  officer 
at  Fort  Kearney. 


route  to  California,  called  the  "  Hastings  Gut-Off,"  was  planned.  Of 
this,  more  anon. 

Dr.  Marcus  Whitman,  in  1842,  made  his  celebrated  ride  from 
Oregon  back  to  the  States,  passing  through  Utah  by  way  of  Uintah, 
and  proceeding  on  to  Santa  Fe  and  St.  Louis.  He  returned  the  fol- 
lowing summer  to  Oregon,  with  a  large  body  of  emigrants. 

Among  the  companies  for  Oregon  in  1844  was  one  led  by 
Cornelius  Gilliam,  of  Clay  County,  Missouri,  prominently  connected 
with  the  Mormon  troubles  of  1838.  Ex-Governor  Boggs,  the 
"exterminator,''  crossed  over  to  California  some  time  later. 

In  1845,  Colonel  Fremont  again  visited  the  shores  of  the  Great 
Salt  Lake,  passing  thence  into  California,  to  be  next  heard  from  in 
connection  with  the  Mexican  war.  That  year  the  emigration  westward 
was  heavier  than  that  of  any  previous  season ;  five  companies  with 
two  hundred  and  fifty  wagons  going  to  Oregon  alone.  In  1846  the 
emigration  was  not  quite  so  large,  though  it  was  estimated  at  two 
thousand  five  hundred  souls,  mostly  men;  one  thousand  and  seven 
hundred  of  whom  went  to  Oregon  and  the  remainder  to  California. 
The  last  company  of  the  season  was  the  ill-starred  Donner  party, 
whose  tragic  story,  being  virtually  a  portion  of  Utah's  early  history, 
we  will  briefly  relate. 

The  Donner  party  consisted  of  George  Donner,  James  F.  Reed, 
and  about  eighty-five  others,  men,  women  and  children.  In  com- 
pany with  others  they  left  the  frontier  at  Independence,  Missouri, 
late  in  April  or  early  in  May,  1846.  Separating  west  of  South  Pass, 
on  the  stream  known  as  Little  Sandy,  from  their  friends  who  were 
going  to  Oregon,  the  Donner  party,  in  the  latter  part  of  July  set 
out  for  Fort  Bridger.*  There  they  tarried  four  clays,  prior  to  taking 
the  "Hastings  Cut-off"  for  California.  This  route,  which  was  just 
beginning  to  be  traveled,  was  by  way  of  Bear  River,  Echo  and  Weber 
Canyons,  around  the  south  shore  of  Great  Salt  Lake,  and  across  the 

*  Mr.  Reed  was  the  original  leader  of  the  party,  but  the  day  after  separating  from  the 
<iivlm.ii  emigrants  G ■ge  Donner  was  elected  captain  of  the  company,  which  was  thence- 
forth known  as  the  Donner  party. 


desert  to  the  Humboldt  and  the  Sierras.  Its  projector  was  Lansford 
W.  Hastings,  a  mountaineer  and  guide,  who,  with  the  proprietors  of 
Fort  Bridger,  being  interested  in  the  new  route,  were  doing  all  in 
their  power  to  induce  emigration  that  way.  Mr.  Reed  states  that 
some  friends  of  his,  who  had  preceded  him  to  California  with  pack 
animals,  had  left  letters  for  him  with  Mr.  Vasquez,  Bridgets  part- 
ner, advising  the  company  to  go  by  way  of  Fort  Hall,  and  by  no 
means  to  take  the  Hastings  Cut-off;  but  that  Vasquez,  as  he  learned 
later,  had  kept  these  letters,  thus  preventing  the  party  from  being 

Near  the  mouth  of  Echo  Canyon  they  found  a  letter  sticking  in 
a  sage-brush.  It  proved  to  be  from  Hastings,  who  was  then  piloting 
a  company  through  Weber  Canyon.  It  stated  that  if  the  Donner 
party  would  send  a  messenger  after  him,  he  would  return  and  guide 
them  along  a  better  way  than  the  Weber,  which  was  represented  as 
being  very  difficult.  Accordingly,  Mr.  Reed  and  two  others — Messrs. 
McCutchen  and  Stanton — followed  and  overtook  Hastings  near  Black 
Rock,  at  the  south  end  of  the  Lake.  He  could  not  then  return,  but 
gave  Mr.  Reed  some  information  concerning  a  "cut-off" — still 
another — from  the  mouth  of  Echo  Canyon  across  the  mountains  into 
Salt  Lake  Valley.     The  latter  then  returned  to  camp. 

The  route  now  taken  by  his  party  was  the  one  followed,  next 
season,  by  the  Mormon  Pioneers, — up  East  Canyon,  over  the  Big  and 
Little  Mountains  and  down  Emigration  Canyon  into  the  Valley.  The 
way  was  extremely  difficult,  and  sixteen  days  were  consumed  by  the 
Donner  party  in  cutting  a  road  through  the  canyons.  Then  came  the 
crossing  of  the  western  desert,  where  many  of  their  cattle  gave  out  for 
want  of  grass  and  water,  while  others  were  lost  or  stolen  by  Indians, 
compelling  them  to  abandon  some  of  their  wagons  in  the  midst 
of  the  sandy  waste.  Delayed  by  these  and  other  misfortunes,  the 
ill-fated  company  did  not  strike  the  main  trail  on  the  Humboldt  until 
late  in  September.  By  that  time  the  last  companies  of  the  season 
had  passed.  Another  month  brought  them  to  the  foot  of  the  Truckee 
Pass  of  the  Sierras. 


Early  snows  now  came,  completely  blocking  up  the  way.  Some 
of  the  company  killed  their  cattle  and  went  into  winter  quarters  near 
Truckee  Lake,  but  others,  hoping  still  to  thread  the  pass,  delayed 
building  their  cabins  until  heavier  snows  fell,  burying  cattle,  cabins 
and  all.  It  was  now  December,  their  provisions  were  well-nigh 
exhausted,  and  starvation  stared  the  hapless  emigrants  in  the  face. 
An  advance  party  on  snow-shoes  pushed  ahead  over  the  mountains, 
braving  snow  and  ice  and  wintry  blasts,  to  obtain  relief  for  their 
suffering  companions.  Before  reaching  New  Helvetia — now  Sacra- 
mento— several  of  the  party  died  from  cold,  hunger  and  exhaustion, 
and  the  others,  freezing  and  starving,  were  compelled  to  eat  their 

Captain  Sutter,  of  Sutter's  Fort,  near  Sacramento,  and  others 
nearer  the  coast,  on  learning  of  the  terrible  fate  impending  over  the 
snow-bound  travelers,  fitted  out  relief  parties  and  sent  them  to  the 
rescue.  This  timely  action  saved  most  of  the  sufferers,  but  out  of 
the  original  eighty-seven,  persuaded  into  taking  this  death-trail 
across  the  Basin,  thirty-nine  perished  from  cold  and  starvation. 
The  survivors,  when  found,  had  been  subsisting  for  weeks — horrible 
extremity! — upon  the  bodies  of  their  dead  companions.  Such  was 
the  sad  fate  of  the  Donner  Party.  The  last  one  rescued,  a  German, 
who  had  become  a  ferocious  cannibal,  was  picked  up   in  April,  1847. 




The  mormon  pioneers — their  journey  across  the  great    plains — pawnees  and  sioux — 

the  pioneer  buffalo  hunt fort  laramie the  mississippi  mormons south  pass 

major    harris colonel    bridger "  a    thousand  dollars    for   the    first    ear  of 

corn    raised    in    salt    lake    valley" a    discouraging    prospect elder    brannan 

again— some  of  the  battalion  boys fort   bridger— miles  goodyear echo  canyon 

— the  valley  of  the  great  salt  lake. 

|j*)ET  us  now  bring  forward  into  the  Great  Basin  the  vanguard  of 
^  the  migrating  Mormons  encamped  upon  the  Missouri.  "The 
word  and  will  of  the  Lord  concerning  the  Camp  of  Israel  in  their 
journeyings  to  the  West,"  was  issued  by  President  Young  at  Winter 
Quarters  on  the  14th  of  January,  1847.  A  few  paragraphs  of  this 
manifesto — the  first  of  its  kind  penned  by  the  Prophet's  successor — 
will  convey  some  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  preparations  for  the  con- 
tinued exodus : 

Let  all  the  people  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  and  those  who 
journey  with  them,  be  organized  into  companies,  with  a  covenant  and  promise  to  keep  all 
the  commandments  and  statutes  of  the  Lord  our  Cod. 

Let  the  companies  be  organized  with  captains  of  hundreds,  captains  of  fifties,  and 
captains  of  tens,  with  a  president  and  his  two  counselors  at  their  bead,  under  tin-  direction 
of  the  Twelve  Apostles  ; 

And  this  shall  be  our  covenant,  that  we  will  walk  in  all  the  ordinances  of  the  Lord. 

Let  each  company  provide  themselves  with  all  the  teams,  wagons,  provisions,  cloth- 
ing, and  other  necessaries  for  the  journey  that  they  can. 

When  the  companies  are  organized,  let  them  go  to  with  their  might,  to  prepare  for 
those  wbn  are  to  tarry. 

Let  each  company  with  their  captains  and  presidents  decide  bow  many  can  go  next 
spring;  and  then  choose  out  a  sufficient  number  of  able-bodied  and  expert  men,  to  take 
teams,  seeds,  and  farming  utensils,  to  go  as  pioneers  to  prepare  for  putting  in  spring  crops. 

Let  each  company  bear  an  equal  proportion,  according  to  the  dividend  of  their  prop- 
erly, in  taking  the  poor,  the   widows,  the   fatherless,  and    the    families  of  those   who  have 



P.  Roctrood. 

•     - 


0^1_  Us$.  Us 

fo.   ^u^ 

in.  c*/y\/ . 

s(/?fcU\tl.         U  ^fflA^Jj 


General  Young  instructed  the  camp  as  follows :  The  men  were 
to  travel  in  a  compact  body,  each  with  his  loaded  gun  in  hand, 
or,  if  a  teamster,  in  his  wagon,  ready  for  instant  use.  If  the  gun 
were  a  cap-lock,  he  was  to  take  off  the  cap  and  put  on  a  piece  of 
leather  to  exclude  moisture  and  dirt;  if  a  flint-lock  he  must  take  out 
the  filling  and  fill  the  pan  with  tow  or  cotton.  Each  man  was  to 
keep  beside  his  wagon,  and  not  leave  it  except  by  permission.  The 
vehicles  were  to  travel  two  abreast  wherever  practicable,  and  in  case 
of  hostile  demonstrations  by  savages,  four  or  five  abreast.  At  five 
o'clock  in  the  morning  the  bugle  would  sound  the  call  to  rise,  assem- 
ble for  prayers,  feed  teams,  and  get  breakfast,  and  at  seven  give  the 
signal  for  starting.  At  8:30  p.  m.,  at  the  sound  of  the  bugle,  each 
was  to  retire  for  prayers  in  his  own  wagon,  and  at  9  o'clock  all  but 
the  sentries  to  bed. 

The  sentries  were  selected  from  a  body  of  fifty  men,  with  Stephen 
Markham  as  their  captain ;  twelve  guards  were  on  duty  at  a  time,  and 
the  night  was  divided  into  two  watches.  These  guards  were  not  to 
leave  the  vicinity  of  the  wagons.  Whenever  it  became  necessary  to 
stake  out  the  horses  and  cattle  to  graze  at  a  distance  from  the  camp, 
an  extra  guard  was  provided.  The  stock,  however,  were  generally 
kept  inside  the  enclosure  formed  by  corralling  the  wagons,  according 
to  the  custom  of  the  plains.  In  forming  the  corral,  the  tongues  of  the 
wagons  were  placed  outside,  with  a  fore-wheel  of  each  vehicle  locked 
in  a  hind  wheel  of  the  one  ahead.  At  one  or  both  ends  of  the  cir- 
cular or  oblong  enclosure  thus  formed,  an  opening  would  be  left. 
These  gateways  were  carefully  guarded.  Sometimes,  near  a  lake  or 
river,  the  camp  would  form  a  semi-circle,  resting  on  the  bank. 

■  The  pioneers  sacredly  observed  the  Sabbath ;  no  unnecessary 
toil  or  travel  being  done  on  that  day.  Divine  services  were  held  reg- 
ularly. As  formerly,  excessive  levity  was  frowned  upon  by  the 

Thus  organized,  equipped  and  instructed,  the  pioneers  proceeded 
on  their  way,  slowly  traveling  up  the  north  bank  of  the  Platte.  The 
regular  route  at  that  time  was  along  the  south  bank,  where  grass  was 


more  plentiful  and  the  Indians  less  troublesome.  Few  if  any  trav- 
elers chose  the  north  side,  which  was  regarded  as  more  difficult  and 
dangerous.  The  pioneers  preferred  it  for  one  reason:  that  their  people 
who  followed  them  would  thus  escape  contact  with  the  migrating  Mis- 
sourians,  who  sought  every  occasion  to  quarrel  with  the  Mormons 
whenever  they  met  them.  For  several  hundred  miles,  therefore,  they 
virtually  broke  a  new  road  over  the  plains ;  a  road  subsequently  trav- 
eled by  tens  of  thousands  of  their  people  with  ox-teams  and  hand- 
carts. It  was  known  for  many  years  as  "the  old  Mormon  trail." 
Much  of  it  is  now  covered  by  the  track  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railway. 

Pursuing  their  journey  from  the  Elk  Horn,  the  pioneers,  in  the 
latter  part  of  April,  found  themselves  in  the  heart  of  the  Pawnee 
Indian  country.  These  savages  were  still  quite  numerous,  though 
their  ranks  had  lately  been  decimated  by  the  warlike  Sioux,  their 
implacable  enemies.  Thus  far  they  had  been  very  troublesome  to 
the  pioneers,  stampeding  and  stealing  their  stock,  and  burning  the 
prairie  grass  before  and  around  them,  destroying  the  feed  upon 
which  they  mainly  depended  for  their  teams.  But  the  Indians  had 
offered  no  violence. 

It  was  about  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  April  21st  that  the 
pioneers  halted  on  the  bank  of  a  long,  narrow  lake  close  by  the  river. 
They  had  scarcely  formed  their  wagons  in  a  semi-circle  and  placed 
their  guards,  when  they  were  surrounded  by  swarms  of  savages,  male 
and  female,  coming  from  all  directions.  Many  had  forded  the  river 
some  distance  below  and  followed  the  pioneers  to  their  camp-ground. 
Among  them  was  Shefmolun,  chief  of  the  Pawnee  nation.  Their 
manner  was  not  hostile,  and  their  motive,  as  soon  appeared,  purely 
mercenary.  Presenting  certificates,  signed  by  various  travelers,  to 
the  effect  that  the  Pawnees  were  friendly  and  that  it  was  the  custom 
to  make  them  small  presents  for  the  privilege  of  passing  through 
their  country,  they  intimated  by  a  young  Indian  interpreter  that 
similar  gifts  would  be  acceptable  from  the  pioneers.  The  latter  read- 
ily responded,  imparting  of  their  limited  stores  a  few  articles,  such  as 
powder,  lead,  salt,  tobacco  and  flour,  in  quantities  proportionate  to  the 

any  trav- 
Ecult  and 

«r  people 



d  hand- 


e  Pawnee 
is.  though 
ooi,  their 

rning  the 

t that  the 
the  river. 
.:;■;  placed 
the  river 


felers,  to 

tier  that 


y  ^e^^^. 


menon  of  rebounding  balls.*  The  proceeds  of  this  buffao  hunt, — 
one  bull,  three  cows  and  six  calves, — were  carried  to  camp  in  live 
wagons,  temporarily  unloaded  for  the  purpose.  The  meat  was 
equally  distributed  among  the  tens,  each  company  receiving  about 
one  quarter. 

After  this  day's  sport  the  President  instructed  his  men  not  to 
kill  game  wantonly,  as  was  the  custom  with  many  who  crossed  the 
plains, — a  custom  which  has  done  much  to  render  the  buffalo  race 
extinct.  "  If  we  slay  when  we  have  no  need/'  said  he,  "we  will  need 
when  we  cannot  slay."  Game  continued  more  or  less  plentiful,  the 
hunters  supplying  the  camp  with  buffalo,  deer,  antelope,  geese, 
ducks,  etc.,  as  often  as  necessary,  and  as  they  approached  the  moun- 
tains fine  trout  began  to  be  taken  from  the  streams.  A  grizzly  bear 
and  her  cubs  also  became  trophies  of  their  skill. 

Early  in  May  a  French  trader  named  Charles  Beaumont,  returning 
with  furs  from  Fort  Laramie  to  the  frontier,  visited  the  pioneer  camp, 
fording  the  Platte  for  that  purpose,  but  leaving  his  wagons  on  the 
southern  shore.  Many  embraced  the  opportunity  thus  afforded  of 
sending  letters  back  to  Winter  Quarters.  Hitherto  they  had  been 
content  to  improvise  post-offices  by  the  way,  using  the  skull  of  a  dead 
buffalo,  or  some  other  conspicuous  and  sheltering  object,  in  which  to 
deposit  the  missives  left  for  their  friends  who  were  to  follow.  Fifty  or 
sixty  letters  were  now  written,  all  of  which  Mr.  Beaumont  courteously 
undertook  to  deliver.  The  pioneers  at  this  point  were  strongly 
tempted  to  cross  the  river  and  continue  their  journey  along  the  regu- 
lar route.  There  grass  and  game  were  abundant,  and  travelers  were 
not  so  much  molested,  while  on  the  north  side  the  Indians  kept  up 
their  prairie-burning'  tactics,  and  horses  and  cattle  were  at  times 
almost  famished  for  feed.  The  temptation,  however,  was  resisted, 
for  reasons  already  given,  and  up  the  north   bank  they  proceeded. 

:     \  kvorite  method  of  the  Indians  for  killing  buffalo  was  to  chase  the lil  the] 

were  "  winded."  and  then,  riding  up  alongside,  strike  one  with  an  arrow  in  the  lower  pari 
ofthespine.     The  beast,  falling  paralyzed,  could  then  be  hamstrung,  and  the  cl 

tinned  ad  libitum. 


On  May  21st  they  put  up  a  guide-board,  reading:  "From  Win- 
ter Quarters  409  miles;  from  the  junction  of  the  north  and  south 
forks  (of  the  Platte)  91  miles.  *  *  *  According  to  Fremont,  this 
place  is  132  miles  from  Laramie."  Similar  guide-boards  they  had 
placed,  and  continued  to  place,  at  various  points  for  the  benefit  of 
future  emigration.  Their  method  of  measuring  distances  was  by 
means  of  an  ingenious  machine  invented  by  William  Clayton  and 
constructed  by  Appleton  M.  Harmon,  a  skillful  mechanic.  The 
machinery  of  the  "roadometer"  was  so  arranged  that  the  revolutions 
of  a  wagon  wheel,  acting  by  screws  and  cogs  upon  smaller  wheels, 
the  whole  attached  to  an  axle-tree  of  one  of  the  wagons,  indicated 
from  day  to  day  the  miles  and  parts  of  miles  traveled.* 

Near  Chimney  Rock,  on  the  24th  of  May,  the  pioneers  encoun- 
tered a  band  of  mounted  Sioux,  about  thirty-five  in  number,  who 
forded  the  river  and  made  friendly  advances.  These  Indians  were 
much  better  accoutred  than  the  Pawnees  and  other  tribes  nearer  the 
frontier.  Many  of  them  wore  broadcloth,  with  fur  caps,  profusely 
decorated  with  beads  and  other  ornaments,  and  were  armed  with 
bows,  steel-pointed  arrows  and  fire-arms.  The  chief  sent  his  men  to 
lodge  some  distance  from  the  camp,  but  requested  for  himself  the 
privilege  of  remaining  with  the  pioneers  over  night.  They  granted 
his  request,  spreading  a  tent  for  his  accommodation,  and  feeding 
him  and  his  band  that  night  and  the  next  morning.  These  Sioux 
carried  with  them  the  American  flag,  and  bore  a  recommendation 

*  The  machine  is  thus  described  by  its  inventor : 

••  The  whole  machinery  consists  of  a  shaft  about  eighteen  inches  long,  placed  on  gudg- 
eons, one  in  the  axle-tree  of  the  wagon,  near  which  are  six  arms  placed  at  equal  distances 
around  it,  and  in  which  a  cog  works  which  is  fastened  on  the  hub  of  the  wagon  wheel, 
turning  the  shaft  once  around  at  every  revolution  of  the  wagon  wheel.  The  upper  gudg- 
eon plays  in  a  piece  of  wood  nailed  to  the  wagon  box.  and  near  this  gudgeon,  on  the  shaft, 
a  screw  is  cut.  The  shaft  lays  at  an  angle  of  45  degrees.  In  this  screw  a  wheel  works 
on  an  axle  (fixed  in  the  side  of  the  wagon)  of  60  cogs,  and  which  makes  one  revolution 
for  each  mile  traveled.  In  the  shaft  on  which  this  wheel  runs  four  cogs  are  cut  on  the 
forepart,  which  plays  in  another  wheel  of  40  cogs,  which  shows  the  miles  and  quarters  of 
miles  up  to  ten  miles.  The  box  incasing  the  whole  is  18  inches  long,  15  inches  high  and 
3  inches   thick." 





mountains  in  the  trail  of  the  pioneers.  It  was  supposed  that 
Captain  Brown's  detachment  would  come  also.  Indeed  the  Battalion 
men  had  already  started,  and  were  now  marching  toward  Fort 

Friday,  June  4th,  the  pioneers  resumed  their  journey.  Deducting 
Apostle  Lyman's  party,  and  adding  the  Mississippians  who  had  already 
arrived,  the  company  was  now  increased  to  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
one.  They  started  about  noon,  taking  the  regular  emigrant  trail 
toward  the  mountains.  On  the  5th,  while  resting  to  let  their  cattle 
graze,  a  small  company  of  eleven  wagons,  bound  for  Oregon,  rolled 
ahead  of  them.  Next  day — the  Sabbath — another  company,  number- 
ing twenty-one  wagons,  passed.  A  third  company,  with  thirteen 
wagons,  went  ahead  during  the  noon  halt  of  the  7th.  On  the  8th 
a  small  company  from  the  west  was  encountered.  These  wagons 
were  from  Fort  Bridger,  the  first  trading  post  beyond  the  mountains, 
and  were  laden  with  furs  and  peltries  for  Fort  Laramie.  The  day 
following,  three  men  with  fifteen  horses,  mostly  pack  animals,  over- 
took and  passed  the  pioneers.  They  were  from  Santa  Fe,  and  bound 
for  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco,  via  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 

In  the  Black  Hills  region  the  pioneers  consumed  a  week,  recross- 
ing  the  Platte.  Here  the  river  was  usually  fordable,  but  it  was  now 
the  high  water  season  and  fording  was  impracticable.  The  stream 
was  fifteen  feet  deep  and  a  hundred  yards  wide.  To  this  point  the 
President  had  previously  sent  a  detachment  of  men  with  their  boat, 
the  Revenue  Cutter,  to  ferry  over  the  Oregon  companies.  When  the 
main  body  of  the  pioneers  reached  the  river  this  work  was  in 
progress.  The  little  skiff  carried  the  loads  and  the  empty  wagons 
were  floated.  Some  of  them  were  whirled  over  several  times  by  the 
swift  current.  For  each  wagon  and  load  the  ferrymen  received  $1.50, 
and  were  glad  to  take  their  pay  in  flour,  meal  and  bacon  at  Missouri 
prices.  A  little  money  was  also  realized.  Other  companies  that  soon 
arrived  were  carried  over  at  the  same  rates.  The  proceeds  of  this 
labor,  excepting  a  few  extra  dollars  for  the  ferrymen,  were  equally 
divided  among  the  members  of  the  camp. 


These  supplies  were  as  timely  as  they  were  totally  unexpected 
Their  provisions  were  well-nigh  exhausted,  and  to  have  their  flour 
and  meal  bags  replenished  in  this  far-off  region,  and  at  the  hands  of 
their  old  enemies,  the  Missourians,  was  regarded  by  them  as  little  less 
than  a  miracle.  Apostle  Woodruff  compared  it  to  the  feeding  of 
Israel  with  manna  in  the  wilderness. 

Besides  their  boat,  two  or  three  light  rafts,  constructed  on  the 
spot,  were  used  by  the  pioneers  at  this  ferry.  It  being  demonstrated 
that  "swimming"  the  wagons  injured  them,  a  heavier  raft  was  built, 
strong  enough  to  bear  a  loaded  vehicle,  and  by  means  of  this  the  rest 
of  the  wagons  were  taken  over.  This  raft  consisted  of  two  large  cot- 
tonwood  canoes,  placed  parallel  to  each  other,  a  few  feet  apart,  firmly 
pinned  with  cross-pieces,  and  with  nailed  slabs  running  lengthwise. 
A  rudder  and  oars  were  attached,  with  a  little  iron  work,  and  the 
"boat"  was  complete.  The  only  loss  sustained  during  this  crossing 
was  one  horse  belonging  to  the  Crow  company,  drowned  while  swing- 
ing the  river. 

It  occurred  to  President  Young  that  this  was  an  eligible  place 
to  establish  a  ferry  for  the  benefit  of  the  companies  that  were  to 
follow.  Accordingly,  nine  men  were  detailed  for  that  purpose.  They 
were  Thomas  Grover,  Captain;  John  S.  Higbee,  Luke  S.  Johnson, 
Appleton  M.  Harmon,  Edmund  Ellsworth,  Francis  M.  Pomeroy,  Wil- 
liam Empey,  James  Davenport  and  Benjamin  F.  Stewart.  They  were 
instructed  to  remain  at  the  ferry  for  about  six  weeks,  or  until  the 
next  company  from  Winter  Quarters  came  along,  by  which  time  it  was 
thought  they  would  have  earned  enough  to  supply  the  needy  with 
provisions.  They  were  then  to  join  that  company  and  come  on  to  the 
mountains.  Eric  Glines,  against  the  President's  wish,  insisted  on 
remaining  at  the  ferry,  but  a  few  days  later  reconsidered  his  design 
and  following,  rejoined  the  main  body. 

On  the  19th  of  June  the  camp  continued  its  journey.  The  order 
of  traveling  was  as  follows:  Each  company  of  ten  took  its  regu- 
lar turn  in  the  lead;  the  first  ten  one  day,  the  second  ten  next  day. 
and  so  on ;  every  ten  taking  its  turn  in  van  and  rear. 


They  reached  Independence  Rock*  on  the  21st  of  June.  A  mile 
or  two  beyond  they  forded  the  Sweetwater,  and,  contrary  to  report 
found  plenty  of  good  grass  along  that  river.  But  they  had  to  beware 
of  the  poisonous  alkaline  waters  of  the  vicinity,  which  proved  so 
fatal  to  the  cattle  and  horses  of  succeeding  companies.  Five  days 
later  they  arrived  at  South  Pass,  the  celebrated  dividing  ridge  sepa- 
rating the  waters  here  flowing  east  and  west  toward  the  Atlantic 
and  the  Pacific  oceans.  Now  began  the  western  descent  of  the 

At  Pacific  Springs,  two  miles  west  of  the  Pass,  the  pioneer  van- 
guard met  Major  Moses  Harris,  a  noted  scout  and  trapper,  who  had 
accompanied  to  that  point  a  party  of  travelers  from  Oregon,  going 
east.  He  intended  now  to  return,  as  guide  to  some  of  the  emigrant 
companies  bound  for  the  north-west.  From  him  the  pioneers  derived 
some  information  regarding  the  region  of  their  destination, — the 
valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  His  report,  like  Fremont's,  was  rather 
discouraging.  He  spoke  of  the  country  as  sandy  and  destitute  of 
timber  and  vegetation,  excepting  sagebrush.  He  gave  a  more  favor- 
able account  of  "a  small  region  under  the  Bear  River  mountains, 
called  Cache  Valley,"  where  trappers  and  traders  were  in  the  habit 
of  "caching"  their  furs  and  other  effects  to  hide  them  from  the 
Indians.  Cache  Valley,  Major  Harris  said,  was  "a  fine  place  for 
wintering  cattle."  He  presented  for  the  perusal  of  the  pioneers  a 
file  of  Oregon  papers  beginning  with  the  date  of  February  11th, 
1847 ;  also  a  number  of  the  California  Star,  published  by  Samuel 
Brannan  at  Verba  Buena,  and  edited  by  E.  P.  Jones. 

In  this  neighborhood  also,  according  to  Erastus  Snow,  they 
encountered  another  veteran  mountaineer,  Thomas  L.  Smith — sur- 
named  "Peg-leg" — who  lived  in  the  Bear  River  mountains,  near 
Soda  Springs.  He  advised  them  to  direct  their  course  toward  Cache 
Valley,  and  plant  their  colony  in  that  region. 

In  the  forenoon  of  June  28th.  the  pioneers  arrived  at  the  point 

*  So  named  from  the  feci  thai  a  passing  party  had  thei 


where  the  Oregon  and  California  roads  diverged.  Taking  the  latter 
or  left-hand  route,  they  crossed  the  Little  Sandy,  and  that  evening 
met  Colonel  James  Bridger,  of  Bridger's  Fort,  accompanied  by  two  of 
his  men.  They  were  on  their  way  to  Fort  Laramie.  In  conversation 
with  President  Young  and  the  other  leaders,  with  whom  he  encamped 
that  night,  Bridger  gave  them  in  his  peculiar  way  additional  informa- 
tion regarding  the  route  ahead,  and  the  region  toward  which  they 
were  traveling.  His  report  was  synopsized  by  historian  Clayton  as 
follows : 

We  will  find  better  grass  as  we  proceed ;  there  is  no  blacksmith  shop  at  his  fort  at 
present ;  there  was  one  but  it  was  destroyed.  Nearly  a  hundred  wagons  have  gone  over 
the  Hastings  route  through  Weber's  Fork.  They  crossed  the  Black's  Fork,  and  went  a 
little  south  of  west  from  his  place.  It  is  impossible  for  wagons  to  follow  down  Green 
River.  Neither  can  it  be  followed  in  boats.  *  *  *  From  Bridger's  Fort 
to  the  Great  Salt  Lake,  Hastings  said,  was  about  one  hundred  miles.  Bridger  himself 
had  been  through  fifty  times,  but  could  form  no  correct  idea  of  the  distance.  Mr.  Hast- 
ings' route  leaves  the  Oregon  road  at  Bridger's.  We  could  pass  over  the  mountains 
further  south  but  in  some  places  we  would  meet  with  heavy  bodies  of  timber  and  would 
have  to  cut  our  way  through.  In  the  Bear  River  Valley  there  is  oak  timber,  sugar  trees, 
cottonwood  and  pines.  There  is  not  an  abundance  of  sugar  maple,  but  plenty  of  beautiful 
pines.  There  is  no  timber  on  the  Utah  Lake,  but  some  on  the  streams  emptying  into  it. 
Into  the  outlet  of  the  Utah  Lake  three  well  timbered  streams  empty.  In  the  valleys 
southeast  of  the  Salt  Lake  there  is  an  abundance  of  blue  grass  and  white  clover.  The 
outlet  of  the  Utah  Lake  does  not  form  a  large  river,  neither  a  rapid  current,  but  the  water 
is  muddy  and  the  banks  of  the  river  low.  Some  of  his  men  have  been  around  the  Salt 
Lake  in  canoes.  But  while  they  went  out  hunting,  their  horses  were  stolen  by  the  Indians. 
They  then  spent  three  months  going  round  the  lake  in  canoes  hunting  beavers,  the  dis- 
tance being  five  hundred  and  fifty  (?)  miles.  The  Utah  tribe  of  Indians  live  around  the 
lake  and  are  a  bad  people ,  if  they  catch  a  man  alone  they  are  sure  to  rob  and  abuse  him, 
if  they  don't  kill  him,  but  parties  of  men  are  in  no  danger.  These  Indians  are  mostly 
armed  with  guns.  *  *         *         There   was   a  man  who  had  opened  a  farm  in 

Bear  River  Valley,  where  the  soil  is  good  and  likely  to  produce  grain,  were  it  not  for  the 
excessive  cold  nights.  There  is  a  good  country  south  of  the  Utah  Lake  or  southeast  of 
the  Great  Basin.  Three  rivers  unknown  to  travelers  enter  into  the  Sevier  Lake.  There 
is  also  a  splendid  country  north  of  the  California  mountains,  calculated  to  produce  every 
kind  of  grain  and  fruit,  and  there  are  several  places  where  a  man  might  pass  from  it  over 
the  mountains  to  the  California  settlements  in  a  day.  *  *  *  The  great 
desert  extends  from  the  Salt  Lake  to  the  Gulf  of  California,  which  is  perfectly  barren. 
Mr.  Bridger  supposes  it  to  have  been  an  arm  of  the  sea.  There  is  a  tribe  of  Indians  in 
that  country  who  are  unknown  to  either  travelers  or  geographers.  They  make  farms  and 
raise  an  abundance  of  grain  of  various  kinds.     He  can  buy  any  quantity  of  the  very  best 


wheat  from   them.         *  *         *         This   country  lies  south  of  Salt   Lake,  distant 

about  twenty  clays'  travel,  but  the  country  through  which  one  would  have  to  go  to  reach  it 
is  bad,  and  there  would  be  no  grass  for  animals  to  subsist  on.  He  supposes  there  might 
be  access  to  it  from  Texas.         *         *         *  He  never  saw  any  grapes  on  the  Utah 

Lake,  but  there  are  plenty  of  cherries  and  berries  of  several  kinds.  He  thinks  the  region 
around  the  Utah  Lake  is  the  best  country  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Salt  Lake,  and  the  country 
is  still  better  the  farther  south  one  goes  until  the  desert  is  reached,  which  is  upwards  of 
two  hundred  miles  south  of  the  Utah  Lake.  There  is  plenty  of  timber  on  all  the  streams 
and  mountains  and  an  abundance  of  fish  in  the  streams.  *  *  *  He  passed 
through  the  country  a  year  ago  last  summer  in  the  month  of  July  ;  there  is  generally  one 
or  two  showers  of  rain  every  day,  sometimes  very  heavy  thunder  storms  but  not  accom- 
panied by  strong  winds.  *  *  *  He  said  we  would  find  plenty  of  water 
from  here  to  Bridger's  Fort,  except  after  crossing  Green  River,  when  we  have  to  travel 
about  twenty  miles  without  water,  but  there  is  plenty  of  grass.  *  *  *  We 
need  not  fear  the  Utah  Indians,  for  we  could  drive  the  whole  of  them  in  twenty-four 
hours.  Mr.  Bridger's  theory  was  not  to  kill  them,  but  make  slaves  of  them.  The 
Indians  south  of  the  Utah  Lake  raise  as  good  corn,  wheat  and  pumpkins  as  were  ever 
raised  in  old  Kentucky. 

In  conclusion,  the  erratic  Colonel  expressed  the  opinion, — simi- 
lar to  that  of  Major  Harris, — that  it  would  be  unwise  to  bring  a  large 
colony  into  the  Great  Basin  until  it  had  been  proven  that  grain  could 
be  raised  there.  He  said  that  he  would  give  a  thousand  dollars  for 
the  first  ear  of  corn  that  ripened  in  Great  Salt  Lake  Valley. 

Crossing  and  journeying  down  the  right  bank  of  the  Big  Sandy, 
the  pioneers  on  the  last  day  of  June  came  to  Green  River.  Several 
of  them  there  fell  sick  with  mountain  fever,  causing  delirium;  though 
none  of  the  cases  were  considered  dangerous,  or  threatened  to  be  of 
long  duration.  The  river  was  high  and  rapid, — about  eighteen  rods 
wide,  with  from  twelve  to  fifteen  feet  of  water  in  the  channel.  Ford- 
ing was  therefore  out  of  the  question.  Two  rafts  were  construe  led 
from  the  cottonwood  trees  lining  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  prepar- 
ations for  crossing  the  stream  at  once  begun. 

Just  at  this  juncture,  who  should  ride  into  camp  but  Elder 
Samuel  Brannan,  the  same  who,  in  February,  1846,  had  sailed  from 
New  York  for  California  on  the  ship  Brooklyn.  He  was  just  from  the 
Bay  of  San  Francisco,  having  left  there  with  two  companions  on  the 
4th  of  April,  one  day  before  the  pioneer  vanguard  started   from  Win- 


ter  Quarters.  Ider  Brannan  and  his  companions  had  crossed  the 
Sierras  over  the  deep  snows  which  had  buried  the  Donner  party, — 
whose  ghastly  relics  in  skulls  and  scattered  bones  they  had  beheld  in 
passing, — and  come  by  way  of  Fort  Hall  to  meet  the  pioneers. 
Brannan  informed  the  President  that  his  colony,  which  had  reached 
the  Bay  of  San  Francisco  on  the  31st  of  the  previous  July,  were 
settling  on  the  San  Joaquin  river.  He  had  brought  with  him  from 
the  coast  sixteen  copies  of  the  California  Star,  the  paper  he  had  there 
established.  Brannan's  main  purpose  in  coming  to  meet  the  Presi- 
dent was  to  induce  him  to  settle  with  his  people  on  the  Pacific  coast. 
In  this  he  was  unsuccessful. 

Green  River  was  now  crossed  and  before  noon  on  the  3rd  of 
July  all  the  wagons  were  safe  over.  A  camp  was  formed  three  miles 
below  the  point  of  crossing.  The  President  now  gave  such  of  the 
pioneers  as  had  families  in  the  next  company  the  privilege  of  return- 
ing to  meet  them.  Five  only  decided  to  return,  namely :  Phinehas 
H.  Young,  George  Woodward,  Aaron  F.  Farr,  Eric  Glines  and  Rodney 
Badger.  Taking  the  Cutter  wagon  they  started  eastward  on  the 
morning  of  the  4th.  They  were  accompanied  to  the  ferry  by  President 
Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball  and  a  few  others.  They  there  met  thirteen 
of  Captain  Brown's  Battalion  men,  out  in  pursuit  of  horse-thieves, 
who  had  stolen  from  them  at  Pueblo  and  were  now  supposed  to  be 
at  Fort  Bridger.  One  of  the  soldiers — William  Walker — decided  to 
return  with  the  five  pioneers.  The  others,  escorted  by  the  President 
and  his  party,  joined  the  pioneer  camp.  The  "glorious  4th,"  it 
being  the  Sabbath,  was  sacredly  observed  by  the  pioneers  on  Green 

Resuming  their  journey,  they  continued  a  few  miles  down  the 
right  bank  of  the  river,  then  leaving  it  and  ascending  some  bluffs, 
crossed  a  gently  undulating  sandy  plain,  and  descended  upon  Black's 
Fork.  Following  up  that  stream  they  forded  Ham's  Fork,  crossed  and 
recrossed  the  Black,  and  finally  xm  July  7th  arrived  at  Fort  Bridger- 
This  celebrated  post — the  second  permanent  one  established  on 
the  great  overland  route — consisted  of   two  adjoining  log  houses, 


with  dirt  roofs,  surrounded  by  a  stockade  of  logs  eight  feet  high. 
It  was  built  upon  one  of  several  small  islands  formed  by  as  many 
branches  of  Black's  Fork.  These  islands  were  covered  with  excellent 
grass,  and  had  considerable  timber;  mostly  cottonwood  and  willow. 
The  fort,  still  owned  by  Bridger  and  Vasquez,  was  the  abode  of  a 
score  or  more  of  human  beings,  white  men,  Indian  women,  and  half- 
breed  children.  In  the  vicinity  were  nine  Indian  lodges,  where 
dwelt  the  families  of  other  trappers  and  hunters  who  had  also  taken 
squaws  for  wives. 

Here  the  pioneers  again  set  up  their  forges,  shoeing  horses  and 
repairing  wagons,  prior  to  undertaking  the  rough  mountainous 
journey  now  before  them.  Despite  all  adverse  reports,  President 
Young  had  decided  to  penetrate  to  and  colonize,  if  possible,  the  desert 
shores  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  The  route  thither  lay  to  the  south- 
west, along  the  ragged  spurs  of  the  towering  Uintahs,  snow-capped 
and  glistening  in  the  July  sun. 

On  the  9th  they  set  out  from  Fort  Bridger,  by  way  of  the  Hast- 
ings Cut-off.  Samuel  Brannan  and  a  few  others  returned  toward 
South  Pass  to  meet  Captain  Brown  and  his  detachment.  Near  Bear 
River  the  pioneers  encountered  Miles'  M.  Goodyear,  another  moun- 
taineer, who  was  also  somewhat  acquainted  with  Great  Salt  Lake 
Valley.  He  owned  a  place  on  Weber  River,  where  he  had  built  a 
stockade  similar  to  Fort  Bridger,  and  was  engaged  in  trading,  trapping 
and  stock-raising.  He  gave  them  little  or  no  encouragement,  but 
spoke  of  hard  frosts,  cold  climate  and  the  difficulty  of  raising  grain 
and  vegetables  in  that  region.  Still  they  pressed  on  undaunted. 
Fording  Bear  River,  which  stream  yielded  them  some  fine  trout,  they 
continued  following  the  dim  wagon  trail  of  previous  emigration,  as  it 
rose  over  steep  hills  or  plunged  into  deep  and  rocky  ravines  now  in 
their  path. 

At  noon  on  the  12th  President  Young,  who  was  stricken  with 
mountain  fever,  fell  behind  with  a  few  wagons,  but  requested  the 
main  body  to  move  on.  They  did  so,  and  that  night  camped  uear  a 
large  and  curious  cave,  which  they  named  for  one  of  their  number 



Redding's  Cave, — Jackson  Redding  being  one  of  the  first  to  visit  it. 
This  was  at  the  head  of  Echo  Canyon. 

Next  morning  messengers  were  sent  back  to  meet  the  President. 
Returning  with  Heber  C.  Kimball,  they  reported  that  the  President 
was  better,  but  would  not  travel  ■  that  day.  Orson  Pratt  was 
requested  to  take  wagons  and  men,  and  preceding  the  main  body 
down  the  canyon,  endeavor  to  find  near  its  mouth  the  Reed  and 
Donner  trail  across  the  mountains  to  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  Weber 
Canyon,  the  route  generally  followed  from  the  mouth  of  Echo,  had 
been  reported  impassable  owing  to  high  water. 

At  about  3  p.  m.  Orson  Pratt's  vanguard,  consisting  of  forty-two 
men  with  twenty-three  wagons,  started  down  Echo  Canyon.  This 
company  was  composed  as  follows : 

Orson  Pratt,  (commanding), 

Stephen  Markham,  (aide), 

John  Brown, 

C.  D.  Barnum. 

Charles  Burk, 

Francis  Boggs, 

A.  P.  Ghessley, 

Oscar  Crosby, 

Lyman  Curtis, 

James  Chessney, 

Walter  Crow, 

John  Crow, 

Bobert  Crow, 

Walter  H.  Crow, 

Benjamin  B.  Crow, 
John  S.  Eldredge, 
Joseph  Egbert, 
Nathaniel  Fairbanks, 
John  S.  Freeman, 
Green  Flake, 
John  S.  Gleason, 
David  Grant, 
Hans  G.  Hansen, 
Levi  Jackman, 
Stephen  Kelsey, 
Levi  N.  Kendall, 
Hark  Lay. 
Joseph  Matthews, 

Lewis  B.  Myers, 
Elijah  Newman, 
David  Power, 
0.  P.  Rockwell, 
Jackson  Redding, 
Shadrach  Roundy, 
James  W.  Stewart, 
Gilbroid  Summe, 
Horace  Thornton, 
Marcus  B.  Thorpe, 
George  W.  Therlki: 
Norman  Taylor, 
Seth  Taft, 
Robert  Thomas. 

The  women  and  children  of  the  Crow  family  accompanied  them,  and 
were  thus  among  the  first  to  enter  Salt  Lake  Valley,  a 

Echo  Canyon, — which  was  destined  to  become  more  historic  still 
in  Utah  annals, — was  described  by  Orson  Pratt  as  a  narrow  valley 
from  ten  to  twelve  rods  wide,  upon  each  side  of  which  the  hills  rose 
abruptly  to  a  height  of  from  eight  to  twelve  hundred  feet,  with  ver- 
tical and  overhanging  precipices  of  red  pudding-stone  and  red  sand- 
stone, dipping  to  the  north-west  in  an  angle  of  about  twenty  degrees. 
The  canyon  ran  south-west.     The  rocks   were  worked   into   many 


curious  shapes,  probably  by  the  rains,  and  the  country  was  very 
mountainous  in  every  direction.  The  road  down  the  canyon  was 
quite  rough,  crossing  and  recrossing  the  stream — Red  Fork  or  Echo 
Creek — many  times.  Willow  and  aspen  grew  in  the  valley  and  upon 
the  slopes,  and  there  were  some  scrub  cedars  clinging  to  the  rocks 
and  upon  the  hills.  Echo  Creek,  toward  the  mouth,  was  a  small 
stream  eight  feet  across,  putting  into  the  Weber  from  its  right  bank. 
Weber  River  at  this  point  was  about  seventy  feet  wide  and  two  or 
three  feet  deep,  with  a  rapid  but  clear  current  rolling  over  a  bottom 
of  boulders.  Its  course  was  west-north-west.  The  height  above  the 
sea  at  the  junction  of  the  two  streams  was  found  to  be  5,301  feet. 

Such  was  Echo  Canyon  in  July,  1847.  Ten  years  and  a  few 
months  later  that  narrow  valley,  walled  in  by  vertical  and  overhang- 
ing cliffs,  blocked  with  ice  and  snow — a  veritable  bulwark  of  Nature — 
wore  a  somewhat  different  aspect,  and  became  the  scene  of  one  act 
of  an  intensely  interesting  drama,  in  which  the  nation  whence  the 
pioneers  had  fled,  and  the  mountain-girt  state  which  they  and  their 
compatriots  here  framed,  played  principal  and  opposing  parts.  What- 
ever the  merits  of  that  controversy — and  the  full  truth  of  it  has 
never  yet  been  told — Echo  Canyon  and  its  warlike  episode  are 
immortal.  The  bridge  that  Horatius  kept,  the  storied  pass  of  Ther- 
mopylae, are  not  more  securely  niched  in  History's  golden  temple  of 
the  past,  than  Echo  Canyon  in  her  pantheon  of  the  present  and  the 

The  most  difficult  part  of  the  pioneer  journey  was  still  before 
them.  Level  plains  and  rolling  prairies  were  long  since  past.  Their 
path  now  lay  wholly  among  the  mountains.  High  hills,  deep 
ravines,  rugged  canyons,  rock-obstructed  and  clinked  with  brush  and 
timber, — over  and  through  these  they  must  cut  and  dig  their  way. 

Passing  clown  the  Weber  about  four  miles,  crossing  that  stream 
and  striking  the  Donner  trail — now  so  dim  as  to  be  hardly  discernible 
— the  Pratt  vanguard  proceeded  toward  East  Canyon.*    A  dozen  men 

*  The  statement  sometimes  made  thai  the  Mormon  Pioneers,  on  their  way  from  Echo 
Canyon  in  July.  1x47.  entered  Parley's  Park,  is  an  error. 


with  spades  and  axes  went  before  the  wagons.  Six  miles  up  a 
ravine,  through  which  flowed  a  small,  clear  stream,  brought  them  to 
a  dividing  ridge,  whence  they  descended  slowly  another  ravine  so 
choked  and  obstructed  as  to  be  all  but  impassable.  Four  hours  were 
consumed  in  going  about  two  miles. 

At  length  they  reached  East  Canyon.  Up  that  difficult  gorge 
they  toiled  for  eight  weary  miles,  crossing  and  recrossing  its  crooked 
willow-fringed  torrent  thirteen  times.  Large  grey  wolves,  startled 
out  of  their  lairs,  glared  fiercely  at  them  as  they  passed,  and  reluc- 
tantly retired  up  neighboring  glens  and  ravines.  The  deadly  rattle- 
snake— the  policeman  among  reptiles — sounded  his  warning  as  if 
summoning  assistance  to  arrest  the  further  progress  of  these  daring 
and  dangerous  human  intruders.  Here  and  there  the  fresh  track  of 
a  buffalo,  some  wanderer  of  his  race,  appeared;  the  brush  at  the 
roadside,  against  which  the  brute  had  rubbed  in  passing,  still  retain- 
ing some  of  its  hair. 

Leaving  East  Canyon  the  trail  turned  up  a  ravine  to  the  west, 
and  finally  crossed  over  another  ridge  or  summit, — Big  Mountain. 

Hitherto  naught  but  a  seemingly  endless  succession  of  Alps  on 
Alps,  hills  piled  on  hills,  had  greeted  the  tired  vision  of  the  struggling 
vanguard,  pushing  through  these  mountain  fastnesses.  But  now,  from 
the  summit  of  this  pass,  a  broader  and  grander  view  was  obtained. 
Glimpses  of  the  open  country  appeared.  To  the  south-west,  through 
a  vista  of  sloping  mountains, — the  V  of  the  canyon  prospect  changed 
to  a  W  by  the  intervention  of  a  massive  peak  towering  in  the  distance 
— two  small  sections  of  Salt  Lake  Valley  were  visible.  The  lake  was 
yet  unseen,  but  beyond  loomed  the  blue  and  snow-tipped  Oquirrhs, 
and  peering  above  them  aw  shadowy  summit  of  the  far-off  Onaqui 
range,  dimly  outlined  against  the  western  sky.  It  was  from  this 
summit — Big  Mountain — that  Orson  Pratt  and  John  Brown,  riding 
horseback  .ahead  of  their  company,  on  Monday,  July.  19th,  1847, 
caught  the  first  glimpse  had  by  any  of  the  pioneers  of  the  Valley  of 
the  Great  Salt  Lake. 

Having  descended  Big  Mountain, — a  steep  and  dangerous  slide, 




Pen  picture  of  salt  lake  valley HOW   it  looked  to  the  pioneers CONTRASTED  impres- 






XT  WAS  no  Garden  of  the  Hesperides  upon  which  the  Pioneers 
«!•     gazed   that   memorable   July   morning.     Aside   from  its   scenic 

splendor,  which  was  indeed  glorious,  magnificent,  there  was  little 
to  invite  and  much  to  repel  in  the  prospect  presented  to  their  view. 
A  broad  and  barren  plain  hemmed  in  by  mountains,  blistering  in  the 
burning  rays  of  the  midsummer  sun.  No  waving  fields,  no  swaying 
forests,  no  verdant  meadows  to  rest  and  refresh  the  weary  eye,  but 
on  all  sides  a  seemingly  interminable  waste  of  sagebrush  bespangled 
with  sunflowers, — the  paradise  of  the  lizard,  the  cricket  and  the  rat- 
tlesnake. Less  than  half  way  across  the  baked  and  burning  valley, 
dividing  it  in  twain — as  if  the  vast  bowl,  in  the  intense  heat  of  the 
Master  Potter's  fires,  in  process  of  formation  had  cracked  asunder — a 
narrow  river,  turbid  and  shallow,  from  south  to  north  in  many  a 
serpentine  curve,  sweeps  on  its  sinuous  way.  Beyond,  a  broad  lake, 
the  river's  goal,  dotted  with  mountain  islands;  its  briny  waters 
shimmering  in  the  sunlight  like  a  silver  shield. 

From  mountains  snow-capped,  seamed  and  craggy,  lifting  their 
kingly  heads  to  be  crowned  by  the  golden  sun,  How  limpid,  laughing 
streams,  cold  and  crystal  clear,  leaping,  dashing,  foaming,  Hashing, 
from  rock  to  glen,  from  peak  to  plain.     But  the  fresh  canyon  streams 


are  far  and  few,  and  the  arid  waste  they  water,  glistening  with  beds 
of  salt  and  soda  and  pools  of  deadly  alkali,  scarcely  allows  them  to 
reach  the  river,  but  midway  well  nigh  swallows  and  absorbs  them  in 
its  thirsty  sands.  Above  the  line  of  gray  and  gold,  of  sage  and  sun- 
flower, the  sloping  hillsides  and  precipitous  steeps  clothed  with  pur- 
ple and  dark-green  patches.  These,  the,  oak-bush,  the  squaw-berry, 
and  other  scant  growths,  with  here  and  there  a  tree  casting  its  lone 
shadow  on  hill  or  in  valley ;  a  wire-grass  swamp,  a  few  acres  of  with- 
ered bunch-grass,  and  the  lazily  waving  willows  and  wild-rose  bushes 
fringing  the  distant  streams,  the  only  green  things  visible. 

Silence  and  desolation  reign.  A  silence  unbroken,  save  by  the 
cricket's  ceaseless  chirp,  the  roar  of  the  mountain  torrent,  or  the 
whir  and  twitter  of  the  passing  bird.  A  desolation  of  centuries, 
where  earth  seems  heaven-forsaken,  where  hermit  Nature,  watching, 
waiting,  weeps,  and  worships  God  amid  eternal  solitudes. 

A  voice  breaks  the  stillness.  It  is  the  voice  of  Brigham  Young. 
Pale  and  wasted  from  his  recent  illness,  and  still  reclining  wearily  in 
the  light  vehicle  which  has  borne  him  through  the  mountains,  the 
pioneer  chieftain  sweeps  with  a  prescient  glance  the  gorgeous  pano- 
rama spread  out  before  him, — the  contrasted  splendors  of  mountain, 
valley,  lake  and  stream,  glorious  and  glittering  in  the  summer  sun- 
light. Far  over  and  beyond  all  these  extends  that  inspired  gaze.  It 
sees  not  merely  the  present,  but  the  future;  not  only  that  which  is, 
but  that  which  is  to  be,  when  from  these  barren  sands  shall  rise,  as 
rose  proud  Venice  from  the  sea,  a  city  fair  as  Adriatic's  island  queen, 
and  no  less  wealthy,  famed  and  powerful.  It  sees  the  burning  plains 
to  blooming  gardens  turn;  the  desert  change  to  an  oasis;  the  sterile 
valley,  the  reproach  of  Nature,  which  naught  before  had  borne, 
teeming  with  varied  life  and  yielding  rich  fruits  and  rare  flowers  for 
the  sustenance  and  delight  of  man.  An  inanimate  Sarah,  a  barren 
Rachel,  transformed  by  the  touch  of  God  to  a  joyful  mother  of  chil- 
dren. The  curse  of  centuries  is  lifted,  the  fetters  of  ages  are  stricken 
off,  and  the  redeemed  earth,  like  a  freed  captive,  looks  up  to  heaven 
and   smiles.       Cities,   towns   and   hamlets   multiply;    farms,   fields, 


Continuing,  Apostle  Woodruff  says:  "After  gazing  awhile  upon 
this  scenery,  we  moved  four  miles  across  the  table-land  into  the  val- 
ley, to  the  encampment  of  our  brethren,  who  had  arrived  two  days 
before  us.  They  had  pitched  upon  the  banks  of  two  small  streams 
of  pure  water,  and  had  commenced  plowing.  On  our  arrival  they 
had  already  broken  five  acres  of  land,  and  had  begun  planting  pota- 
toes in  the  Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake." 

Orson  Pratt  had  been  the  first  of  the  pioneers  to  tread  the  site 
of  Salt  Lake  City.  We  left  him  and  Erastus  Snow  on  the  afternoon 
of  the  21st  of  July,  descending  the  hills  near  Emigration  Canyon, 
after  drinking  in  with  rapture  the  inspiring  scene  which  had  burst 
some  moments  before  upon  their  view.  As  said,  they  had  but  one 
horse  between  them,  and  Erastus  was  now  riding.  The  day  being 
warm, — the  temperature  about  96°  Fahr., — he  had  taken  off  his  coat 
and  flung  it  loosely  over  the  saddle.  When  about  three  miles  from 
the  canyon  he  missed  his  coat,  and  returned  to  look  for  it.  Orson 
Pratt  meanwhile  walked  on  alone,  descending  from  plateau  to  plain. 
After  traversing  a  circuit  of  about  twelve  miles,  the  two  returned  to 
their  camp  in  the  canyon. 

Erastus  Snow  states  that  after  entering  the  valley  they  first 
directed  their  course  toward  the  stream  now  called  Mill  Creek,  where 
the  tall  canes  along  its  banks  "looked  like  inviting  grain."  Disap- 
pointed by  the  delusion,  and  remembering  the  President's  injunction 
to  "bear  to  the  northward,"  they  turned  in  that  direction  and  came 
to  the  banks  of  City  Creek.  This  creek  then  divided  in  twain  a  little 
above  Temple  Block ;  one  branch  running  westward  and  the  other 
southward.  It  was  9  or  10  o'clock  p.  m.  when  they  rejoined  their 
companions.  Pratt's  company,  after  their  leader  left  them,  had  only 
advanced  three  miles  clown  the  canyon  and  were  now  encamped  one- 
and-a-half  miles  above  the  mouth. 

Next  morning,  the  main  company  having  arrived,  Orson  Pratt, 
George  A.  Smith  and  seven  others  rode  into  the  valley  to  explore, 
leaving  the  others  to  follow  them  and  make  practicable  the  "nar- 
rows" at  the  mouth  of  the  canyon.    Descending  into  the  valley  aboul 


five  miles,  the  explorers  turned  northward  toward  the  Lake.  "For 
three  or  four  miles,"  says  Orson  Pratt,  "we  found  the  soil  of  a  most 
excellent  quality.  Streams  from  the  mountains  and  springs  were 
very  abundant,  the  water  excellent,  and  generally  with  gravel  bot- 
toms. A  great  variety  of  green  grass,  and  very  luxuriant,  covered 
the  bottoms  for  miles  where  the  soil  was  sufficiently  damp,  but  in 
other  places,  although  the  soil  was  good,  the  grass  had  nearly  dried 
up  for  want  of  moisture.  We  found  the  drier  places  swarming  with 
very  large  crickets,  about  the  size  of  a  man's  thumb.  This  valley  is 
surrounded  by  mountains,  except  on  the  north;  the  tops  of  some  of 
the  highest  being  covered  with  snow.  Every  one  or  two  miles 
streams  were  emptying  into  it  from  the  mountains  on  the  east,  many 
of  which  were  sufficiently  large  to  carry  mills  and  other  machinery. 
As  we  proceeded  towards  the  Salt  Lake,  the  soil  began  to  assume  a 
more  sterile  appearance.  *  *  *  We  found,  as  we  pro- 
ceeded on,  great  numbers  of  hot  springs  issuing  from  near  the  base 
of  the  mountains.  These  springs  were  highly  impregnated  with  salt 
and  sulphur.  The  temperature  of  some  was  nearly  raised  to  the  boil- 
ing point.  We  traveled  for  about  fifteen  miles  after  coming  down  into 
the  valley;  the  latter  parts  of  the  distance  the  soil  being  unfit  for 
agricultural  purposes." 

Returning  from  this  jaunt,  which  evidently  took  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  Warm  and  Hot  Springs,  they  found  their  wagons 
encamped  in  the  valley,  four  or  five  miles  below  Emigration  Canyon. 

On  the  morning  of  the  23rd,  after  despatching  messengers  to 
meet  the  President  and  inform  him  of  what  had  been  seen  and  done, 
the  camp  removed  to  the  south  branch  of  City  Creek,  near  the  Eighth 
Ward  or  Washington  Square,  not  far  from  where  the  Methodist 
Church  and  its  palatial  neighbor  the  Hotel  Knutsford  now  stand. 
A  meeting  was  there  called.  Orson  Pratt  prayed  and  dedicated  the 
land  and  camp  to  the  Lord,  and  he  and  Willard  Richards  addressed 
those  assembled.  Various  committees  were  then  appointed,  and 
preparations  at  once  made  for  putting  in  crops.  The  planting 
season  being  virtually  past,  no  time  was  to  be  lost  if  they  hoped  to 

mm  i 






)  adXt^  {JJi^^u,- 


where  it  was  "exalted  above  the  hills,"  and  "all  nations*'  would 
yet  "flow  unto  it." 

Whether  or  not  the  Apostle's  literal  view  be  taken,  there 
is  no  denying  that  in  the  light  of  those  prophecies  the  situation 
of  the  pioneers  was  particularly  striking,  and  that  these  descendants 
of  the  Pilgrims  and  Puritans,  as  ready  as  their  New  England  ances- 
tors to  recognize  God's  hand  in  their  westward  flight,  had  ample  rea- 
son, from  their  standpoint,  to  accept,  as  they  undoubtedly  did,  their 
Apostle's  interpretation  as  true  and  genuine.  Would  not  their  feet 
be  indeed  "beautiful  upon  the  mountains"  to  those  who  were  even 
now  awaiting  the  "glad  tidings,"  soon  to  be  sent  back  to  them,  of  a 
home  of  peace  and  safety  unto  which  the  Lord  was  about  to  "bring 

The  President,  though  his  feeble  condition  would  not  permit 
him  to  preach  a  sermon  that  day,  added  a  few  practical  words  from 
his  arm  chair,  where  he  sat  while  he  addressed  them.  "He  told  the 
brethren,"  says  Apostle  Woodruff,  "that  they  must  not  work  on 
Sunday ;  that  they  would  lose  five  times  as  much  as  they  would  gain 
by  it.  None  were  to  hunt  or  fish  on  that  day,  and  there  should  not 
any  man  dwell  among  us  who  would  not  observe  these  rules.  They 
might  go  and  dwell  where  they  pleased,  but  should  not  dwell  with  us. 
He  also  said  that  no  man  who  came  here  should  buy  any  land :  that 
he  had  none  to  sell;*  but  every  man  should  have  his  land  measured 
out  to  him  for  city  and  farming  purposes.  He  might  till  it  as  he 
pleased,  but  he  must  be  industrious  and  take  care  of  it." 

While  there  exists  no  proof  that  it  was  the  purpose  of  the  Mor- 
mon leader  to  set  up  anew  at  that  time  the  system  of  the  United 
Order,  the  character  of  his  instructions  on  this  occasion  were  strik- 
ingly reminiscent  of  the  past  history  and  operations  of  the  Saints 
under  the  great  social  plan  introduced  and  partly  established  by  their 
Prophet.  The  proposed  measuring  out  to  each  member  of  the  com- 
munity of  that  portion  of  land  which  he  was  required  to  industri- 

None  of  them   had  any  title  to  Hie  land  at  thai  lime     li  was  >ti]|  Mexican  soil. 


ously  cultivate,  was  in  perfect  keeping  with  the  plan  of  the  United 
Order,  and  strongly  suggestive  of  the  mission  once  given  to  Bishop 
Edward  Partridge  in  Jackson  County,  Missouri.  "He  might  till  it  as 
he  pleased,"  but  he  must  not  sell  it,  nor  work  it  on  the  Sabbath. 
Though  each  man  was  to  have  an  "inheritance"  as  an  individual 
possession,  he  was  expected  to  hold  and  use  it  in  a  way  not  incon- 
sistent with  the  public  weal;  "every  man  seeking  the  interest  of 
his  neighbor  and  doing  all  things  with  an  eye  single  to  the  glory 
of  God." 

The  Israelitish,  or  at  all  events  ancient  genius  of  the  United  Order 
is  apparent.  Nothing  is  plainer  than  that  Joseph  Smith's  concept  of 
a  community,  while  subsequent  in  enunciation  and  practice  to  the 
theories  of  the  French  socialists  and  Robert  Owen,  was  not  inspired 
by  modern  socialism  and  its  methods.  If  he  had  ideals,  they  were 
ancient  and  biblical,  not  modern  and  secular.  They  were  Moses  and 
Joshua,  rather  than  Owen  and  Saint-Simon.  Joseph  and  Brigham  in 
their  time  were  each  compared  to  Moses,  and  that,  too,  by  Gentile 
writers;  Brigham,  no  doubt,  because  he  was  not  only,  like  Joseph,  a 
law-giver,  but  actually  led  a  people,  as  Moses  led  Israel,  through  a 
wilderness  to  their  "land  of  promise."  But  he  was  not  one  whit  less 
a  Joshua  in  dividing  to  an  Israel  their  "inheritance."  And  yet,  be  it 
remembered,  it  was  the  order  of  Enoch,  "the  seventh  from  Adam," 
and  not  an  order  of  Moses  and  Joshua,  that  Joseph  Smith  had  sought 
to  establish.  The  patriarchal  or  plural  marriage  system  of  the 
Saints, — now  known  to  the  Church  in  general,  and  about  to  be 
openly  avowed  to  the  world, — was  also  Israelitish  in  theory  and  in 
practice,  as  were  their  patriarchal  family  organizations,  formed  at 
Nauvoo  and  Winter  Quarters,  according  to  "the  law  of   adoption." 

Before  proceeding  with  our  narrative,  let  us  here  touch  upon 
another  point. 

Brigham  Young,  soon  after  his  arrival  in  Salt  Lake  Valley,  is 
said  to  have  remarked :  "Now  if  they" — the  Gentiles — "will  let  us 
alone  for  ten  years,  I'll  ask  no  odds  of  them."  Some  have  construed 
this  as  a  covert  threat  against  the  Federal  Government,  signifying  a 



fifteen  miles.  The  soil  west  of  the  river  they  found  to  be  of  inferior 
quality  to  that  upon  the  east  side.  No  fresh  water  was  discovered 
after  leaving  the  "Utah  Outlet,''*  which  was  about  two  miles  from 
camp.  They  had  brought  back  a  stray  horse,  found  near  the  moun- 
tains, and  supposed  to  have  been  lost  by  the  Donner  party,  or  some 
other  company  that  had  passed  that  way. 

Other  explorers  returning  reported  that  the  canyons  in  the 
vicinity  contained  plenty  of  timber,  such  as  sugar-maple,  ash,  oak, 
fir  and  pine. 

While  the  explorers  had  been  absent,  the  farmers  had  planted 
three  more  acres  with  potatoes,  and  several  acres  with  corn,  peas  and 
beans.  These  crops,  planted  so  late,  were  not  destined  to  mature ; 
though  a  few  small  potatoes  "from  the  size  of  a  pea  upward  to  that 
of  half  an  inch  in  diameter"  were  obtained  as  excellent  seed  for 
another  year's  planting. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  26th,  before  the  President's  explor- 
ing party  had  set  out,  Lorenzo  D.  Young  obtained  permission  to 
remove  his  wagons  from  the  south  branch  of  City  Creek  to  a  more 
elevated,  and  as  he  believed,  healthier  site  on  the  branch  running 
westward,  near  what  was  afterwards  known  as  the  Whitney  Corner, 
opposite  the  north-east  corner  of  Temple  Block.  There  stood  a  soli- 
tary scrub-oak,  one  of  the  few  trees  at  first  visible  in  the  valley. 
Beneath  the  scant  shade  of  this  exile  of  the  forest, — for  it  was 
neither  monarch  nor  resident  of  the  wood, — he  placed  his  cov- 
ered wagon-box,  lifting  it  from  the  wheels  for  that  purpose,  and  did 
all  in  his  power  to  make  a  comfortable  and  cozy  little  nook  for  his 
dejected  wife,  so  sadly  dispirited  over  the  treeless  and  desolate  aspect 
of  their  new  home.  The  President  and  his  party,  passing  by  on 
their  way  to  the  mountains,  decided  that  tins  was  a  better  camp- 
ground than  the  one  then  occupied.  Other  wagons  were  therefore 
directed  to  remove  to  that  vicinity,  which,  being  done,  it  was  thence- 

*  The  name  given  to  the  river  Jordan,  the  outlet  of  Lake  I  tah,  by  lie'  trappei 
guides  of  the  Great  Basin. 


forth  known  as  the  Upper  Camp.  In  the  neighborhood  a  spot  for  a 
garden  was  selected,  and  its  cultivation  immediately  begun. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  27th,  a  couple  of  Indians — Utes — 
visited  the  camps  and  traded  with  the  pioneers,  exchanging  two 
ponies  for  a  rifle  and  a  musket.  The  red  men  were  quite  friendly, 
and  seemed  very  anxious  to  trade. 

About  half  past  eight  Amasa  M.  Lyman,  Rodney  Badger  and 
Roswell  Stevens,  who  had  parted  from  the  pioneers  at  Fort  Laramie 
to  go  to  Pueblo,  arrived  at  head-quarters  on  City  Creek.  They  were 
accompanied  by  Samuel  Brannan.  They  reported  Captain  Brown's 
command  as  being  within  two  days'  march  of  the  Valley. 

Half  an  hour  later,  the  President's  exploring  party,  including 
the  Apostles,  Elder  Brannan  and  several  others,  started  for  the  Great 
Salt  Lake,  taking  with  them  a  carriage,  several  riding  and  pack  ani- 
mals, with  bedding  and  provisions  for  a  two  days' journey.  The  Utah 
Outlet,  which  they  forded,  was  described  as  being  about  six  rods  wide 
and  three  feet  deep,  with  a  gravel  bottom;  the  water,  unlike  that  of 
the  mountain  streams,  being  unclear,  and  the  current  not  very  rapid. 
Thirteen  miles  over  a  level  plain  covered  with  sage-brush  and  grease- 
wood,  with  here  and  there  a  stagnant  alkaline  pool,  or  dry  bed  of  a 
lake,  baked  and  cracked  by  the  sun,  brought  them  to  the  -point  of 
the  mountain,"  near  the  southern  shore  of  the  lake.  Nooning  at  a 
large  spring  in  that  vicinity,  the  waters  of  which  were  slightly  brack- 
ish, they  rode  on  a  few  miles  farther  to  where  a  large,  black  rock 
stood  upon  the  shore.  The  somber  color  of  this  lone  basaltic  cliff 
readily  suggested  the  name  it  should  bear,  and  they  called  it  Black 
Rock,  bestowing  upon  it  the  same  title  as  that  given  it  by  the 
Donner  party,  according  to  Mr.  Reed,  the  season  before.  It  was  not 
then,  as  now,  separated  from  the  shore  by  water.  The  pioneers 
walked  to  it  dry-shod.  Brigham  Young  was  the  first  to  lave  his  hand 
in  the  lake.  After  a  bath  in  its  briny  and  buoyant  waters,  the  won- 
derful properties  of  which  much  impressed  them,  they  partly  explored 
Tooele  Valley,  west  of  the  Oquirrh  mountains.  At  dusk  they  set  out  to 
return  to  the  place  of  their  noon  halt,  and  there  encamped  for  the  night. 



^UjldL'Vl^     V&w-     /fj^UHJ] 


its  charming  and  healthful  thoroughfares,  presented  the  appearance, 
especially  in  summer  when  orchards  were  all  abloom,  of  one  vast, 
variegated  boucmet,  radiant  with  beauty  and  redolent  of  mingled 
perfumes.  The  transformation  from  sage-brush  and  sun-flower  was 
truly  wonderful,  and  the  fair  and  peaceful  city, — as  peaceful  as  it  was 
fair, — was  a  perpetual  delight,  not  only  to  its  builders  and  inhabi- 
tants, but  likewise  to  the  stranger  guest,  the  weary  traveler  and 
passing  pilgrim  from  abroad. 




The   pioneer   settlers   RE-INFORCED CAPTAIN    JAMES     brown     and     his   COMPANY THE   MIS-  . 







—  IMMIGRATION    OF      1847 CAPTAINS      OF      HUNDREDS     AND      FIFTIES — -THE  FIRST    STAKE    OF 



EXPLORED CLOSE    OF    THE    YEAR    1847. 

•L  HE  pioneer  settlers  of  Salt  Lake  Valley  now  began  to  receive 
>K  re-inforcements.  The  first  to  arrive  was  Captain  James 
Brown's  detachment  of  the  Mormon  Battalion,  accompanied  by 
the  main  portion  of  the  Mississippi  Saints  who  had  joined  the 
soldiers  at  Pueblo.  Being  aware  of  their  approach,  President  Young 
and  others  on  the  29th  of  July  mounted  their  horses  and  went  out 
to  meet  them. 

The  advance  columns  were  encountered  about  three  miles 
from  camp;  the  main  body,  with  Captains  Brown  and  Higgins  and 
Lieutenant  Willis,  some  distance  behind  them  in  Emigration  Canyon. 
A  thunder-storm  accompanied  by  a  cloud-burst  occurred  while  they 
were  yet  in  the  canyon,  swelling  the  mountain  streams,  causing  them 
to  rush  and  roar  tumultuously  clown  their  rocky  channels,  over-flow 
their  banks  in  places  and  flood  the  surrounding  soil.  Simultane- 
ously a  shower  spread  over  a  large  portion  of  the  valley.  Having 
emerged  from  the  gorge,  Captain  Brown's  company,  escorted  by  the 
President  and  his  party,  marched  to  the  inspiring  strains  of  martial 


music  to  the  camps  on  City  Creek,  arriving  at  the  lower  one  about 
4  p.  m.  They  received  a  joyful  welcome.  The  soldiers,  some  of 
whom  were  mounted,  numbered  over  one  hundred;  the  Mississippians 
about  the  same.  They  brought  with  them  sixty  wagons,  one 
carriage,  one  hundred  horses  and  mules,  and  three  hundred  head  of 
cattle ;  adding  materially  to  the  strength  of  the  pioneer  colony. 

It  had  been  the  design  of  Captain  Brown,  on  leaving  Pueblo, 
to  push  on  without  delay  to  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco.  But  the  Bat- 
talion's term  of  enlistment  having  expired,  and  his  teams  being  jaded 
and  many  of  his  wagons  broken,  he  now  decided  to  tarry  in  Salt 
Lake  Valley  and  await  further  orders  from  his  military  superiors. 
The  soldiers  formed  a  separate  camp  on  City  Creek,  about  midway 
between  the  two  camps  of  the  pioneers. 

At  a  general  meeting  held  next  evening,  the  President,  in  behalf 
of  the  whole  people,  publicly  thanked  the  Battalion  for  the  important 
service  they  had  rendered  their  country  and  their  co-religionists. 
He  expressed  the  belief  that  the  Church  had  been  saved  from 
destruction  by  the  enlistment  of  these  troops  on  the  frontier.  Simi- 
lar sentiments  were  voiced  by  him  to  the  main  body  of  the  Battalion 
after  their  arrival  from  California. 

Captain  Brown's  men,  at  the  request  of  the  President,  con- 
structed, two  days  after  their  arrival,  a  bowery  in  which  to  hold  pub- 
lic meetings  on  Temple  Block.  This  primitive  structure — the  first 
building  of  any  kind  erected  by  the  Mormons  in  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains— was  similar  to  the  boweries  constructed  by  them  at  their  various 
settlements  between  the  Mississippi  and  the  Missouri.  Posts  were 
set  in  the  ground,  and  upon  these  rude  pillars  long  poles  were  laid 
and  securely  fastened  with  wooden  pegs  or  strips  of  rawhide. 
This  framework,  overlaid  with  timbers  and  brush,  formed  an  umbra- 
geous if  not  a  very  substantial  roof;  a  good  shelter  from  the  sun  and 
a  fair  though  insufficient  one  from  wind  and  rain.  Its  dimensions 
were  forty  by  twenty-eight  feet, — large  enough  to  accommodate  the 
assembly  of  the  entire  camp. 

At  one  end  of  these  boweries  it  was  customary  to  erect  a  plat- 


form  and  stand,  well  boarded  in  at  the  back,  for  the  use  of  presid- 
ing officers  and  speakers;  a  space  in  front  being  reserved  for  the 
choir.  At  first  seats  would  be  improvised  from  whatever  articles 
came  handy,  but  in  due  time  rude  benches  would  follow,  resting 
upon  a  floor  or  on  the  ground ;  the  character  and  extent  of  the 
improvements  would  largely  depend  upon  the  permanency  of  the  set- 
tlement of  which  the  bowery  was  the  center  of  worship,  social 
amusement  and  gatherings  in  general.  Though  top  and  sides  were 
well  covered  and  closed  in,  the  meetings  held  in  such  buildings  would 
be  virtually  in  the  open  air,  and  during  bad  weather  would  have  to 
be  suspended  and  in  winter  time  discontinued.  Until  the  "Old  Tab- 
ernacle" was  built — the  forerunner  of  the  present  Tabernacle — these 
boweries  were  the  only  regular  places  of  public  worship  in  Salt  Lake 

The  original  bowery,  erected  by  the  Battalion  boys,  must  not  be 
confounded  with  the  "  Old  Bowery,"  subsequently  built  on  Temple 
Block,  which,  after  several  years'  use  as  a  house  of  worship,  was 
transformed  into  a  theater, — the  original  Thespian  temple  of  Utah. 
Concerning  this  particular  structure,  in  connection  with  the  local 
history  of  music  and  the  drama,  we  shall  have  more  to  say  here- 

July  31st — the  day  the  first  bowery  was  erected — witnessed  an 
exciting  and  bloody  affray  between  two  small  bands  of  Indians,  Utes 
and  Shoshones,  who  were  trading  at  the  camps  on  City  Creek.  Two 
young  men,  one  of  either  tribe,  began  disputing  over  a  theft  alleged 
to  have  been  committed  by  the  Ute.  He  was  accused  of  stealing  a 
horse  belonging  to  the  Shoshones  and  trading  it  to  one  of  the  set- 
tlers for  a  rifle.  Being  detected,  he  refused  to  relinquish  either  horse 
or  rifle.  Hence  the  quarrel,  followed  by  a  combat,  between  the  two 
young  warriors.  During  the  fight  one  broke  his  gun-stock  over  the 
other's  head.  The  affair  was  waxing  warm,  and  matters  began  get- 
ting serious,  when  an  old  man,  father  of  one  of  the  combatants, 
strove  to  separate  them.  For  this  purpose  he  lashed  with  a  heavy 
thong  of  rawhide  their  heads  and  faces.     The  son's  antagonist  struck 


involved  that  of  building  and  inhabiting  houses  during  the  coming 
winter,  instead  of  dwelling  in  tents  and  wagons.  It  was  thought 
that  a  log  house,  sixteen  by  eighteen  feet,  would  cost  about  forty 
dollars,  and  one  of  adobes — sun-burnt  bricks — about  half  that  sum. 
Samuel  Brannan  favored  adobe  houses,  one  of  which,  he  said,  might 
be  built  in  a  week.  His  printing  office  in  California  had  been  put  up 
and  a  copy  of  his  paper  issued  in  fourteen  days.  Samuel  Gould  and 
James  Dunn  reported  themselves  as  lime-burners,  and  -Sylvester  H. 
Earl,  Joel  J.  Terrill,  Ralph  Douglas  and  Joseph  Hancock  as  brick- 
makers.  It  was  decided  by  vote  that  a  stockade  of  logs  and  adobes 
be  at  once  erected.     Thus  the  famous  "Old  Fort"  had  its  origin. 

Next  morning  the  three  camps  moved  all  their  wagons  to  a  spot 
a  little  east  of  the  upper  camp-ground,  and  formed  them  into  an 
oblong  corral  between  the  two  branches  of  City  Creek.  A  dam  was 
put  in  the  stream  some  distance  above,  and  the  waters  so  diverted 
that  pleasant  little  rivulets  were  soon  running  down  outside  as  well 
as  inside  the  corral  of  wagons.  The  Indians,  on  account  of  their 
stealing  proclivities,  were  not  now  permitted  inside  the  enclosure. 

On  the  morning  of  August  2nd  Orson  Pratt  and  Henry  G.  Sher- 
wood began  the  survey  of  Salt  Lake  City.  Heber  C.  Kimball's  teams 
went  into  the  canyon  and  brought  the  first  loads  of  logs  for  the  fort, 
and  other  laborers  began  making  adobes  and  preparing  mounds  for 
the  same  purpose.  The  day  was  very  warm  and  the  camp  exceed- 
ingly busy. 

Ezra  T.  Benson  and  Porter  Rockwell  were  now  sent  back  to  meet 
the  next  companies  from  Winter  Quarters,  supposed  to  be  somewhere 
on  the  plains  between  the  Missouri  River  and  the  mountains.  They 
started  about  noon  of  the  2nd,  going  horseback,  and  taking  with 
them  the  following  letter : 

Pioneer  Camp,  Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake,  Aug.  2,  1847. 
To    General   Charles    C.   Rich  and  the   Presidents  and  Officers  of  the   Emigrating 


Dear  Brethren. — We  have  delegated  our  beloved  brother,  Ezra  T.  Benson,  and 
escort  to  communicate  to  you  by  express  the  cheering  intelligence  that  we  have  arrived  in 
the  most  beautiful  valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  ;  that  every  soul  who  lefl  Winter  Quarters 


with  us  is  alive,  and  almost  every  one  enjoying  good  health.  That  portion  ot  the  Battalion 
that  was  at  Pueblo  are  here  with  us,  together  with  the  Mississippi  company  that  accom- 
panied them,  and  they  are  generally  well.  We  number  about  four  hundred  souls,  and 
we  know  of  no  one  but  what  is  pleased  with  our  situation.  We  have  commenced  the 
survey  of  a  city  this  morning.  We  feel  that  the  time  is  fast  approaching  when  those 
teams  that  are  going  to  Winter  Quarters  this  fall  should  be  on  the  way.  Every  individual 
here  would  be  glad  to  tarry  if  their  friends  were  here,  but  as  many  of  the  Battalion  as 
well  as  the  Pioneers  have  not  their  families  here,  and  do  not  expect  that  they  are  in  your 
camp,  we  wish  to  learn  by  express  from  you  the  situation  of  your  camp  as  speedily  as 
possible,  that  we  may  be  prepared  to  counsel  and  act  in  the  whole  matter.  We  want 
you  to  send  us  the  name  of  every  individual  in  your  camp,  or,  in  other  words,  a  copy  of 
your  whole  camp  roll,  including  the  names,  number  of  wagons,  horses,  mules,  oxen, 
cows,  etc.,  and  the  health  of  your  camp  ;  your  location,  prospects,  etc.  If  your  teams  are 
worn  out,  if  your  camp  is  sick  and  not  able  to  take  care  of  themselves,  if  you  are  short  of 
teamsters,  or  if  any  other  circumstance  impedes  your  progress,  we  want  to  know  it  im- 
mediately, for  we  have  help  for  you,  and  if  your  teams  are  in  good  plight,  and  will  be 
able  to  return  to  Winter  Quarters  this  season,  or  any  portion  of  them,  we  want  to  know 
it.  We  also  want  the  mail,  which  will  include  all  letters  and  papers  and  packages  be- 
longing to  our  camp,  general  and  particular.  Would  circumstances  permit,  we  would 
gladly  meet  you  some  distance  from  this,  but  our  time  is  very  much  occupied,  notwith- 
standing we  think  you  will  see  us  before  you  see  our  valley.  Let  all  the  brethren  and 
sisters  cheer  up  their  hearts  and  know  assuredly  that  God  has  heard  and  answered  their 
prayers  and  ours,  and  led  us  to  a  goodly  land,  and  our  souls  are  satisfied  therewith. 
Brother' Benson  can  give  you  many  particulars  that  will  be  gratifying  and  cheering  to  you 
which  I  have  not  time  to  write,  and  we  feel  to  bless  all  the  Saints. 

In  behalf  of  the  council,  Brigham  Young,  President, 

Willard  Bichards,  Clerk. 

Utah  Valley  was  next  explored.  Jesse  C.  Little  and  a  party, 
returning  on  the  5th  of  August  from  a  tour  in  that  vicinity,  reported 
that  there  was  a  fine  country  east  of  Utah  Lake,  the  soil  being  well 
adapted  for  cultivation.  They  virtually  confirmed  the  report  of 
Escalante,  the  Spaniard,  who  had  discovered  that  lake  and  valley 
seventy-one  years  before. 

On  the  6th  of  August  the  President  and  the  Apostles  who  were 
with  him,  namely:  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Orson  Pratt,  Willard  Richards, 
Wilford  Woodruff,  George  A.  Smith  and  Amasa  M.  Lyman,  "renewed 
their  covenants"  by  baptism.  President  Young,  entering  the  water 
— City  Creek — immersed  each  of  the  others  according  to  the  usual 
mode,  after  which  he  laid  hands  upon  and  confirmed  them,  resealing 
upon  each  his  Apostleship.      Heber  C.  Kimball— next  to  Rrigham 



b  Hose 


We  want 

leans  are 
re  short  of 

-     (■ 

ii  and 
ered  their 


ing  well 

iport  of 


ho  were 

tie  water 





upon  those  well-nigh  inaccessible  summits,  tipped  with  perpetual 
snow.     The  ascent  was  made  on  the  21st  of  August. 

Meantime  work  on  the  stockade  had  begun  and  was  progressing 
rapidly.  The  site  selected  for  the  fort  was  about  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  south-west  of  the  City  Creek  encampment.  A  portion  of  the 
Sixth  Ward  of  Salt  Lake  City  still  bears  the  familiar  name  of  the 
"Old  Fort  Block,"  though  the  fort  itself,  which  once  enclosed  it, 
has  long  since  disappeared.  There,  on  the  10th  of  August,  1847, 
were  laid  the  foundations  of  the  first  houses  erected  in  Salt  Lake 
Valley, — the  first  built  by  the  Mormons  west  of  Winter  Quar- 
ters. Brigham  Young  started  four  of  these  houses,  Heber  C. 
Kimball  four,  Stephen  Markham  one,  Willard  Richards  one,  and 
Lorenzo  D.  Young  one.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  Old  Fort. 
The  first  house  finished  and  occupied  was  Lorenzo  D.  Young's. 
These  houses  extended  continuously  along  the  east  line  of  the  stock- 
ade, beginning  at  the  nort-heast  corner.  Their  order  was  as  follows : 
Brigham  Young,  four  rooms;  Lorenzo  D.  Young,  two;  Heber  C.  Kim- 
ball, five;  Willarcl  Bichards,  two;  Wilford  Woodruff,  two;  George  A. 
Smith,  two;  Amasa  M.  Lyman,  two;  and  Erastus  Snow,  one.  These 
first  dwellings  were  of  logs.  They  had  poles  for  rafters,  willows  for 
roofs  and  in  lieu  of  shingles  earth ;  an  insufficient  shelter,  as  was  found 
later,  from  autumn  rains  and  winter's  melting  snows.  Floors  and 
ceilings  were  rare,  and  of  the  rudest  and  most  primitive  kind,  while 
window  glass  was  almost  an  unknown  quantity. 

Plowing  and  planting  by  this  time  had  been  suspended,  thirty 
additional  acres  having  been  put  under  cultivation,  making  eighty- 
three  in  all.  Most  of  the  settlers  were  now  busily  occupied, 
chopping  and  hauling  logs,  making  adobes  and  preparing  to  build. 

The  first  white  child  born  in  Utah  opened  its  eyes  to  the  light  on 
Monday,  August  9th,  1847 — two  weeks  and  two  days  after  the  arrival 
of  the  Pioneers.  This  infantile  re-info rcement  was  a  girl,  the 
daughter  of  John  and  Catharine  Campbell  Steele,  both  of  the 
Mormon  Battalion,  who  came  into  the  Valley  in  Captain  Brown's 
company  on  the  29th  of  July.     Their  child  was  born  at  4  o'clock 


a.  m.,  in  her  father's  tent  on  Temple  Block.  She  was  named  Young 
Elizabeth  Steele,  after  President  Young  and  Queen  Elizabeth.  The 
father,  John  Steele,  was  a  mason,  and  according  to  his  account  built 
nearly  one-third  of  the  "Old  Fort"  with  his  own  hands,  using  a 
trowel  made  by  Burr  Frost  out  of  a  saw-blade.  Mr.  Steele  also 
claims  to  be  the  pioneer  shoe-maker  of  Utah.  He  resides  at 
Tocpuerville,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Territory.  His  daughter 
lives  at  Kanarra,  in  Kane  County,  and  is  now  Mrs.  James 

The  first  death  in  the  pioneer  colony  followed  hard  upon  the 
heels  of  the  original  birth.  It  occurred  just  two  days  later.  The 
victim  was  a  little  three-year-old  child  of  George  and  Jane  Therlkill, 
— a  grand-child  of  Robert  Crow.  Wandering  away  from  camp  a 
little  to  the  south,  it  had  fallen  into  the  creek,  where  it  was  dis- 
covered, drowned,  about  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  Every 
possible  effort  was  made  to  restore  it,  but  without  avail.  The 
parents  mourned  bitterly  their  loss,  and  a  shadow  of  sympathetic 
gloom  rested  for  a  season  upon  the  whole  encampment. 

On  August  12th  an  observation  was  taken  by  Orson  Pratt  and 
William  Clayton  to  ascertain  the  height  of  Temple  Block.  It  was 
discovered  to  be  4,309  feet  above  the  sea  level,  and  sixty-five  feet 
above  the  Utah  outlet.  Ascending  City  Creek  canyon  one  mile  the 
altitude  above  the  Temple  grounds  was  found  to  be  214  feet. 

Surveyor  Sherwood  and  his  aids  were  still  busy  laying  out  the 
city.  Messrs.  Tanner,  Frost  and  their  fellow  sons  of  Vulcan  were 
engaged  in  shoeing  oxen  and  re-setting  wheel  tires  for  the  com- 
panies that  were  about  to  return  to  Winter  Quarters.  Some  of  these 
were  Battalion  men  who  had  not  seen  their  families  since  bidding 
them  adieu  on  the  frontier  thirteen  months  before.  A  party  of  men 
who  had  been  to  the  lake  to  boil  down  salt,  returned,  reporting  that 
they  had  found,  lying  between  two  sand-bars  on  the  lake-shore,  a 
beautiful  bed  of  salt  all  ready  to  load  into  wagons.  Several  loads 
were  brought  to  camp,  and  two  of  them  taken  east  by  the  company 
that  set  out  a  few  days  later  for  the  Missouri  River. 



August  16th  was  the  day  of  their  departure.  Most  of  the 
ox-teams  started  and  traveled  to  the  mouth  of  Emigration  Canyon, 
where  they  were  joined  next  day  by  the  residue  of  the  company. 
There  were  seventy-one  men,  with  thirty-three  wagons  and  ninety- 
two  yoke  of  oxen;  also  some  horses  and  mules.  Their  organization 
was  similar  to  that  of  the  Pioneers.  There  were  two  divisions,  made 
up  of  companies  of  tens.  Tunis  Rappleyee  and  Shadrach  Roundy 
were  the  two  captains  of  divisions,  and  William  Clayton  was  historian. 
The  personnel  of  the  company  was  as  follows: 


Tunis    Rappleyee,    Captain. 


Skein,  Captain,  George  Cummings, 

Artemas  Johnson,  Thomas  Richardson, 

James  Cazier,  captain  of  guard  William  Burt, 

of  first  division,  James  Dunn, 

Joseph  Shipley, 
Samuel  Badlam, 
Roswell  Stevens. 

Zebedee  Goltrin,  Captain, 
Ghauncey  Loveland, 
Lorenzo  Babcock, 


Samuel  H.  Marble, 
George  Scholes, 
William  Bird, 

Joshua  Curtis, 
John  S.  Eldredge, 
Horace  Thornton. 

Francis  Boggs,  Captain, 
Sylvester  H.  Earl, 


Seeley  Owen, 
George  Wardle, 

Clark  Stillman, 
Ahnon  M.  Williams 

R.  Jackson  Redding, 
William  Carpenter, 
Henry  W.  Sanderson, 
Bailey  Jacobs, 


Shadrach  Roundy,  Gaptaii 

FIRST  TEN  (five  wagons): 
John  Pack, 
Robert  By  aid, 
Benjamin  W.  Rolfe, 

Thomas  Colward, 
Lisbon  Lamb, 
William   Clayton. 

Jobn  H.  Tippitts.  Captaii 
Francis  T.  Whitney, 
James  Stewart, 
Charles  A.  Burke, 

second  tex  (five  wagons): 
William  C.  McLelland, 
Norman  Taylor, 
Lyman  Stevens, 
Lyman  Curtis, 

John  S.  Gleason,  captain  of 
guard  of  second  division, 
Myron  Tanner, 
Rufus  Allen. 



Allen  Compton,  Captain, 
John  Bybee, 
Jeduthan  Averett, 
John  G.  Smith, 

Andrew  J.  Shupe,  Captain, 
Francillo  Durfee, 
Erastus  Bingham, 
Loren  Kinney, 


Philip  Garner, 
Bamebas  Lake, 
Franklin  Allen, 
David  Garner, 


Benjamin  Roberts, 
Jarris  Johnson, 
Albert  Clark, 
James  Hendrickson, 

Harmon  D.  Persons, 
Solomon  Tindell, 
Charles  Hopkins. 

John  Calvert, 
Daniel  Miller, 
Luther  W.  Glazier, 
Thomas  Bingham. 

The  third  and  fourth  tens  of  the  second  division  were  members 
of  the  Mormon  Battalion,  returning  to  meet  their  families  on  the 
plains  or  the  frontier.  For  each  man  there  had  been  provided  eight 
pounds  of  flour,  nine  pounds  of  meal,  and  a  few  pounds  of 
beans.  For  the  rest  of  their  subsistence  they  were  to  depend 
upon  game  killed  by  the  way.  A  new  roadometer  was  constructed 
for  this  company  by  William  A.  King;  William  Clayton  having  received 
special  instructions  from  President  Young  to  carefully  re-measure  the 
distance  back  to  Winter  Quarters,  and  collect  such  other  information 
as  might  be  serviceable  to  future  emigration. 

Their  journey  back  to  the  Missouri  consumed  a  little  over  nine 
weeks.  It  was  prosperous  and  comparatively  uneventful.  Beyond 
Green  River,  on  Big  Sandy,  they  met  Ezra  T.  Benson  and  Porter 
Rockwell,  returning  west  with  the  mail,  after  delivering  the  Presi- 
dent's letter  to  General  Rich  and  the  on-coming  trains.  The  leading 
one — Captain  Daniel  Spencer's  first  fifty — was  encountered  by 
the  east-bound  wagons  on  the  31st  of  August,  at  the  "first  crossing" 
of  the  Sweetwater.  Here  Shadrach  Pioundy  joined  his  family  and 
returned  west,  and  John  G.  Smith  took  his  place  as  captain  of  the 
second  division.  The  other  companies  were  met  at  various  points 
within  the  next  three  days.' 

Heavy  rains,  with  snow,  set  in  early  in  September.  The  pro- 
visions— breadstuffs — of  the  returning  company  gave  out,  and  for 
several  weeks  dried  buffalo  meat  was  their  sole  subsistence.  During 
the  latter  part  of  the  journey  the  Indians  annoyed  them  considerably, 


burning  the  prairies  before  them  and  stealing  their  stock.  At  the 
North  Platte  ferry  they  met  Luke  Johnson,  William  A.  Empey  and 
Appleton  M.  Harmon,  of  the  nine  men  left  there  by  the  pioneers  in 
June,  and  at  Loup  Fork  Captain  Hosea  Stout  and  a  party  of  mounted 
police  from  Winter  Quarters,  going  out  to  meet  President  Young,  who 
was  now  supposed  to  be  on  his  way  back  to  the  Missouri 

Captain  Rappleyee's  wagons  rolled  into  Winter  Quarters  on  the 
21st  of  October.  The  distance  from  Salt  Lake  Valley,  as  re-measured 
by  William  Clayton,  was  found  to  be  1032  miles — twenty-two  miles 
less  than  the  former  reckoning  of  the  Pioneers. 

In  the  Valley,  after  the  departure  of  the  "ox-teams,"  the  work 
of  exploring,  building  and  surveying  went  steadily  on.  The  laying 
out  of  the  city  was  completed  on  August  20th;  135  blocks  of  ten 
acres  each  being  included  in  this  original  survey.  The  building  of 
the  fort  was  pushed  forward  as  rapidly  as  possible  and  by  the  last 
of  the  month  twenty-nine  houses  had  been  erected  at  the  stockade. 

In  the  latter  part  of  August  President  Young  and  the  Apostles 
prepared  to  return  to  Winter  Quarters.  Though  much  remained  to 
be  done  before  the  feet  of  the  infant  colony  would  be  firmly  planted, 
anxiety  was  felt  by  the  leaders  for  the  welfare  of  the  Church  on  the 
frontier,  and  the  success  of  the  next  year's  emigration.  None  could 
so  well  organize  and  lead  the  main  body  of  their  people  across  the 
plains  to  their  mountain  retreat,  as  these  experienced  guides  and 
colonizers  of  the  Great  Basin.  That  was  doubtless  the  main 
reason  why  they  resolved  to  return  to  the  Missouri  that  season, 
instead  of  spending  the  winter  with  their  friends  in  Salt  Lake 

Prior  to  their  departure  a  special  conference  was  convened  on 
Sunday  the  22nd  of  August,  when  the  pioneer  settlers  assembled  in 
the  Bowery  to  receive  the  parting  instructions  of  their  leaders.  It 
was  emphatically  a  business  conference,  called  to  consider  the  tem- 
poral affairs  of  the  colony.  It  was  decided  by  vote  to  fence  in  and 
cultivate  the  city  plat  during  the  coming  year,  in  preference  to  lands 
lying  outside,  also  to  organize  in  Salt  Lake  Valley  a  Stake  of  Zion, 


with  Father  John  Smith,  the  Prophet's  uncle,  as  President.  Father 
Smith  had  not  yet  arrived,  but  was  expected  in  the  coming  emi- 
gration. Other  nominations  were  deferred  until  it  should  be  known 
who  were  in  the  next  trains. 

The  pioneer  city  then  received  its  name.  "I  move,'"  said 
Brigham  Young,  "that  we  call  this  place  the  Great  Salt  Lake  City  of 
the  Great  Basin  of  North  America."  The  motion  was  seconded  and 
carried.  On  the  President's  motion  the  post  office  was  called  "The 
Great  Basin  Post  Office."  Heber  C.  Kimball,  by  motion,  named  the 
river  running  through  the  valley  "The  Western  Jordan,"  and 
Brigham  Young  christened  City  Creek,  Mill  Creek,  Red  Butte  Creek, 
Emigration  Creek,  and  Canyon  (now  Parley's)  Creek,  in  like  manner. 
It  was  many  years  before  the  city's  title  was  abbreviated  by  legisla- 
tive enactment  to  "Salt  Lake  City,"  but  the  "Western  Jordan" 
became  plain  "Jordan"  almost  immediately. 

Colonel  A.  P.  Rockwood,  overseer  of  the  stockade,  was  released 
from  that  position  to  return  with  the  President,  and  Tarlton  Lewis  was 
appointed  overseer  in  his  stead.  William  Mclntyre  was  chosen  clerk 
to  keep  an  account  of  public  labor,  and  Edson  Whipple  was  given 
charge  of  the  distribution  of  water  over  the  plowed  lands.  The 
President's  parting  injunction  was  as  follows  : 

It  is  necessary  that  the  adobe  yard  (the  stockade)  should  be  secured  so  that 
Indians  cannot  get  in.  To  accommodate  those  few  who  shall  remain  here  after  we 
return,  it  would  only  be  necessary  to  build  one  side  of  the  fort,  but  common  sense  teaches 
us  to  build  it  all  round.  By  and  by  men  of  means  will  be  coming  on,  and  they  will  want 
rooms,  and  the  men  who  build  them  will  then  be  entitled  to  their  pay.  Make  your  walls 
4£  feet  high,  so  that  they  can  keep  the  cattle  out.  Build  your  houses  so  that  you  will 
have  plenty  of  fresh  air  in  them,  or  some  of  you  will  get  sick,  after  being  used  to  sleeping 
in  your  wagons  so  long.  We  propose  to  fence  in  a  tract  of  land  thirty  rods  square,  so 
that  in  case  of  necessity  the  cattle  can  be  brought  inside  and  the  hay  also  be  stacked 
there.  In  the  spring  this  fence  can  be  removed  and  a  trench  be  plowed  about  twenty 
feet  from  the  houses  to  enable  the  women  to  raise  garden  vegetables.  I  want  to  engage 
50,000  bushels  of  wheat  and  the  same  amount  of  corn  and  other  grain  in  proportion.  I 
will  pay  you  81.25  per  bushel  for  wheal  and  50  cents  for  corn.  Why  cannot  I  bring 
glass  for  you  and  you  raise  corn  for  me?  Baise  all  the  grain  you  can,  and  with  this  you 
can  purchase  sheep,  cows,  teams,  etc.,  of  those  who  come  here  later  on.  We  desire  you 
to  live  in  that  stockade  until  we  come  back  again,  and  raise  grain  next  year. 



On  the  26th  of  August  the  pioneer  leaders  bade  farewell  to  their 
friends  who  were  to  remain,  and  set  out  upon  their  return  journey  to 
the  Missouri.  Such  of  the  Pioneers  and  Battalion  men  present  as 
had  families  at  Winter  Quarters  or  on  the  way  west,  were  selected  to 
accompany  the  President  and  his  party. 

The  weather  was  now  beautiful.  The  oppressive  heat  of  summer 
was  pretty  well  past,  and  the  cool,  bright  days  of  our  delightful 
mountain  autumn  were  just  about  beginning.  The  roads,  however, 
were  very  dusty,  and  the  way  through  the  canyons,  though  more 
passable  than  before,  was  still  rough  and  difficult.  Their  noon  halt 
on  the  29th  was  at  the  head  of  Echo  Canyon.  There  Ezra  T.  Benson 
joined  them,  bringing  news  of  the  approaching  trains.  Porter  Rock- 
well came  up  later.  After  crossing  Bear  Biver  the  company  was  called 
together  and  organized.     The  full  list  of  names  was  as  here  given : 

Brigham  Young, 
John  P.  Greene, 
Truman  0.  Angell, 
Joseph  S.  Schofield, 
Albert  P.  Bockwood, 
Stephen  H.  Goddard, 
Millen  Atwood, 
Thomas  Tanner, 
Addison  Everett, 
Sidney  A.  Hanks, 
George  Clark, 
J.  G.  Luce, 
John  G.  Holnian. 
George  R.  Grant, 
Davis  S.  Laughlin. 
William  Dykes, 
Jacob  Weiler, 
David  Grant. 
Thomas  Woolsey, 
Haywood  Thomas, 
Samuel  W.  Fox, 
Willard  Richards, 
Thomas  Bullock, 
Benjamin  Richmond, 
Harvey  Pierce, 

William  Wardswortb, 
Datus  Ensign, 
John  Dixon, 
Simeon  Howd, 
Seth  Taft, 
John  P.  Wriston, 
Stephen  Kelsey, 
Charles  D.  Barnum, 
Wilford  Woodruff, 
Dexter  Stillman, 
William  C.  A.  Smoot, 
James  W.  Steward, 
Robert  T.  Thomas, 
Jabez  Nowlin, 
James  Case, 
James  C.  Earl, 
Judson  Persons, 
Orson  Pratt, 
Joseph  Egbert, 
Marcus  B.  Thorpe, 
George  Wilson, 
Jesse  Johnson, 
John  Brimhall, 
A.  L.  Huntley, 
Rodney  Badger, 

Alex.  P.  Chessley, 
Thomas  C.  Chessley, 
John  G.  Gould, 
Samuel  Gould, 
Amasa  M.  Lyman, 
Albert  Carrington, 
John  Brown, 
George  A.  Smith, 
Joel  J.  Ten-ill, 
Solomon  Chamberlain, 
William  Tenill, 
Nathaniel  Fairbanks, 
Charles  A.  Harper, 
Perry  Fitzgerald, 
Isaac  N.  Wriston, 
Ozro  Eastman, 
Horace  Monroe  Frink, 
Levi  N.  Kendall, 
Stephen  Markham, 
George  .Mills. 
Conrad  Klineman, 
Horace  K.  Whitney, 
Orson  K.  Whitney, 
George  P.  Billings, 
Ralph  Douglas, 



Ezra  T.  Benson, 
Matthew  Ivory, 
David  Powell, 
Erastus  Snow, 
William  Melntyre, 
George  Brown, 
Orrin  P.  Rockwell, 
Charles  Shumway, 
Andrew  P.  Shumway, 
Burr  Frost, 
William  Carter, 

William  W.  Rust, 
Joseph  Matthews, 
Joseph  G.  Camp, 
William  Park. 
Green  Flake. 
Benjamin  F.  Stewart, 
John  Crow, 
Peter  J.  Meeseck, 
C.  Rowe, 
William  Rowe, 
Barnabas  L.  Adams, 

Elijah  E.  Holden, 
William  Gifford, 
Albert  Sharp, 
Abel  M.  Sargent, 
Andrew  S.  Gibbons, 
Thurston  Larson, 
Heber  C.   Kimball. 
Howard  Egan, 
Hosea  Gushing, 
William  A.  King, 
Carlos  Murray, 

The  camp  comprised  one  hundred  and  eight  men,  with  thirty-six 
wagons  and  about  three  times  that  number  of  horses  and  mules. 
Stephen  Markham  was  chosen  captain  of  hundred;  Barnabas  L. 
Adams  and  Joseph  Matthews,  captains  of  fifties;  Brigham  Young, 
John  Brown,  Howard  Egan,  George  Clark,  George  Wilson,  Erastus 
Snow,  Thomas  Tanner  and  Charles  A.  Harper,  captains  of  tens. 
Thomas  Bullock  was  again  appointed  Clerk.  The  President's  ten 
included  six  of  his  fellow  Apostles,  with  Albert  P.  Rockwood,  Stephen 
H.  Goddard  and  Joseph  Schofield. 

Fording  Green  River,  which  was  now  quite  low,  the  company, 
having  crossed  Big  Sandy,  came  upon  Daniel  Spencer's  first  fifty 
there  encamped.     It  was  now  the  3rd  of  September. 

At  this  point  let  us  briefly  sketch  the  experience  of  these  west- 
bound companies,  the  first  to  follow  in  the  wake  of  the  pioneers. 
They  had  been  organized  on  the  Elk  Horn  in  June,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Father  Morley  and  Bishop  Whitney,  the  committee  previously 
appointed  for  that  purpose.  Due  deference  had  been  paid  by  this 
committee,  however,  to  the  Apostles,  Parley  P.  Pratt  and  John  Taylor, 
who  were  present  and  took  part  in  the  organization.  They  were  in- 
vited by  the  committee,  inasmuch  as  it  was  their  purpose  to  accom- 
pany the  emigration,  to  exercise  a  general  superintendency  over  all 
the  trains.  These  aggregated  five  hundred  and  sixty  wagons,  with 
about  fifteen  hundred  men,  women  and  children,  and  five  thousand 
head  of  stock.     Most  of  the  wagons  were  drawn  by  oxen. 

The  companies  were  organized  as  follows :     John  Young,  brother 





3  '    "34 

73,  jr. 


Jlr  „*„/„  y...J 


It  is  said  that  the  great  Napoleon,  at  the  very  beginning  of  a 
battle,  as  with  the  instinct  of  Mars  himself,  was  able  almost 
invariably  to  foretell  the  outcome;  and  that  on  one  occasion,  at 
least,  before  the  battle  had  fairly  joined,  he  scribbled  upon  his 
saddle-bow  a  dispatch  reading:  "Victory  is  ours,"  and  sent  it  off 
post-haste  to  Paris  and  Josephine.  Brigham  Young's  victories  were 
of  peace,  not  of  war,  yet  there  was  something  Napoleonic  in  his 
genius, — in  his  marvelous  intuition  and  foresight. 

The  fact  is,  Brigham  Young  was  a  born  colonizer, — as  much  so, 
perhaps,  as  Napoleon  was  a  born  warrior;  one  of  the  greatest 
colonizers  that  the  world  has  seen;  a  builder  of  cities,  a  founder  of 
empire,  second  to  none  in  the  annals  of  the  ages.  This  is  not 
flattery.  The  world,  sometimes  slow,  but  always  sure  at  last  to 
open  its  eyes  to  the  truth,  will  one  day  acknowledge  it.  The 
broad-minded  and  intelligent,  whose  attention  has  been  drawn  to 
the  subject,  recognize  it  already.  Even  bigotry  will  foliow  suit  some 
day.  Men  may  not  credit,  as  Brigham  Young  did,  as  his  people  still 
do,  divine  inspiration  with  his  success;  for  he  always  maintained 
that  Mormonism  made  him,  that  it  made  Joseph  Smith,  and  not  they 
Mormonism.  But  men  will  yet  acknowledge,  far  more  widely  than 
they  now  do,  and  impartial  history,  whose  page  is  the  past  and 
present,  but  whose  pen  is  the  future,  will  yet  record  that  Brigham 
Young  was  a  great  man,  one  of  Time's  greatest,  and  that  genius,  if 
not  divinity,  was  manifest  in  his  methods  and  achievements. 

A  man  may  have  faults,  and  yet  be  great,  as  water  may  be  clear 
though  holding  soil  in  solution;  as  the  sun  may  have  spots,  and  yet 
supremely  shine.  Brigham  Young  had  his  faults,  as  Washington,  as 
Lincoln  and  Grant  had  theirs.  But  if  greatness  were  denied  to  men 
because  of  their  defects,— those  shadows  that  form  the  back-ground 
of  the  most  brilliant  picture, — who  of  all  men,  save  One,  would  be 
great?  The  incident  referred  to,  though  a  mere  straw  in  the  wind, 
serving  to  show  its  direction,  will  illustrate  in  part  the  intuition  and 
foresight  of  which  Brigham  Young  was  undoubtedly  the  possessor. 

Salt  Lake  Valley  was  indeed,  as  he  declared,  the  best  place  for  a 


city — a  metropolis — in  all  this  inter-mountain  region.  The  whole 
world  knows  it  now.  But  there  were  other  places  in  the  vicinity,  as 
he  also  declared,  possessing  every  facility  of  situation,  soil,  climate 
and  surroundings,  for  the  formation  of  thriving  settlements,  and  of 
future  flourishing  towns  and  cities.  True,  most  of  them  were  then 
barren  and  desolate,  cheerless  and  forbidding  in  the  extreme:  but 
the  sagacious  eye  saw  past  all  this,  and  the  future  became  present  to 
its  gaze.  A  few  spots  there  were  that  were  even  then  promising ; 
where  water  was  not  so  scarce,  where  verdure  sprang  spontaneously 
and  the  soil  was  naturally  fertile.  Among  these  were  some  of  the 
lands  now  included  in  Davis  County,  and  the  Goodyear  lands  on  the 
Weber,  where  the  next  settlements  of  our  Territory  were  formed. 
Both  these  sections  are  comprised  in  a  narrow  alluvial  strip  lying 
between  the  western  base  of  the  Wasatch  Mountains  and  the 
eastern  shore  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  In  fact  those  lands  are  a 
portion,  a  mere  extension  northward  of  Salt  Lake  Valley. 

Peregrine  Sessions,  the  original  pioneer  of  Davis  County — next 
to;  Salt  Lake  County  the  first  part  of  Utah  occupied  and  settled, — 
was,  as  we  have  seen,  a  captain  of  fifty  in  Daniel  Spencer's  hundred; 
the  very  vanguard  of  the  migrating  trains  that  began  arriving  in 
Salt  Lake  Valley  in  the  latter  part  of  September,  1847.  On  the  28th 
of  that  month,  a  few  days  after  reaching  the  valley,  Mr.  Sessions 
moved  northward  about  ten  miles  and  camped  that  night  about  half 
a  mile  from  the  spot  where  he  now  resides,  and  where  sprang  up 
Sessions'  Settlement,  since  called  Bountiful.  Hector  C.  Haight, 
following  Captain  Sessions'  example,  camped  six  or  seven  miles  north 
of  him,  on  what  was  afterwards  known  as  Haight's  Creek,  a  little 
south-west  of  the  present  site  of  Kaysville.  This  was  also  in  the 
latter  part  of  1847.  There  may  have  been  others  who  moved  into 
that  section  about  the  same  time.  Such  was  the  beginning  of 
the  settlement  of  Davis  County. 

The  object  of  these  men  in  separating  themselves  so  early  from 
the  society  of  their  friends  at  the  pioneer  fort — the  immediate  object 
at  least — was  to  find   pasturage   for  their   stock,  the  range  of  the 











punishable  offense  ?  Rome  once  had  her  sacred  geese.  Utah  would 
henceforth  have  her  sacred  gulls.  Ye  statesmen  and  state-makers  of 
the  future  !  When  Utah's  sovereign  star,  dawning  above  the  dark 
horizon  of  factional  strife,  shall  take  its  place  in  the  blue,  unclouded 
zenith  of  freedom's  empyrean,  and  it  is  asked  by  those  who  would 
frame  her  escutcheon,  What  shall  her  emblem  be?  Name  not  at  all 
the  carpet-bag.  Place  not  first  the  beehive,  nor  the  eagle;  nor  yet 
the  miner's  pick,  the  farmer's  plow,  nor  the  smoke-stack  of  the 
wealth-producing  smelter.  Give  these  their  places,  all,  in  dexter  or 
in  middle,  but  whatever  else  the  glittering  shield  contains,  reserve 
for  the  honor  point,  as  worthy  of  all  praise,  the  sacred  bird  that 
saved  the  pioneers. 

And  barely  saved  them,  too,  for  even  as  it  was,  there  was 
famine  in  Utah  before  another  year.  This  was  largely  owing  to  the 
crickets,  but  was  due  also  to  drought  and  frost.  These  mishaps, 
with  the  coming  of  the  fall  immigration,  depending  upon  the  settlers 
for  much  of  their  support,  rendered  the  harvest  wholly  inadequate, 
and  caused  much  inconvenience  and  some  suffering  before  another 
crop  could  be  raised.  During  the  days,  or  rather  months  of  scarcity, 
such  as  had  food  put  themselves  and  their  families  upon  rations, 
while  those  who  were  without  or  had  but  little,  dug  sego  and  thistle 
roots,  and  cooked  and  ate  raw-hides  to  eke  out  their  scanty  store. 
Wild  vegetation  of  various  kinds  was  used  for  "greens"  by  the 
half-famished  people,  many  of  whom  went  for  weeks  without  tasting 
bread.  The  raw-hides  were  boiled  and  converted  into  a  gelatinous 
soup,  which  was  drank  with  eager  relish.  The  straitness  began  to 
be  felt  even  before  the  crickets  came,  and  after  that  event,  owing  to 
the  prevailing  scarcity,  the  arrival  of  the  fall  immigration  was  looked 
forward  to  with  positive  apprehension. * 

*'•  During  this  spring  and  summer,"  says  Parley  P.  Pratt,  "my  family  and  myself,  in 
common  with  many  of  the  camp,  suffered  much  for  want  of  food.  *  *  *  We  had 
lost  nearly  all  our  cows,  and  the  few  which  were  spared  to  us  were  dry.  *  *  *  1 
had  ploughed  and  subdued  land  to  the  amount  of  near  forty  acres.  *  *  *  ]  nthis 
labor  every  woman  and  child  in  my  family,   so    far   as    they   were    of    sufficient    age    and 


Before  the  worst  of  those  days  arrived,  however,  on  August 
10th,  1848,  the  glad  settlers  celebrated  with  a  feast  their  first  harvest 
home.  It  was  quite  a  grand  affair  with  them.  In  the  center  of  the 
fort  a  bowery  had  been  erected,  and  underneath  its  shade,  tables 
were  spread  richly  and  bounteously  laden.  Bread  and  beef,  butter 
and  cheese,  cakes  and  pastry,  green  corn,  water-melons  and 
vegetables  of  nearly  every  variety  composed  the  feast.  For  once  at 
least,  that  season,  the  hungry  people  had  enough  to  eat.  Says 
Parley  P.  Pratt:  "Large  sheaves  of  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats  and 
other  productions  were  hoisted  on  poles  for  public  exhibition,  and 
there  was  prayer  and  thanksgiving,  congratulations,  songs,  speeches, 
music,  dancing,  smiling  faces  and  merry  hearts.  In  short  it  was  a 
great  day  with  the  people  of  these  valleys,  and  long  to  be 
remembered  by  those  who  had  suffered  and  waited  anxiously  for  the 
results  of  a  first  effort  to  redeem  the  interior  deserts  of  America." 

The  fort  now  contained  eighteen  hundred  inhabitants;  the 
increase  since  March  being  due  to  the  arrival  from  the  west  of 
several  parties  of  the  disbanded  Mormon  volunteers.  They  returned 
laden  with  gold-dust  from  the  California  mines.*  The  discovery  of 
the  precious  metal  west  of  the  Sierras  being  due  to  the  labor  of  Utah 
men,  it  is  but  proper  to  give  here  a  brief  account  of  that  very 
important  event. 

It  has  already  been  related  that  in  September,  1847,  a  party  of 
the  discharged  Battalion  men,  on  their  way  to  Salt  Lake  Valley,  met, 
east  of  the  Sierras,  Captain  James  Brown  and  Samuel  Brannan,  and 
that  a  portion  of  the  soldiers,  pursuant  to  advice  sent  them  by 
President  Young,  turned  back  to  obtain  work  for  the  winter  in 
California.     These  men,  about  forty  in  number,  secured  employment 

strength,  had  joined  to  help  me,  and  had  toiled  incessantly  in  the  field,  suffering  every 
hardship  which  human  nature  could  well  endure.  Myself  and  some  of  them  were 
compelled  lo  go  with  bare  feet  for  several  months,  reserving  our  Indian  moccasins  for 
extra  occasions.  We  toiled  hard  and  lived  on  a  lew  greens,  and  on  the  thistle  and  other 

*  One  company  brought  with  them  two  brass  cannon   purchased  lor  £512  and  used 
as  a  means  of  protection  against  hostile  Indians. 


at  Sutter's  Fort,  the  proprietor  of  which,  Captain  John  A.  Sutter, 
was  just  then  in  need  of  help  for  the  erection  of  a  flour-mill  and  a 
saw-mill.  A  site  for  the  flour-mill  was  selected  near  the  fort,  and 
most  of  the  men  were  put  to  work  thereon.  But  the  saw-mill  had 
to  be  built  among  the  mountains,  in  the  little  valley  of  Coloma, 
forty-five  miles  away.  To  that  place  Sutter  sent  ten  men,  one  of 
whom  was  his  partner,  James  W.  Marshall,  who  superintended  the 
erection  of  the  mill.  The  other  nine  worked  under  him.  Of  these, 
six  were  Mormons  and  late  members  of  the  Battalion.  Their  names 
were  Alexander  Stephens,  James  S.  Brown,  James  Barger,  William 
Johnston,  Azariah  Smith  and  Henry  W.  Bigler.  The  other  three 
were  non-Mormons,  who  had  been  more  or  less  associated  with  the 
Saints  since  the  days  of  Nauvoo.  They  were  Peter  Wimmer, 
William  Scott  and  Charles  Bennett.  Sutter  also  employed  about  a 
dozen  Indians.  For  four  months  these  men  labored  at  Coloma,  and 
the  saw-mill  was  approaching  completion.  Late  in  January,  1848,  the 
water  was  turned  into  the  race  to  carry  away  some  loose  dirt  and 
gravel.  It  was  then  turned  off,  and  the  superintendent,  Mr.  Marshall, 
walked  along  the  tail-race  to  ascertain  the  extent  of  some  slight 
damage  that  had  been  done  by  the  water  near  the  base  of  the 
building.  While  pursuing  his  investigation,  his  eye  caught  sight  of 
some  yellow  metallic  particles  on  the  rotten  granite  bed-rock  of  the 
race.  He  picked  up  several  of  them,  the  largest  of  which  were  about 
the  size  of  wheat  grains.  He  believed — but  did  not  know — that  they 
were  gold.  Subsequently  they  were  assayed,  and  the  fact  of  the 
great  discovery  was  verified. 

The  first  record  of  the  finding  of  the  gold  was  made  by  Henry 
W.  Bigler,  a  Mormon, — now  a  citizen  of  St.  George,  Utah.  To  him, 
among  the  first,  Marshall  announced  his  discovery.  A  diary  note  in 
Bigler*s  journal,  made  on  the  same  day,  runs  as  follows: 

"Monday,  24th.  This  day  some  kind  of  metal  was  found  in  the 
tail-race  that  looks  like  gold." 

Another  note  of  January  30th,  which  was  Sunday,  reads: 
"Clear,  and  has  been  all  the  last  week.     Our  metal  has  been  tried 


and  proves  to  be  gold.  It  is  thought  to  be  rich.  We  have  picked  up 
more  than  a  hundred  dollars'  worth  last  week.*' 

Thus  was  originally  chronicled  the  world-renowned  discovery  at 
Coloma.  Henry  W.  Bigler,  of  St  George,  Azariah  Smith,  of  Manti, 
in  Utah;  and  Peter  L.  Wimmer,  of  San  Diego,  California,  are  today 
the  three  survivors  of  the  party  of  workmen  whose  picks  and 
shovels  first  brought  to  light  the  auriferous  wealth  of   California. 

Meantime  on  the  far-off  frontier,  President  Young  and  his 
associates,  early  in  1848,  had  set  about  organizing  the  main  body  of 
their  people  prior  to  leading  them  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  On  the 
27th  of  the  previous  December,  at  a  conference  of  the  Saints  held  in 
a  new  log  tabernacle  on  the  east  side  of  the  Missouri,  the  First 
Presidency — vacant  since  the  death  of  Joseph  Smith — had  been  re- 
organized. Brigham  Young  was  now  President  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints- in  all  the  world,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball 
and' Willard  Richards  were  his  Counselors.*  This  event  was  sup- 
plemented by  preparations  for  a  general  emigration  in  the  spring. 
Still  it  was  desirable  to  maintain,  for  the  benefit  of  future  emigration, 
an  out-fitting  post  on  the  frontier.  Winter  Quarters  was  soon  to  be 
vacated,  but  the  Legislature  of  Iowa  granted  a  petition  for  the 
organization  of  Pottowatomie  County — east  of  the  river — and  there, 
on  the  site  where  stood  their  historic  Log  Tabernacle,  the  Mormons 
built  the  town  of  Kanesville,  a  few  miles  above  the  present  city  of 
Council  Bluffs.  Kanesville  became  for  several  years  a  point  of  out- 
fit and  departure  for  Mormon  emigration.  Their  companies  from 
Europe  by  way  of  New  Orleans  would  now  steam  up  the  Mississippi 
and  the  Missouri  to  Kanesville.  The  first  company  to  follow  this 
river  route  was  one  led  by  Franklin  D.  Richards.  It  sailed  from 
Liverpool  in  February,  1848,  and  reached  Winter  Quarters  some  time 
before  the  early  summer  emigration  started  across  the  plains. 

It  was  about  the  beginning  of  June  that  the  First  Presidency 

*  This  action  was  pursuant  to  a  decision  of  the  Council  of  the  Apostles  made   on 

the  5th  of  December. 


broke  up  their  camp  on  the  Elk  Horn,  and  again  set  out  for  the 
Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  First  went  Brigham  Young,  with  a 
company  of  1229  souls  and  397  wagons;  next,  Heber  C.  Kimball, 
whose  trains  numbered  662  souls  and  226  wagons.  Willard 
Richards  brought  up  the  rear,  with  526  souls  and  169  wagons.  The 
last  wagon  left  Winter  Quarters  on  the  3rd  of  July.  That  place  was 
now  nearly  deserted. 

Along  with  this  large  emigration  went  such  notables  as  Daniel 
H.  Wells,  who,  having  joined  the  Church  at  Nauvoo  in  August, 
1846,  had  left  the  city  with  the  expelled  remnant  of  his  people  and 
joined  the  main  body  in  their  prairie  homes;  Lorenzo  Snow,  who 
had  figured  in  the  British  Mission  before  the  Prophet's  death,  and 
was  now  fast  rising  to  prominence;  Franklin  D.  Richards,  of  whom 
that  mission  had  also  heard  and  was  destined  to  hear  much  more; 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  who,  however,  was  only  a  lad  of  nine  years,  in  the 
care  of  his  heroic  mother,  Mary  Fielding  Smith,  who,  with  other 
Mormon  women  of  that  period,  drove  her  own  ox-team  wagon  across 
the  plains.  Bishop  Newel  K.  Whitney  also  accompanied  this 
emigration,  which  carried  with  it  such  notable  women  as  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  Ann  Whitney,  Vilate  Kimball  and  Mary  Ann  Angell  Young. 
Robert  T.  Burton,  George  D.  Grant,  William  Kay,  Phineas  Richards, 
Horace  S.  Eldredge,  Hosea  Stout  and  others  who  became  prominent 
or  well  known  in  Utah  history  were  also  included. 

Brigham  Young  had  general  command  of  all  the  companies,  and 
Daniel  H.  Wells  was  his  aide-de-camp.  Horace  S.  Eldredge  was 
marshal,  and  Hosea  Stout  captain  of  the  night-guard.  Amasa  M. 
Lyman,  Erastus  Snow  and  other  prominent  men  who  had  returned 
with  the  President  from  the  Valley,  now  went  back  with  him,  having 
charge  of  various  sub-divisions  of  the  emigration.  Several  of  the 
Apostles  remained  at  Kanesville;  some  to  go  upon  missions,  and 
some  to  superintend  Mormon  affairs  on  the  frontier.  One  of  these 
was  Orson  Hyde,  who  had  not  yet  been  to  the  Valley,  and  still 
tarried  behind  to  transact  important  business  for  the  Church.  A 
few  months  after  the  President's  departure,  Apostle  Hyde  began  the 


publication,  at  Kanesville,  of  a  semi-monthly  paper  called  the 
Frontier  Guardian* 

On  went  the  emigration,  crossing  the  plains  and  the  Rocky 
Mountains  along  the  same  route  formerly  traveled  by  the  Pioneers. 
President  Young,  with  a  portion  of  his  division,  reached  Salt  Lake 
Valley  on  the  20th  of  September.  Heber  C.  Kimball  came  a  few 
days  later,  and  within  another  month   the  trains   had  all   arrived. 

President  Richards'  companies  lost  many  of  their  cattle 
through  the  alkali  on  the  Sweetwater.  This  so  hindered  his 
progress  that  teams  from  the  Valley  had  to  be  sent  out  to  help  in 
the  rear  trains. 

Immediately  after  the  President's  arrival  a  conference  was 
called  to  convene  on  the  8th  of  October.  This  conference,  which  was 
held  in  the  Fort  Rowery,  ratified  the  action  of  the  Apostles  and  the 
main  body  of  the  Saints  on  the  frontier,  relative  to  the  reorganiza- 
tion of  the  First  Presidency.  Newel  K.  Whitney  was  sustained  as 
Presiding  Bishop  of  the  Church,  and  John  Smith  was  appointed  its 
Patriarch.  This  caused  a  vacancy  in  the  Stake  Presidency,  which 
Charles  C.  Rich  was  chosen  to  fill;  John  Young  and  Erastus  Snow 
were  his  counselors. 

These  spiritual  matters  attended  to,  the  temporal  needs  of  the 
colony  came  in  for  their  share  of  thought  and  labor.  The  recent 
immigration,  which  aggregated  nearly  2500  souls,  had  swelled  the 
population  in  the  valley  to  between  four  and  five  thousand.  These 
people  must  be  housed  and  fed  through  the  winter.  How.  was 
the  problem  facing  the  Mormon  leaders  that  fall,  as  the  signs  of  a 
long  and  unusually  severe  winter  began  to  show  themselves.  More 
houses  might  be  built,  for  the  materials  were  at  hand,  and  before  the 
heavy  snows  fell  the  number  of  huts  might  be  materially  increased. 
Some  of  the  families  could  make  shift  with  their  wagons  until  spring. 
But  where  was  the  food  to  come  from, — the  loaves  and  fishes  to  feed 
these  five  thousand !    The  immigrants  had  not  all  brought  sufficient, 

The  first  number  of  this  paper  was  issued  February  7th.  1*49. 









Beginning  of  Utah's  political  history — the    provisional  government  of  deseret — utah 

valley    settled the   ute   indians sowiette    and    walkara the    gold-hunters 

''winter  mormons" deseret  applies  for  statehood first  celebration  of  pioneer 

hay the    stansbur?     expedition the     perpetual     emigrating     fund the     first 

missionaries    sent  from    the    rocky    mountains why    brigham  young   discouraged 

mining the    great    salt    lake    valley    carrying    company sanpete    and     tooele 

valleys  settled. 

"7  UTAH'S  political  history  begins  with  the  opening  of  the  spring  of 
^-*  1849.  Up  to  that  time  the  mode  of  government  in  Salt  Lake 
Valley  was  purely  an  ecclesiastical  regime.  True,  the  community 
had  its  secular  officials,  authorized  to  levy  and  collect  taxes  and 
perform  various  functions  of  a  civil  character.  It  also  had  its  peace 
officers,*  and  its  primitive  methods  of  administering  justice. 

But  these  officers,  as  a  rule,  were  chosen  by  the  people  at  their 
conferences  or  other  religious  meetings,  presided  over  by  Apostles  or 
Elders,  and  were  virtually  Church  appointments.  The  nominations 
were  usually  made  from  the  "stand,"  by  some  dignitary  of  the 
Priesthood,  and  sustained  by  the  congregation,  if  acceptable,  with 
uplifted  hands.f  Such  appointments,  therefore,  though  secular  in 
character,  could  not  be  called  political. J  In  fact  there  were  no 
politics  in  the  community,  except  as  they  existed  in  the  breasts  of 
those  who  had  retained  their  former  principles  and  predilections,  and 
brought  them  into  the  wilderness,  as  they  had  brought  their 
country's  flag  and  their  love  for  American  institutions. 

*  John  Van  Cott  was  Marshal,  and  John  Nebeker  Assistant  Marshal. 

"|" The  right  hand  is  used  for  voting  in  Mormon  religious  meetings. 

J  In  those  days  culprits  were  tried  by  the  Bishops'  Courts  and  the  High  Council. 


But  the  Mormons  knew  that  this  condition  of  affairs  must  soon 
change ;  that  their  isolation  in  these  mountain-tops  could  not  long 
continue.  They  had  foreseen,  or  their  Prophet  had,  at  Nauvoo,  the 
"manifest  destiny"  of  the  American  Republic  to  possess  the  Pacific 
slope.  They  knew,  with  all  the  world,  how  the  war  with  Mexico 
must  end.  They  had  even  helped  their  country  to  conquer  the 
region  which  they  now  inhabited.  Their  main  purpose  in  moving 
west, — next  to  getting  beyond  the  reach  of  their  enemies  and 
securing  religious  freedom, — was  evidently  to  found  an  American 
State.  Isolation  they  sought  and  desired,  but  only  a  temporary 
isolation.  More  than  that  they  could  not  reasonably  expect. 
Leaving  out  the  question  of  their  Americanism, — their  love  of 
native  land  and  their  loyalty  to  the  Constitution, — the  mission  of 
the  Latter-day  Saints  is  and  has  ever  been  to  the  Gentiles,  and  not 
from  them.  They  wished  to  found  a  State  for  the  Union.  They 
wished  to  govern  that  State, — at  least  so  long  as  they  remained  in 
the  majority.  And  certainly  it  was  their  right  to  do  so,  according  to 
the  genius  of  American  institutions. 

There  were  some,  no  doubt,  who  thought,  in  the  beginning  of 
the  exodus  and  afterwards,  that  it  was  not  the  destiny  of  the  Mormon 
people  to  be  again  identified  with  the  American  nation.  But  these 
were  individual  views,  and  not  the  views  of  authority.  Such  men 
as  Senator  Douglas,  James  Arlington  Bennett  and  Governor  Ford, 
who  had  virtually  advised  the  Mormon  leaders  to  set  up  an 
independent  government  in  the  west,  were  largely  responsible  for 
such  notions.  Joseph  Smith  and  Brigham  Young  had  both  declared, 
— the  former  in  the  very  face  of  a  contemplated  exodus  to  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  the  latter  after  that  exodus  had  begun, — that  it 
was  the  destiny  of  the  Latter-day  Saints  to  preserve  the  Constitution 
and  rescue  the  starry  flag  at  a  time  when  traitors  and  tyrants  would 
be  tearing  them  to  tatters  and  trampling  them  in  the  mire.  The 
Saints,  it  may  be  added,  are  not  yet  converted  from  this  view.  That 
time,  they  believe,  is  at  hand, — approaching  on  the  wings  of  the 


Then  why,  if  this  be  true,  did  the  Mormons  not  found  their 
State  forthwith,  and  set  up  a  political,  in  lieu  of  an  ecclesiastical 
government  in  these  mountains?  Why  did  eighteen  months  elapse, 
after  they  entered  Salt  Lake  Valley,  before  they  took  steps  to  align 
themselves  as  a  commonwealth  with  the  other  parts  of  the  Federal 
Union?  In  their  failure  to  more  promptly  act  in  this  matter,  many 
have  professed  to  see,  some  perhaps  sincerely,  a  sign  of  Mormon 
disloyalty, — a  reluctance  on  the  part  of  the  Saints  to  return  to  the 
sheltering  aegis  of  Columbia  and  the  Constitution.  To  such  as 
have  honestly  taken  this  view, — but  not.  to  those  who  have  merely 
used  it  as  a  catch-phrase  and  political  cudgel  against  the  Mormons, 
— some  explanation  is  probably  due.  That  explanation  is  easily 

The  Mormon  pioneers  entered  Salt  Lake  Valley  late  in  July, 
1847.  Their  first  care,  though  the  planting  season  was  virtually 
past,  and  it  had  not  been  demonstrated  that  the  soil  in  this  locality 
would  bring  forth  cereals  and  vegetables,  was  to  put  in  crops,  trust- 
ing in  Providence  for  a  harvest,  lest  famine  with  fierce  maw  should 
overtake  them.  Their  next  duty,  almost  as  pressing,  was  to  place 
roofs  above  their  heads,  lest  the  frosts  of  the  coming  winter  might 
prove  to  them  perpetual.  What  time  had  they  for  politics  ?  They 
hardly  had  time  to  pray, — to  kneel  upon  the  desert  as  their  pilgrim 
ancestors  had  knelt  on  Plymouth  Rock,  and  thank  God  for  bringing 
them  to  another  home.  What  time  had  they  for  political  conven- 
tions, even  had  it  been  proper  at  that  stage  to  have  held  them  ?  But 
would  it  have  been  proper?  Up  to  February,  1848,  when  the  treaty 
of  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  was  signed,  Utah  was  still  Mexican  soil,  con- 
quered by  but  not  yet  ceded  to  the  United  States.  Political  action  at 
such  a  time,  on  the  part  of  the  pioneers,  would  certainly  have  been 

But,  it  may  be  argued,  the  Mormons  did  not  organize  politically 
until  over  a  year  after  the  signing  of  the  treaty  which  made  Utah  a 
part  of  the  Federal  domain.  True,  but  it  should  be  remembered  that 
in  those  days  news  did  not  travel,  as  now,  by  railway  and  electric 


wire.  Ox  and  mule  teams  carried  the  mail  between  the  Missouri 
River  and  the  Great  Basin.  Indeed,  in  1849  there  was  no  overland 
mail  service  at  all,  excepting  such  as  might  be  furnished,  at  irregular 
intervals,  by  emigrants  and  other  travelers  crossing  and  re-crossing 
the  great  plains.  Sometimes — usually  during  the  winter — six  months 
would  elapse  and  no  tidings  of  the  outside  world  would  reach  the 
settlers  of  these  mountain  solitudes.  Probably  this  was  the  case 
when  the  treaty  of  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  was  signed.  Besides,  at  that 
time  and  for  several  months  afterward,  the  majority  of  the  Mormon 
leaders,  including  their  master  spirit,  Brigham  Young,  were  away, 
preparing  on  the  far-off  frontier  to  bring  the  main  body  of  their 
homeless  people  to  the  mountains.  In  the  absence  of  their  leaders, 
whom  they  looked  to  for  advice,  and  expected  to  take  the  initiative  in 
all  important  movements  of  a  public  character,  the  settlers  of  Salt 
Lake  Valley  were  busy  fighting  crickets,  building  houses,  exploring 
and  colonizing, —  determining,  in  short,  the  question  of  actual  sub- 

The  absent  leaders  returned  in  the  autumn  of  1848,  with 
between  two  and  three  thousand  souls  to  be  fed  and  sheltered 
through  that  famine  winter.  Preparations  for  its  approach  having 
been  made,  and  the  Church  "set  in  order'*  for  the  better  care  of  the 
people  temporally  and  spiritually,  those  leaders  were  ready  for  polit- 
ical work,  and  that  winter  the  project  of  Utah's  statehood  was  born. 

The  Mormons  did  not  call  their  proposed  state  Utah,  however. 
There  was  nothing  particularly  attractive  in  that  title — the  name  of 
a  nation  of  savages,  some  of  them,  though  not  all,  among  the  most 
degraded  of  the  red-skinned  race*     They  styled  it,  instead,  Deseret, 

*  Lieutenant  J.  W.  Gunnison,  in  his  work  entitled  "  The  Mormons,"  says  of  the  Utah 
Indians:  "This  tribe  consists  of  several  bands  under  different  chieftains,  united  by  a  com- 
mon language  and  affinities,  as  well  as  by  numerous  inter-marriages.  They  range  over  a 
large  region  of  country,  extending  from  California  to  New  Mexico.  They  are  a  supersti- 
tious race  and  have  many  cruel  customs.     Some  tribes  are  reputed  good  warriors.      *      * 

"  The  different  tribes  of  the  U talis  arc  frequently  at  war  with  each  other,  and  they 
have  an  eternal  national  war  with   the  Shoshones.      The  Mormon  settlements  partially 


meaning  the   honey   bee,* — an   appropriate   emblem   of   their  own 
untiring  industry. 

A  call  for  a  convention  to  consider  the  political  needs  of  the 
community  was  issued  early  in  1849.  It  was  addressed  to  "all  the 
citizens  of  that  portion  of  Upper  California  lying  east  of  the  Sierra 
Nevada  Mountains."  The  convention  assembled  at  Salt  Lake  City 
early  in  March.  It  was  then  and  there  decided  to  petition  Congress 
for  a  Territorial  form  of  government,  and  to  organize,  pending  Con- 
gressional action  upon  the  petition,  a  provisional  government.!  A 
committee  was  appointed  to  draft  and  report  a  constitution  for  the 
temporary  State  of  Deseret.  This  committee  consisted  of  Albert 
Carrington,  Joseph  L.  Heywood,  William  W.  Phelps,  David  Fullmer, 
John  S.  Fullmer,  Charles  C.  Rich,  John  Taylor,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  John 
M.  Bernhisel  and  Erastus  Snow.  The  convention  continued  its 
deliberations  on  the  8th,  9th  and  10th  of  March,  and  adopted  the 
constitution  reported  by  the  committee.  Its  caption  and  preamble 
were  as  follows : 


Preamble. — Whereas  a  large  number  of  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  before  and 
since  the  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Republic  of  Mexico,  emigrated  to,  and  settled  in  that  por- 
tion of  the  territory  of  the  United  States  lying  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  in  the 
great  interior  Basin  of  Upper  California ;  and 

Whereas,  by  reason  of  said  treaty,  all  civil  organization  originating  from  the  Republic 
of  Mexico  became  abrogated  ;  and 

Whereas  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  has  failed  to  provide  a  form  of  civil  gov- 
ernment for  the  territory  so  acquired,  or  any  portion  thereof;  and 

Whereas  civil  government  and  laws  are  necessary  for  the  security,  peace,  and  pros- 
perity of  society ;  and 

interpose  between  the  two  great  tribes,  exerting  an  influence  upon  both  and  ensuring  them 
a  controlling  power  ultimately.  *#**:;:  # 

"  The  Snakes  or  Shoshones,  estimated  at  several  thousands,  are  on  the  north.  The 
Crows  are  to  the  north-east.  *  *  *  *  *  * 

"The  Sioux  tribe  is  on  the  east  of  the  basin  :  the  Oglallahs  or  Cheyennes,  to  the 
south-east,  and  the  universal  Utahs  to  the  south." 

*  Book  of  Mormon — Ether,  chapter  II,  par.  3. 

t  The  application  of  Deseret  for  admission  into  the  Union  as  a  State  was  made  sev- 
eral months  later. 

26-VOL    1. 


Whereas  it  is  a  fundamental  principle  in  all  republican  governments  that  all  political 
power  is  inherent  in  the  people,  and  governments  instituted  for  their  protection,  security, 
and  benefit  should  emanate  from  the  same  ; 

Therefore  your  committee  beg  leave  to  recommend  the  adoption  of  the  following 
Constitution  until  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  shall  otherwise  provide  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  territory  hereinafter  named  and  described  by  admitting  us  into  the  Union. 
We,  the  people,  grateful  to  the  Supreme  Being  for  the  blessings  hitherto  enjoyed,  and  feel- 
ing our  dependence  on  Him  for  a  continuation  of  those  blessings,  do  ordain  and  establish 
a  free  and  independent  government,  by  the  name  of  the  State  of  Deseret,  including  all 
the  territory  of  the  United  States  within  the  following  boundaries,  to  wit :  commencing  at 
the  33°  of  north  latitude,  where  it  crosses  the  108°  of  longitude  west  of  Greenwich  ; 
thence  running  south  and  west  to  the  boundary  of  Mexico  ;  thence  west  to  and  down  the 
main  channel  of  the  Gila  River  (or  the  northern  line  of  Mexico),  and  on  the  northern 
boundary  of  Lower  California  to  the  Pacific  Ocean  ;  thence  along  the  coast  north-westerly 
to  the  118°  30'  of  west  longitude  ;  thence  north  to  where  said  line  intersects  the  dividing 
ridge  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  mountains  ;  thence  north  along  the  summit  of  the  Sierra 
Nevada  mountains  to  the  dividing  range  of  mountains  that  separate  the  waters  flowing 
into  the  Columbia  from  the  waters  running  into  the  Great  Basin;  thence  easterly  along  the 
dividing  range  of  mountains  that  separate  said  waters  flowing  into  the  Columbia  River  on 
the  north,  from  the  waters  flowing  into  the  Great  Basin  on  the  south,  to  the  summit  of  the 
Wind  River  chain  of  mountains  ;  thence  southeast  and  south  by  the  dividing  range  of 
mountains  that  separate  the  waters  flowing  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  from  the  waters  flow- 
ing into  the  Gulf  of  California,  to  the  place  of  beginning,  as  set  forth  in  a  map  drawn  by 
Charles  Preuss,  and  published  by  order  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States  in  1848. 

The  Constitution  provided  that  the  seat  of  government  should 
be  at  Salt  Lake  City,  and  that  its  powers  should  be  divided  into  three 
branches — the  legislative,  the  executive  and  the  judicial.  The  Leg- 
islature was  to  consist  of  a  Senate  and  a  House  of  Representatives, 
both  elected  by  the  people.  It  was  to  hold  annual  sessions,  the 
initial  one  on  the  first  Monday  in  July,  1849,  and  thereafter  on  the 
first  Monday  in  December.  Special  sessions  were  also  provided  for. 
Elections  for  members  of  the  House  of  Representatives  were  to  be 
held  biennially.  These  members  were  to  be  at  least  twenty-five 
years  of  age,  free  white  male  citizens  of  the  United  States,  residents 
of  the  State  for  one  year  preceding  their  election,  and  of  the  district 
or  county  thirty  days  preceding.  Senators  were  to  be  elected  for  four 
years.  Except  as  to  age — they  must  be  at  least  thirty  years  old — the 
qualifications  required  of  them  were  the  same  as  those  of  the  Repre- 
sentatives.    Each  house  was  to  elect  its  own  officers,  and  each  officer 


and  member  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  must  take  oath  or  affirmation 
to  support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  that  of  the  State 
of  Deseret,  prior  to  entering  upon  the  discharge  of  his  official  duties. 

The  executive  power  was  vested  in  a  Governor,  a  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  a  Secretary  of  State,  an  Auditor  and  a  Treasurer.  The 
Governor  was  to  be  elected  for  four  years,  his  qualifications,  powers 
and  duties  being  similar  to  those  of  the  Governors  of  other  States. 
He  had  authority  to  call  special  sessions  of  the  Legislative  Assembly, 
and  possessed  the  usual  power  of  veto  over  its  acts.  The  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  who  was  also  elected  for  four  years,  was  ex  officio  president 
of  the  Senate. 

The  judiciary  consisted  of  a  Supreme  Court,  with  such  other 
inferior  tribunals  as  might  be  established  by  the  Legislature.  That 
body,  by  a  joint  vote,  was  to  elect  a  chief  justice  and  two  associate 
justices,  to  hold  office  for  four  years.  It  was  afterwards  decided  to 
have  these  judges  elected  by  the  people.  The  qualifications  of  voters 
at  the  first  election  were  that  they  should  be  free,  white  male  resi- 
dents of  the  State,  over  the  age  of  twenty-one. 

A  State  militia  comprising  all  males  between  the  ages  of  eighteen 
and  forty-five,  not  exempt  from  military  duty,  was  to  be  forthwith 
organized,  armed,  equipped  and  trained.  The  age  regulation  was 
subsequently  changed;  for  when  the  militia  was  organized  there  was 
a  company  of  juvenile  rifles,  composed  of  youths  under  eighteen,  and 
another  company  called  "  Silver  Greys,"  made  up  of  men  over  fifty 
years  of  age. 

The  election  of  officers  for  the  Provisional  Government  of  the 
State  of  Deseret  took  place  at  Salt  Lake  City  on  Monday,  March  12th, 
1849.  The  following  ticket  was  elected:  Brigham  Young,  Governor  : 
Willard  Richards,  Secretary;  Newel  K.  Whitney,  Treasurer;  Heber 
C.  Kimball,  Chief  Justice;  John  Taylor  and  N.  K.  Whitney,  Associate 
Justices;  Daniel  H.  Wells,  Attorney-General;  Horace  S.  Eldredge, 
Marshal;  Albert  Carrington,  Assessor  and  Collector;  Joseph  L.  Hey- 
wood,  Surveyor  of  Highways.  At  the  same  time  the  Bishops  of  the 
several  wards  were  elected  magistrates. 


The  militia  was  next  organized,  under  the  direction  of  General 
Charles  C.  Rich  and  Daniel  H.  Wells,  a  committee  on  military  affairs. 
They  began  to  organize  it  in  March,  and  in  May  reported  the  com- 
pletion of  their  labors.  This  did  not  mean  that  the  full  organization 
was  at  once  perfected.  The  old  name  of  "Nauvoo  Legion,"  endeared 
to  so  many  of  those  who  were  now  re-enrolled,  was  retained  as  the 
title  of  the  militia  of  the  State  of  Deseret. 

Its  chief  officers  were,  Daniel  H.  Wells,  Major- General,  and  Jede- 
diah  M.  Grant  and  Horace  S.  Eldreclge,  Brigadier-Generals.  In  Gen- 
eral Grant's  cohort,  which  was  composed  of  cavalry,  John  S.  Fullmer 
was  Colonel  of  the  first  regiment,  Willard  Snow,  Major  of  the  first 
battalion,  and  George  D.  Grant,  Captain  of  the  first  company,  first 
battalion.  In  the  second  cohort, — the  infantry, — commanded  by 
Brigadier-General  Eldredge,  John  Scott  was  Colonel  of  the  first 
regiment,  Andrew  Lytle  Major  of  the  first  battalion,  and  Jesse  P. 
Harmon  captain  of  the  first  company,  first  battalion.  Two  companies 
comprised  the  artillery.  The  first  company  organized  was  Captain 
George  D.  Grant's.  These  were  picked  men,  termed  "life-guards,"' 
or  "minute  men."  It  was  their  duty  to  protect  Salt  Lake  City  and  its 
environs  from  Indian  depredations.  Captain  Harmon's  company 
were  the  "Silver  Greys,"  before  mentioned. 

The  militia  also  had  the  following  general  officers:  James  Fer- 
guson, Adjutant-General;  Hiram  B.  Clawson,  Aide-de-camp;  Lewis 
Robison,  Quarter-master-General ;  Albert  P.  Rockwood,  Commissary- 
General  ;  Ezra  G.  Williams,  Surgeon-General ;  Ezra  T.  Benson  and 
Wilford  Woodruff,  Chaplains;  Edward  P.  Duzette.  Chief  of  Music; 
and  Ephraim  Hanks  and  Lot  Smith,  Color-bearers-General.  These 
officers,  from  the  Adjutant-General  to  the  Chief  of  Music,  held  the 
rank  of  Colonel,  but  the  last  two  ranked  as  captains.  Subsequently 
military  districts  were  organized  in  the  several  counties  created  by 
the  Legislature.* 

*  Among   the  earliest  commanders   of    military  districts  were  Colonel    George  A. 
Smith,  Iron  County;  Peter  W.  Conover.  Utah  County;  Cyrus  C.  Cantield,  Weber  County, 

and  Nelson  Higgins,  Saficeie  County. 


Thus  was  established  the  Provisional  Government  of  the  State 
of  Deseret,  with  its  mailed  arm  of  power,  the  Nauvoo  Legion.  It 
was  not  long  before  a  portion  of  the  troops  were  called  into  the  field 
to  resist  hostile  encroachments  by  the  savages. 

The  same  month  that  the  State  government  was  organized,  the 
settlement  of  Utah  Valley  was  begun.  This  was  the  first  permanent 
movement  of  the  Mormon  colonists  toward  southern  Utah. 

In  the  summer  of  1848  the  settlers  in  Salt  Lake  Valley  had  been 
visited  by  several  hundred  Indians,  men,  women  and  children.  They 
were  Utahs  and  were  accompanied  by  their  noted  chiefs  Sowiette  and 
Walkara, — anglicised  Walker.  According  to  Parley  P.  Pratt  these 
Indians  were  "  good-looking,  brave  and  intelligent,*'  superior  to  any 
other  savages  he  had  seen  west  of  the  Pvocky  Mountains.  They 
came  to  trade  horses,  of  which  they  had  a  numerous  band,  and  to 
cultivate  friendly  relations  with  the  settlers.*  They  expressed  the 
wish  to  amalgamate  with  them,  to  learn  the  arts  of  peace  and 
become  civilized.  They  wanted  some  of  the  colonists  to  go  with 
them  and  teach  them  to  farm  in  their  valleys  to  the  southward. 
This  the  settlers  could  not  then  do.  but  promised  that  in  the  future 
they  would  come  among  them  and  teach  them  as  they  desired.  This 
promise  was  duly  kept,  not  only  because  it  had  been  made,  but 
because  the  Latter-day  Saints,  as  shown,  believe  it  a  portion  of  their 
mission  to  reclaim  and  civilize  the  red  men.  They  advised  Sowiette 
and  his  people  to  cease  their  warfare  and  live  at  peace  with  all  men. 

Sowiette,  who  was  king  of  the  Utah  nation,  scarcely  needed  this 
good  advice,  if  local  tradition  may  be  relied  upon.  He  was  peaceably 
disposed,  it  is  said,  and  though  no  coward,  naturally  averse  to  war 
and  blood-shed.      Walker,   his  subordinate,  was   of   another   stamp 

*  A  late  chief  (of  the  Utahs)  acting  on  the  plurality  law,  left  about  thirty  sons,  most 
of  whom  have  small  clans  under  them.  His  true  successor  is  a  fine,  brave  Indian  with 
the  largest  band  immediately  around  him,  and  he  exercises  control  over  all  whom  he 
chooses.  He  is  a  friend  of  the  Mormons.  A  half-brother  of  his  named  Walker  has 
become  rich  and  celebrated  for  his  success  in  stealing  horses  from  the  Mexicans.  He  lias 
a  large  drove  of  cattle,  with  many  followers." — Lieutenant  (iunnfcon. 


entirely.  He  was  quarrelsome  and  blood-thirsty.  Stealing  was  his 
ordinary  vocation,  and  he  would  kill  whenever  it  suited  his  purpose. 
He  and  his  bands  would  penetrate  at  times  to  west  of  the  Sierras, 
and  raid  and  rob  the  California  settlements,  returning  in  triumph 
with  their  booty  to  the  mountains  of  Utah.  His  name  was  a  terror 
to  the  whites,  and  he  was  also  feared  and  hated  by  other  tribes  of 

It  is  related  that  at  the  time  the  Pioneers  entered  Salt  Lake 
Valley  a  large  number  of  the  Utah  nation  were  encamped  in  Spanish 
Fork  canyon ;  Sowiette  and  Walker  both  being  present. *  A  council 
was  held  to  consider  what  policy  should  be  pursued  toward  the  new- 
comers, of  whose  arrival  these  chiefs  had  heard  from  some  of  their 
scouts  and  runners.  Sowiette  counseled  peace  and  friendship  for  the 
strangers,  with  whose  past  he  was  somewhat  acquainted,  and 
evidently  felt  for  the  exiles  a  noble  savage's  generous  compassion. 
But  Walker,  who  was  nothing  if  not  violent,  raised  his  voice  for  war, 
and  the  extermination  of  the  settlers.  The  younger  warriors  mostly 
sided  with  Walker,  but  the  older  and  wiser  ones  stood  with  Sowiette. 
Finally  Walker  intimated  that  Sowiette  was  a. coward.  The  old  king 
could  stand  no  more.  Seizing  a  riding-whip  he  advanced  upon  the 
turbulent  chief  and  gave  him  a  sound  flogging.  After  that  there 
was  no  more  talk  of  Sowiette's  cowardice,  and  his  peace  counsel 
prevailed.^  Then  followed  the  visit  of  the  Utes  to  Salt  Lake  Valley, 
as  related. 

Walker,  however,  notwithstanding  his  professions  of  friendship 
for  the  Mormons, — which  were  probably  made  out  of  deference  to 
Sowiette, — was  soon  again  on  the  war-path,  stirring  up  the  Indians 

*  Tullidge'a  Quarterly  Magazine,  Vol.  3,  page  241. 

f  A  similar  encounter,  though  no  flogging  was  administered,  is  related  as  having 
occurred  between  Walker  and  Washakie,  the  latter  a  noted  and  noble  chief  of  the 
Shoshones.  Walker  having  angered  Washakie,  the  Shoshone  chieftain  strode  up  to  him 
and  dared  him  to  mortal  combat.  The  Ute  chief  not  responding,  Washakie  called  him  a 
dog,  and  snatching  the  tomahawk  from  his  belt  hurled  it  away  in  scorn  and  contempt, 
Walker  still  declining  to  fight. 


against  the  settlers.  President  Young  was  so  informed  by  Colonel 
Bridger  and  his  partner  Vasquez,  soon  after  the  formation  of  the 
first  settlement  in  Utah  Valley.  Yet  the  founding  of  that  settlement, 
it  appears,  was  not  only  in  pursuance  of  the  general  colonizing  plan 
of  the  Mormon  President,  but  in  response  to  the  invitation  of  the 
savages  themselves,  for  their  "white  brothers"  to  come  among  them 
and  teach  them  how  to  become  civilized. 

The  man  chosen  to  lead  the  colony  into  Utah  Valley  was  John 
S.  Higbee,  one  of  the  original  Mormon  Pioneers.  At  the  head  of 
about  thirty  families,  with  wagons,  horses,  cattle,  cows,  farming  and 
building  implements,  seed  and  provisions,  he  set  out  from  Salt  Lake 
City  early  in  March,  1849,  to  found  a  settlement  on  Provo  River.* 
Three  days  they  rolled  and  trudged  along,  their  progress  much 
impeded  by  the  muddy  soil,  soaked  with  spring  rains  and  melting- 
snows.  Within  a  few  miles  of  the  spot  where  they  subsequently 
built  their  fort  and  broke  the  first  ground  for  farming,  their  progress 
was  barred  by  a  band  of  Indians,  who  were  at  first  unwilling  that 
they  should  proceed.  Finally  they  were  permitted  to  do  so.  First, 
however,  as  the  story  goes,  they  were  required  to  solemnly  swear 
that  if  they  were  allowed  to  settle  in  Utah  Valley  they  would  not 
seek  to  drive  the  Indians  from  their  lands,  nor  deprive  them  of  their 
rights.  Dimick  B.  Huntington,  acting  as  interpreter  for  the  others, 
in  behalf  of  his  brethren  took  the  required  oath,  with  his  right  hand 
lifted  to  heaven. 

Arriving  at  Provo  River,  they  forded  it  and  camped  on  the  south 
side,  near  the  spot  now  known  as  the  "old  fort  field."  Farming  and 
building  immediately  began,  and  by  the  middle  of  May  the  settlers 
had  built  a  fort  and  plowed,  fenced  and  planted  with  wheat,  rye  and 
corn  the  greater  portion  of  a  field  of  two  hundred  and  twenty-five 

*  Provo  River,  once  Timpanogas,  is  said  to  have  been  called  after  a  trapper  named 
Provost,  believed  by  some  to  be  the  original  discoverer  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  Others 
say  that  Colonel  Fremont  named  it  "  Proveau  "  for  a  valuable  horse  of  his  which  died 
there;  Proveau  being  the  name  of  a  Frenchman  from  whom  Fremont  had  purchased  the 


acres.  By  this  time  ten  additional  families  had  joined  them,  and  the 
field  was  divided  into  forty  lots,  and  one  given  to  each  family.  The 
fort  was  the  usual  cluster  of  log  houses  surrounded  by  a  stockade. 
This  stockade  was"  fourteen  feet  high,  with  a  gate  at  either  end. 
From  the  centre  arose  a  log  bastion,  overlooking  all,  upon  which  was 
mounted  one  or  more  cannon,  for  protection  against  possible  Indian 
assaults.  The  savages  frequently  visited  the  fort,  and  for  several 
months  were  as  peaceable  and  friendly  as  their  white  neighbors  could 
desire.  On  the  18th  of  March  the  Provo  Branch  was  organized, 
with  John  S.  Higbee  as  President,  and  Isaac  Higbee  and  Dimick  B. 
Huntington  as  his  counselors. 

As  early  as  June  of  this  year  there  began  to  pass  through  Utah 
— or  Deseret — parties  of  gold-hunters  en  route  for  California. 
Everybody  remembers  or  has  heard  of  the  "gold-fever"  in 

"  The  days  of  old, 
The  days  of  gold, 
The  days  of  "49." 

The  discovery  of  the  precious  metal  in  that  land  had  seemingly 
set  on  fire  the  civilized  world.  Ocean's  broad  expanse  was  dotted 
with  sails  bearing  from  every  nation  under  heaven  eager  souls  to  the 
Californian  coast.  Across  the  great  plains  came  pouring  hundreds 
of  richly  laden  trains  on  their  way  to  the  new  El  Dorado.  Salt  Lake 
Valley  was  no  longer  shunned  and  avoided.  Being  directly  in  the 
path  to  the  Pacific,  both  to  shorten  the  route  and  obtain  fresh 
supplies  to  enable  them  to  more  speedily  proceed,  it  became  to  many 
the  immediate,  and  to  some  the  ultimate  goal  of  the  journey.  The 
gold-seekers  were  actuated  by  but  one  desire, — to  reach  the 
auriferous  land  beyond  the  Sierras;  the  thirst  for  wealth  having 
absorbed  for  the  time  being  all  other  thoughts  and  emotions.  Many 
who  in  the  east  had  loaded  their  wagons  with  merchandise  for  the 
mining  camps,  impatient  at  their  slow  progress,  and  hearing  that 
other  merchants  had  arrived  by  sea  before  them,  in  order  to  lighten 
their  loads  literally  threw  away  or  "sold  for  a  song"  the  goods 
they  had  freighted   over  a  thousand   miles.     Dry  goods,  groceries, 


provisions,  clothing,  implements,  etc., — just  what  were  needed  by  the 
half-starved,  half-clad  famine-stricken  community  in  the  mountains, 
— were  bartered  off  to  them  at  almost  any  sacrifice.  Some  of  the 
emigrants  brought  with  them  choice  blooded  stock,  which,  being 
jaded,  they  gladly  exchanged  for  the  fresh  horses  and  mules  of  the 
Mormon  settlers.  The  most  primitive  outfits  sufficed  the  on-goers, 
with  barely  enough  provisions  to  last  to  their  journey's  end.  Thus, 
as  Heber  C.  Kimball  had  declared,  at  a  time,  too,  when  such  a  thing 
seemed  most  improbable,  "States  goods"  were  actually  sold  in  Salt 
Lake  City,  within  a  year  after  the  prediction  was  uttered,  cheaper 
than  they  could  have  been  purchased  in  St.  Louis  or  New  York.* 

Some  of  these  emigrants,  on  reaching  the  Mormon  settlements, 
decided  to  remain  and  cast  in  their  lot  with  the  Saints.  Most  of 
those  who  thus  tarried  joined  the  Church  and  became  Mormons. 
Others  who  came  later  did  likewise.  The  majority  of  these 
conversions  were  genuine.  There  were  some,  however,  who 
remained  merely  long  enough  to  marry  a  Mormon  girl,  be  cared 
for  by  her  parents  during  the  winter,  then  off  in  the  spring  for 
California,  forsaking  wife  and  child,  and  perhaps  never  again  to  be 
heard  from.  This  class  were  styled  "Winter  Mormons."  Better 
men  who  followed  in  their  wake,  naturally  fell  under  suspicion  till 
their  honor  had  been  fully  proven,  owing  to  the  misdeeds  of  these 

*  Says  the  Frontier  Guardian  of  those  times  in  the  Valley  :  "  When  they  (the 
emigrants)  saw  a  few  bags  and  kegs  of  gold  dust  brought  in  by  our  boys,  it  made  them 
completely  enthusiastic.  Pack  mules  and  horses  that  were  worth  twenty-live  dollars  in 
ordinary  times,  would  readily  bring  two  hundred  dollars  in  the  most  valuable  property  at 
the  lowest  price.  Goods  and  other  property  were  daily  offered  at  auction  in  all  parts  of 
the  city.  For  a  light  Yankee  wagon,  sometimes  three  or  four  great  heavy  ones  would  be 
offered  in  exchange,  and  a  yoke  of  oxen  thrown  in  at  that.  Common  domestic  sheeting 
sold  from  five  to  leu  cents  per  yard  by  the  bolt.  The  best  of  spades  and  shovels  for  lifly 
cents  each.  Vests  that  cost  in  Si.  Louis  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  each,  were  sold  at 
Salt  Lake  City  for  thirty-seven  and  one-half  cents.  Full  chests  of  joiner's  tools  that 
would  cost  one  hundred  and  filly  dollars  in  the  east,  were  sold  in  Salt  Lake  City  for 
twenty-five  dollars.  Indeed,  almost  every  article,  except  sugar  and  coffee,  were  selling  on 
an  average  fifty  per  cent,  below  wholesale  prices  in  Hie  eastern  States." 


Though  on  their  guard  against  such,  the  Mormons  continued  to 
treat  with  kindness  the  passing  companies,  and  as  a  rule  were  by 
them  respected  and  esteemed.  In  their  disagreements  with  each 
other,  the  Gentiles  would  often  submit  for  arbitrament  their  cases  to 
the  Mormon  Bishops,  acting  as  magistrates,  and  generally  seemed 
well  satisfied  with  their  decisions.  When  a  Mormon  and  a  Gentile 
were  the  parties  litigant,  and  the  decision  went  against  the  latter,  it 
was  of  course  more  difficult  for  him  to  believe  that  he  had  been 
fairly  dealt  by. 

Touching  these  and  other  matters  relating  to  the  Mormons, 
Lieutenant  John  W.  Gunnison,  who,  in  1849-50  assisted  Captain 
Howard  Stansbury  of  the  U.  S.  Army  Corps  of  Topographical 
Engineers,  in  a  government  survey  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  and  its 
vicinity,  has  this  to  say:* 

We  found  them,  in  1849,  organized  into  a  state  with  all  the  order  oi  legislative, 
judicial,  and  executive  offices  regularly  filled,  under  a  constitution  eminently  republican  in 
sentiment,  and  tolerant  in  religion  ;  and  though  the  authority  of  Congress  has  not  yet 
sanctioned  this  form  of  government,  presented  and  petitioned  for,  they  proceed  quietly 
with  all  the  routine  of  an  organized  self-governing  people,  under  the  title  of  a  Territory; — 
being  satisfied  to  abide  their  time,  in  accession  of  strength  by  numbers,  when  they  may  be 
deemed  fit  to  take  a  sovereign  position  ;  being  contented,  as  long  as  allowed  to  enjoy  the 
substance,  under  the  shadow  of  a  name.  They  lay  and  collect  taxes,  raise  and  equip 
troops  for  protection,  in  full  sovereignty,  on  the  soil  they  helped  to  conquer  first,  and 
subdue  to  use  afterward. 

A  large  branch  of  the  great  emigration  overland  to  California  passed  through  the 
Mormon  settlements,  which  is  the  best  route  across  the  country. 

Of  the  parties  organized  in  the  States  to  cross  the  plains,  there  was  hardly  one  that 
did  not  break  into  several  fragments,  and  the  division  of  property  caused  a  great  deal  of 
difficulty.  Many  of  these  litigants  applied  to  the  courts  of  Deseret  for  redress  of  griev- 
ances, and  there  was  every  appearance  of  impartiality  and  strict  justice  done  to  all  parties. 
Of  course  there  would  be  dissatisfaction  when  the  right  was  declared  to  belong  to  the  one 
side  alone;  and  the  losers  circulated  letters  far  and  near,  of  the  oppression  of  the  Mormons. 
These  would  sometimes  rebel  against  the  equity  decisions,  and  then  they  were  made  to 
feel  the  full  majesty  of  the  civil  power.  For  contempt  of  court  they  were  most  severely 
fined,  and  in  the  end  found  it  a  losing  game  to  indulge  in  vituperation  of  the  court,  or 
make  remarks  derogatory  to  the  high  functionaries. 

*  Gunnison's  "The  Mormons,"  pages  23,  64,  65. 


Again,  the  fields  in  the  valley  are  imperfectly  fenced,  and  the  emigrants'  cattle  often 
trespassed  upon  the  crops.  For  this,  a  good  remuneration  was  demanded,  and  the  value 
being  so  enormously  greater  than  in  the  States,  it  looked  to  the  stranger  as  an  imposition 
and  injustice  to  ask  so  large  a  price.  A  protest  would  usually  be  made,  the  case  then 
taken  before  the  bishop,  and  the  costs  be  added  to  the  original  demand.  Such  as  these 
were  the  instances  of  terrible  oppression  that  have  been  industriously  circulated  as  unjust 
acts  of  heartless  Mormons,  upon  the  gold  emigration. 

But  provisions  were  sold  at  very  reasonable  prices,  and  their  many  deeds  of  charity 
to  the  sick  and  broken-down  gold-seekers,  all  speak  loudly  in  their  favor,  and  must 
eventually  redound  to  their  praise.  Such  kindness,  and  apparently  brotherly  good-will 
among  themselves,  had  its  effect  in  converting  more  than  one  to  their  faith,  and  the 
proselytes  deserted  the  search  for  golden  ore,  supposing  they  had  found  there  pearls  of 
greater  price. 

Says  Captain  Stansbury  :* 

The  jurisdiction  of  the  "  State  of  Deseret "  had  been  extended  over  and  was 
vigorously  enforced  upon  all  who  came  within  its  borders,  and  justice  was  equitably 
administered  alike  to  "saint"  and  "gentile" — as  they  term  all  who  are  not  of  their  per- 
suasion. Of  the  truth  of  this,  as  far  at  least  as  the  gentiles  were  concerned,  I  soon  had 
convincing  proof,  by  finding,  one  fine  morning,  some  twenty  of  our  mules  safely  secured 
in  the  public  pound,  for  trespass  upon  the  cornfield  of  some  pious  saint ;  possession  was 
recovered  only  by  paying  the  fine  imposed  by  the  magistrate  and  amply  remunerating  the 
owner  for  the  damage  done  to  his  crops.  Their  courts  were  constantly  appealed  to  by 
companies  of  passing  emigrants,  who,  having  fallen  out  by  the  way,  could  not  agree  upon 
the  division  of  their  property.  The  decisions  were  remarkable  for  fairness  and  impartiality, 
and  if  not  submitted  to,  were  sternly  enforced  by  the  whole  power  of  the  community. 
Appeals  for  protection  from  oppression,  by  those  passing  through  their  midst,  were  not 
made  in  vain  ;  and  I  know  of  at  least  one  instance  in  which  the  marshal  of  the  State  was 
despatched,  with  an  adequate  force,  nearly  two  hundred  miles  into  the  western  desert,  in 
pursuit  of  some  miscreants  who  had  stolen  oil'  with  nearly  the  whole  outfit  of  a  party  of 
emigrants.  He  pursued  and  brought  them  back  to  the  city,  and  the  plundered  property 
was  restored  to  its  rightful  owner. 

In  their  dealings,  with  the  crowds  of  emigrants  that  passed  throught  their  city,  the 
Mormons  were  ever  fair  and  upright,  taking  no  advantage  of  the  necessitous  conditions  of 
many,  if  not  most  of  them.  They  sold  them  such  provisions  as  they  could  spare,  at 
moderate  prices,  and  such  as  they  themselves  paid  in  their  dealings  with  each  other.  In 
the  whole  of  our  intercourse  with  them,  which  lasted  rather  more  than  a  year,  I  cannot 
refer  to  a  single  instance  of  fraud  or  extortion  to  which  any  of  the  party  was  subjected  ; 
and  I  strongly  incline  to  the  opinion  that  the  charges  that  have  been  preferred  against  them 
in  this  respect,  arose  either  from  interested  misrepresentation  or  erroneous  information.  I 
certainly  never  experienced  anything  like  it  in  my  own  case,  nor  did  I  witness  or  hear  of 
any  instance  of  it  in  the  case  of   others,   while   I   resided  among  them.     Too  many  that 

'Stansbury's  Expedition,"  pages  130,  131,  134.  135. 


passed  through  their  settlements  were  disposed  to  disregard  their  claim  to  the  land  they 
occupied,  to  ridicule  the  municipal  regulations  of  their  city,  and  to  trespass  wantonly 
upon  their  rights.  Such  offenders  were  promptly  arrested  by  the  authorities,  made  to  pay 
a  severe  tine,  and  in  some  instances  were  imprisoned  or  made  to  labor  on  the  public 
works  ;  a  punishment  richly  merited,  and  which  would  have  been  inflicted  upon  them  in 
any  civilized  community.  In  short,  these  people  presented  the  appearance  of  a  quiet, 
orderly,  industrious,  and  well-organized  society,  as  much  so  as  one  would  meet  with  in 
any  city  of  the  Union,  having  the  rights  of  personal  property  as  perfectly  defined  and  as  ' 
religiously  respected  as  with  ourselves ;  nothing  being  farther  from  their  faith  or  practice 
than  the  spirit  of  communism,  which  has  been  most  erroneously  supposed  to  prevail 
among  them.  The  main  peculiarity  of  the  people  consists  in  their  religious  tenets,  the 
form  and  extent  of  their  church  government,  (which  is  a  theocracy,)  and  in  the  nature 
especially  of  their  domestic  relations. 

In  the  light  of  such  testimony,  from  men  who  surveyed  the 
situation  for  themselves,  and  recorded  in  extenso,  after  a  year's 
sojourn  among  the  Saints,  their  observations  and  impressions 
concerning  them,  how  manifestly  unjust  is  the  following  statement  in 
a  popular  school  history  of  the  present  period,  from  which  Mormon 
and  Gentile  children  in  Utah  and  elsewhere  are  being  taught  the 
story  of  the  past:  "The  Mormon  rulers  did  all  they  could  to 
interfere  with  the  passage  of  emigrant  trains,  and  with  settlements 
in  the  neighborhood;  they  even  made  use  of  the  Indians,  and 
encouraged  them  to  attack  emigrants!"* 

What  "settlements  in  the  neighborhood"  there  were,  to  be  thus 
interfered  with  by  the  Mormon  rulers,  except  the  settlements  of  the 
Saints  themselves,  the  sagacious  writer  of  the  history  does  not  say. 
Plainly  he  knew  little  or  nothing  about  the  subject  of  which  he  was 
writing.  How  the  Mormon  leaders  "interfered  with  the  emigrants" 
who  passed  through  their  country  is  further  shown  by  the  following 
extract  from  a  discourse  delivered  by  President  Young  during  that 
period.  Said  this  "Mormon  ruler"  to  the  assembled  Saints:  "Let 
no  man  go  hungry  from  your  doors.  Divide  with  them  and  trust  in 
God  for  more.  *  *  *  Emigrants,  don't  let  your  spirits 
be  worn  down;  and  shame  be  to  the  door  where  a  man  has  to  go 

•Scudder's  History  of  the  United  States,  page  353. 


hungry  away."  Similar  passages  might  be  multiplied  were  it 

The  General  Assembly  of  Deseret  held  its  first  session  on  July 
2nd,  1849,  at  Salt  Lake  City.  As  stated,  it  had  been  decided  in 
March  to  petition  Congress  for  the  organization  of  a  Territorial 
government  for  the  settlers  of  the  Great  Basin.  In  fact,  a  memorial 
to  that  effect  had  since  been  numerously  signed  and  sent  to 
Washington.  Dr.  John  M.  Bernhisel  was  the  bearer  of  this 
document  to  the  nation's  capital.  He  carried  with  him  a  letter  of 
introduction  to  Senator  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  from  Brigham  Young, 
Heber  C.  Kimball  and  Willard  Richards. 

The  memorial,  after  reciting  in  its  preamble  that  the  petitioners 
were  residents  of  that  portion  of  North  America  "commonly  called 
Eastern  California,"  and  that  they  were  so  far  removed  and 
effectually  separated  from  all  civilized  society  and  organized 
government,  by  trackless  deserts,  snowy  mountains  and  blood-thirsty 
savages,  that  they  could  never  be  united  with  any  other  portion  of 
the  country  in  Territorial  or  State  Legislature  to  mutual  advantage, 
closed  as  follows  : 

"Therefore,  we  respectfully  petition  your  honorable  body  to 
charter  for  your  memorialists  a  Territorial  Government  of  the  most 
liberal  construction  authorized  by  our  excellent  Federal  Constitution, 
with  the  least  possible  delay,  to  be  known  by  the  name  of  Deseret; 
including  and  covering  all  lands  and  waters,  with  all  privileges, 
immunities  and  advantages  thereunto  belonging,  lying  between 
Oregon  and  Mexico,  and  between  the  Sierra  Nevada  and  the  27°  W. 
L.,  or  more  particularly  bounded  and  described  as  follows,  to  wit: 
Commencing  at  the  Rio  Grande  del  Norte,  at  its  crossing  of  the  32° 
N.  L.,  (or  the  northern  line  of  Mexico)  to  the  Pacific  Ocean;  thence 
along  the  coast  northward  to  the  42°  W.  L.,  thence  on  said  42°  to 
the  Sierra  Nevada,  thence  continuing  along  the  summit  of  the  Sierra 
Nevada,  or  Snowy  Mountains,  to  the  42°  N.  L.,  thence  running  east 
by  the  southern  boundary  of  Oregon  to  Green  River;  thence 
northerly  up  the  main  channel  of   Green  River  to  the  43°  N.  L.; 


thence  east  on  said  degree  to  the  27°  longitude  west  of  Washington; 
thence  south  along  said  degree  to  38°  N.  L.;  thence  west  on  said 
degree  to  the  Rio  Grande  del  Norte;  thence  southerly  down  the  main 
channel  of  said  river,  to  the  place  of  beginning. 
"And  your  memorialists  will  ever  pray." 
It  was  now  resolved,  however,  to  go  a  step  further,  and  ask 
Congress  to  admit  Deseret  into  the  Union  as  a  State.  Accordingly  a 
new  memorial,  praying  for  statehood,  having  been  prepared  and 
adopted  by  the  Legislature,  was  signed  by  many  citizens.  Early  in 
July,  by  a  joint  vote  of  the  Assembly,  Almon  W.  Babbitt  was  elected 
a  delegate  to  Congress  to  convey  the  memorial  to  Washington.  He 
also  took  with  him  a  copy  of  the  Constitution  of  the  proposed  State, 
which  Congress  was  requested  to  ratify. 

The  full  text  of  the  memorial  was  as  follows : 

To  the  Honorable  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives,  in   Congress  assembled: 

Your  memorialists,  members  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Deseret.  would 
respectfully  lay  before  your  honorable  body  the  wishes  and  interests  of  our  constituents, 
together  with  the  reasons  and  design  of  our  early  organization  as  a  civil  government,  to 
which  the  consideration  of  your  honorable  body  is  most  earnestly  solicited. 

Whereas,  The  history  of  all  ages  proves  that  civil  governments,  combining  in  their 
administration  the  protection  of  person,  property,  character,  and  religion,  encouraging  the 
science  of  agriculture,  manufactures,  and  literature,  are  productive  of  the  highest,  happiest 
and  purest  state  of  society :  and 

Whereas,  All  political  power  is  inherent  in  the  people,  and  governments  to  be 
permanent  and  satisfactory,  should  emanate  from  the  same  :  and 

Whereas,  The  inhabitants  of  all  newly  settled  countries  and  territories,  who  have 
become  acquainted  with  their  climate,  cultivated  their  soil,  tested  their  mineral  productions 
and  investigated  their  commercial  advantages,  are  the  besl  judges  of  the  kinds  of  government 
and  laws  necessary  for  their  growth  and  prosperity  :  and 

Whereas,  Congress  has  failed  to  provide,  by  law.  a  form  of  civil  government  for  this 
or  any  other  portion  of  territory  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  republic  of  Mexico  in 
the  late  treaty  of  peace  :  and 

Whereas,  Since  the  expiration  of  the  Mexican  civil  authority,  however  weak  and 
imbecile,  anarchy  to  an  alarming  extent  has  prevailed— the  revolver  and  howie  knife  have 
been  the  highest  law  of  the  land — the  strong  have  prevailed  against  the  weak — while 
person,  property,  character  and  religion  have  been  unaided,  and  virtue  unprotected  ;  and 

Whereas,  From  the  discovery  of  the  valuable  gold  mines  west  of  the  Sierra  Nevada 
Mountains,  many  thousands  of  able-bodied  men  arc  emigrating  to  that  section,  armed  with 
all  the  implements  and  munitions  of  war:  and 


Whereas,  Strong  fears  have  been,  and  still  are  entertained  from  the  failure  of 
Congress  to  provide  legal  civil  authorities,  that  political  aspirants  may  subject  the 
government  of  the  United  States  to  the  sacrifice  of  much  blood  and  treasure  in  extending 
jurisdiction  over  that  valuable  country  ;  and 

Whereas,  The  inhabitants  of  the  State  of  Deseret,  in  view  of  their  own  security, 
and  for  the  preservation  of  the  constitutional  right  of  the  United  States  to  hold  jurisdiction 
there,  have  organized  a  provisional  State  government  under  which  the  civil  policy  of  the 
nation  is  duly  maintained  :  and 

Whereas,  There  are  so  many  natural  barriers  to  prevent  communication  with  any 
other  State  or  Territory  belonging  to  the  Uuited  States,  during  a  great  portion  of  the  year, 
such  as  snow-capped  mountains,  sandy  deserts,  sedge  plains,  saleratus  lakes  and  swamps, 
over  which  it  is  very  difficult  to  effect  a  passage  ;  and 

Whereas,  It  is  important  in  meting  out  the  boundaries  of  the  States  and  Territories 
so  to  establish  them  that  the  heads  of  departments  may  be  able  to  communicate  with  all 
branches  of  their  goverement  with  the  least  possible  delay  ;  and 

Whereas,  There  are  comparatively  no  navigable  rivers,  lakes,  or  other  natural 
channels  of  commerce  ;  and 

Whereas,  No  valuable  mines  of  gold,  silver,  iron,  copper  or  lead  have  as  yet  been 
discovered  within  the  boundaries  of  this  State,  commerce  must  necessarily  be  limited  to  a 
few  branches  of  trade  and  manufacture  ;  and 

Whereas,  The  laws  of  all  States  and  Territories  should  lie  adapted  to  their 
geographical  location,  protecting  and  regulating  those  branches  of  trade  only  which  the 
country  is  capable  of  sustaining ;  thereby  relieving  the  government  from  the  expense  of 
those  complicated  and  voluminous  statutes  which  a  more  commercial  State  requires  :  and 

Whereas,  There  is  now  a  sufficient  number  of  individuals  residing  within  the  Stale 
of  Deseret  to  support  a  State  government,  thereby  relieving  the  general  government  from 
the  expense  of  a  Territorial  government  in  that  section  ;  and  in  evidence  of  which  the 
inhabitants  have  already  erected  a  legislative  hall,  equal  to  most  and  surpassed  by  few  in 
the  older  Slates, — 

Your  memorialists,  therefore,  ask  your  honorable  body  to  favorably  consider  their 
interests  :  and,  consistent  with  the  institution  and  usages  of  the  Federal  government,  that 
the  constitution  accompanying  this  memorial  be  ratified,  and  that  the  State  of  Deseret  be 
admitted  into  the  Union  on  an  equal  footing  with  other  States,  or  such  other  form  of 
civil  government  as  your  wisdom  and  magnanimity  may  award  to  the  people  of  Deseret. 
And,  upon  the  adoption  of  any  form  of  government  here,  that  their  delegates  be  received 
and  their  interests  properly  and  faithfully  represented  in  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States.    And  your  memorialists,  as  in  duty  bound,  will  ever  pray. 

A  little  later  another  plan  was  proposed,  to  secure  the  admission 
into  the  Union  of  Deseret  and  California  as  one  State,  with  the 
understanding  that  they  were  subsequently  to  separate  and  form  two 
distinct  commonwealths.  The  following  letter  from  Governor  Young, 
Lieutenant-Governor   Kimball    and    Secretary   Richards,  to    Amasa 


M.   Lyman,   who    was  then   in  California,   will   fully   explain    this 
project:  . 

Great  Salt  Lake  City,  September  6th,  1849. 
Brother  Amasa  Lyman  : 

Dear  Sir — On  the  20th  of  August,  General  Wilson  arrived  here,  on  his  way  to 
California,  as  general  Indian  agent,  etc.  We  had  an  interview  with  him,  and  gathered 
from  him  the  following  particulars  :  that  the  President  and  council  of  the  United  States 
are  friendly  disposed  towards  us,  and  that  he  (General  Wilson)  is  commissioned  by 
General  Taylor  to  inform  us  that'he  fully  appreciates  our  situation,  that  he  considers  we 
have  been  unjustly  dealt  with,  and  that  so  far  as  his  power  constitutionally  extends,  he 
will  do  us  all  the  good  he  can. 

The  main  point  of  the  matter,  however,  is  this:  the  President  has  his  ends  to  sub- 
serve, and  as  he  knows  that  we  have  been  favorable  to  his  election,  he  wishes  further  to 
appeal  to  our  patriotism  (so  says  General  Wilson)  to  help  him  to  carry  out  another 
measure,  which  will  deliver  him,  the  cabinet  and  the  nation  from  a  difficulty  in  which  he 
thinks  they  are  likely  to  be  involved. 

The  subject  of  slavery  has  become  more  embarrassing  than  it  ever  has  been  before. 
The  addition  of  the  extensive  territories  of  New  Mexico  and  Upper  California  increases 
that  difficulty.  The  gold  emigration,  etc.,  have  tended  to  fan  the  flame.  This  subject 
will  be  the  first,  probably,  broached  in  Congress,  and  if  some  active  measures  are  not 
adopted,  they  fear  it  will  be  the  last  and  only  question.  If  it  should  lie  made  into 
Territories,  it  will  be  under  the  direction  of  the  United  States,  and  the  question  of 
slavery  will  distract  and  annoy  all  parties,  and  General  Wilson  says  they  fear  will  have  a 
tendency  to  break  up  the  Union. 

To  prevent  this,  they  have  proposed  a  plan  of  making  the  whole  territory  into 
one  State,  leaving  it  to  the  power  of  the  people  to  say  whether  it  shall  be  a  slave  or  a 
free  State,  and  thus  taking  the  bone  from  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  and  leaving 
them  to  pursue  their  course,  'peaceably,  if  they  can,'  undisturbed  by  this  exciting  ques- 
tion. They  think  it  ought  to  be  made  into  two  States,  but  that  the  sparseness  of  the 
population  at  the  present  time  would  preclude  the  possibility  of  an  act  of  that  kind 

The  cabinet  think  that  all  parties  would  agree  to  a  measure  of  this  kind  if  it  should 
become  a  free  State,  and  even  General  Wilson,  the  President,  and  other  slaveholders  are 
anxious  that  it  should  take  this  turn  and  are  willing  to  make  a  sacrifice  for  the  public 
good.  He  supposes  that  even  the  Southern  members  would  go  in  for  it,  but  without  our 
help  they  I li ink  it  could  not  be  accomplished.  They  think  that  there  would  be  a  strong 
Southern  influence  used  on  the  coast,  calculated  to  place  the  matter  in  an  embarrassing 
situation  to  them  and  the  eastern  population  on  the  coast  combined,  but  that  by  our 
influence  we  should  be  enabled  to  counterbalance  that  of  the  slaveholders,  and  thus  settle 
the  troublesome  question.  It  is  therefore  their  policy  to  seek  our  influence,  and  we  need 
not  add  it  is  our  policy  to  use  theirs. 

In  our  communications  with  General  Wilson,  we  at  first  rejected  altogether  the  idea 
of  ;in\  amalgamation  whatever  with  the  government  on  the  coast,  but  on  the  subject 
being  presented  in  another  form,  we  have  agreed  to  the  following  : 


We  are  to  have  a  general  constitution  for  two  States.  The  boundaries  of  the  one 
mentioned  by  us,  before  referred  to,  is  our  State,  the  other  boundaries  to  be  defined  by 
the  people  on  the  coast,  to  be  agreed  upon  in  a  general  convention  ;  the  two  States  to  be 
consolidated  in  one  and  named  as  the  convention  shall  think  proper,  but  to  be  dissolved  at 
the  commencement  of  the  year  1851,  each  one  having  its  own  constitution,  and  each 
becoming  a  free,   sovereign,  independent  State,  without  any  further   action  of  Congress. 

You  will  act  as  our  delegate,  in  conjunction  with  General  Wilson.  Brother  Pickett 
is  also  a  delegate. 

We  need  not  say  that  it  will  be  advisable  for  you  to  get  Samuel  Bran  nan,  with  the 
press,  and  all  the  influence  you  can  collect  around  you  to  carry  out  your  designs. 

Should  the  convention  object  to  sanction  the  few  propositions  that  we  have  made, 
you  can  bring  your  influence  to  bear  against  them,  and  enter  a  protest  against  any 
amalgamation  on  any  other  terms.  And  it  would  be  advisable  for  you  to  sign  a  remon- 
strance against  their  incorporating  any  of  this  country,  and  send  it  to  Washington,  directed 
to  John  M.  Bernhisel  and  Almon  W.  Babbitt,  Esquires. 

The  present  is  a  favorable  moment  for  us  to  secure  a  State  charter.  Should  the  Wilmot 
proviso,  or  slave  question,  by  any  means,  become  settled  before  our  admission  into  the 
Union,  politicians  might  feel  themselves  more  independent,  and  our  interests  might  not  lie 
so  near  their  hearts. 

Our  minus  population  is  the  only  serious  objection  to  our  admission  into  the  Union, 
independent  of  western  California,  but  notwithstanding  this,  we  shall  continue  to  press 
our  suit  at  Washington  for  independence,  hoping  to  obtain  the  same  before  the  joint 
petition  from  your  western  convention  arrives  there.  Should  such  an  event  occur,  it  can 
do  neither  party  any  harm,  for  the  west  will  then  come  in  alone. 

Much  has  been,  may  be,  and  will  be  said  concerning  the  comparative  population  of 
this  valley  and  Western  California,  but  what  were  they,  previous  to  the  opening  of  the 
gold  mines  ?  and  what  are  they  now,  independent  of  gold  diggers  ? 

According  to  the  best  information  we  have  been  able  to  obtain,  we  outnumber  I  hem 
two  to  one,  or  five  to  three,  and  yet  politicians  will  pretend  that  we  are  not  more  in  num- 
ber than  one  to  five,  or  six,  or  ten  of  those  on  the  coast. 

Fabulous  as  this  pretension  is  you  will  have  to  meet  it,  and  must  stave  oil'  foreigners 
and  transient  miners  as  best  you  can,  in  making  up  the  computation  of  joint  ballot  for  a 
convention.  Probably  nine-tenths  of  the  squatters  of  Western  California  have  no  legal  or 
just  claim  to  vote  with  the  actual  settlers  of  this  valley. 

There  has  been  a  great  influx   here  this  season,  and  a  multitude  of  the   brethren  are 
still  on  the  way,  probably  about  the  Pass,  where  our  teams  have  gone  to  meet  them  ;  and 
you  may  safely  compute  our  strength  in  numbers  at  15,000,  and  if  there  is  not  more  than 
75,000  here  before  the  1st  of  January,  1851.  it  will  be  because  they  cannot  gel  here. 
*****  *  *  * 

Don't  get  too  much  in  a  constitution,  lest  it  tie  your  own  hands.  This  has  been  the 
grand  difficulty  with  almost  all  constitution  makers.  The  grand  desideratum  of  a 
constitution  is  to  be  unalterable  by  the  power  that  granted  it,  i.  e.,  perpetual,  and  that  the 
people  under  that  constitution  can  alter  or  amend  the  same  at  their  election.      But  in  case 

27-VOL.  1. 


of  a  consolidated  State,  the  constitution  must  bona  fide  remain  unalterable  during  the 
consolidation.  These  are  the  great  essentials  and  will  do  well,  if  there  is  not  too  much 
of  other  things.  But  even  the  Wilmot  proviso,  and  many  other  things  may  be  admitted, 
if  necessity  require,  for  they  will  find  their  remedy  in  future  amendments. 

Brigham  Young, 
Heber  G.   Kimball. 
Willard  Richards. 

Nothing  resulted  from  this  movement;  for  though  the  citizens 
of  Deseret  were  willing  to  amalgamate  according  to  the  suggestion  of 
President  Taylor,  the  people  of  California  were  not  willing,  and  so 
the  matter  ended. 

July  24th,  1849,  the  Mormon  people  celebrated  in  grand  style 
and  for  the  first  time  Pioneer  Day;  it  being  the  second  anniversary 
of  their  advent  into  the  Great  Basin.  Martial  music  and  the  firing 
of  cannon  awoke  the  inhabitants  of  "the  Valley  "  at  an  early  hour. 
A  large,  new  national  flag,  sixty-five  feet  long,  the  materials  for  which 
had  been  procured  from  the  east  and  put  together  by  Mormon 
women,  was  unfurled  to  the  breeze  from  the  truck  of  a  lofty  liberty 
pole,  and  saluted  with  six  guns  and  spirited  patriotic  airs.  At 
8  a.  m.  the  multitude  assembled  at  the  Bowery, — a  building  of  brush 
and  timber  one  hundred  feet  long  by  sixty  feet  wide,  enlarged  for  the 
occasion  by  a  vast  awning, — and  awaited  the  arrival  of  Governor 
Young  and  the  grand  procession..  It  started  at  nine  o'clock  from  his 
residence  under  the  direction  of  Lorenzo  Snow,  Jedediah  M.  Grant 
and  Franklin  D.  Richards.     The  pageant  was  as  follows: 

"  (1)  Horace  S.  Eldredge,  marshal,  on  horseback,  in  military 
uniform;  (2)  brass  band ;  (3)  twelve  bishops  bearing  the  banners  of 
their  wards;  (4)  seventy-four  young  men  dressed  in  white,  with 
white  scarfs  on  their  right  shoulders,  and  coronets  on  their  heads, 
each  carrying  in  his  right  hand  a  copy  of  the  Declaration  of 
Independence  and  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  each 
carrying  a  sheathed  sword  in  his  left  hand;  one  of  them  carrying  a 
beautiful  banner,  inscribed  on  it,  'The  Zion  of  the  Lord;*  (-5) 
twenty-four  young  ladies,  dressed  in  white,  with  white  scarfs  on 
their  right  shoulders,  and  wreathes  of  white  roses  on  their  heads, 


each  carrying  a  copy  of  the  Bible  and  Book  of  Mormon,  and  one 
carrying  a  very  neat  banner,  inscribed  with 'Hail  to  our  Captain;' 
(6)  Brigham  Young,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Willard  Richards,  Parley  P. 
Pratt,  Charles  C.  Rich,  John  Taylor,  Daniel  Spencer,  D.  Fullmer, 
Willard  Snow,  Erastus  Snow ;  (7)  twelve  Bishops,  carrying  flags  of 
their  wards;  (8)  twenty-four  Silver  Greys,  led  by  Isaac  Morley, 
Patriarch,  each  having  a  staff,  painted  red  at  the  upper  part,  and  a 
bunch  of  white  ribbon  fastened  at  the  top,  one  of  them  carrying 
the  Stars  and  Stripes,  bearing  the  inscription, 'Liberty  and  Truth.* 

At  the  Bowery  and  along  the  way  the  Governor  and  his  escort 
were  greeted  with  shouts,  songs,  martial  music  and  the  roar  of 
musketry  and  artillery.  Jedediah  M.  Grant  was  master  of  cere- 
monies. He  called  the  assembly  to  order  and  Erastus  Snow  offered 
prayer.     The  report  of  the  ensuing  exercises  says : 

"Richard  Ballantyne,  one  of  the  twenty-four  young  men,  came 
to  the  stand,  and,  in  a  neat  speech,  presented  the  Declaration  of 
Independence  and  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  to  President 
Young,  which  was  received  with  three  shouts,  '  May  it  live  forever.' 
led  by  the  President. 

"The  Declaration  of  Independence  was  then  read  by  Mr 
Erastus  Snow,  the  band  following  in  a  lively  air. 

"The  clerk  then  read  'The  Mountain  Standard,' composed  by 
Parley  P.  Pratt: 

"  'Lo,  the  Gentile  chain  is  broken. 
Freedom's  banner  waves  on  high.' 

"After  the  above  had  been  sung  by  the  twenty-four  young  men 
and  young  ladies,  Mr.  Phineas  Richards  came  forward  in  behalf  of 
the  twenty-four  aged  sires  in  Israel,  and  read  their  congratulatory 
address  on  the  anniversary  of  the  day.  At  the  conclusion  of  the 
reading,  the  assembly  rose  and  shouted  three  times,  'Hosanna! 
hosanna!  hosanna!  to  God  and  the  Lamb,  forever  and  ever,  Amen,' 
while  the  banners  were  waved  by  the  Bishops.  The  band  next 
played  a  lively  air,  and  the  clerk  then  rose  and  read  an  'Ode  on 


'•The  ode  was  then  sung  by  the  twenty-four  Silver  Greys,  to  the 
tune  of  '  Bruce's  Address  to  his  army.' " 

A  feast  had  been  prepared,  and  several  thousand  people  now 
sat  down  to  it.  Among  the  guests  were  hundreds  of  emigrants  who 
were  passing  through  to  California,  and  three-score  Indians. 

The  Mormons  have  been  criticized — hypercritically  they  think — 
for  celebrating  thus  grandly  their  glorious  24th,  and  letting  July  4th, 
of  that  year,  pass  by  without  public  commemoration.  The  truth  is 
their  intent  was  to  blend  the  two  days  in  one,  a  fact  virtually 
proven  by  the  patriotic  character  of  the  proceedings.  Orson  Hyde, 
in  the  Frontier  Guardian,  gave  another  reason  for  the  amalgamation. 
Said  he:  "They  had  little  or  no  bread,  or  flour  to  make  cakes,  etc., 
and  not  wishing  to  celebrate  on  empty  stomachs,  they  postponed  it 
until  their  harvest  came  in."  A  moment's  reflection  will  show  that 
this  reason  is  a  cogent  one.  Since  the  spring  of  1848  the  community 
had  been  living  on  rations,  in  a  half-starved  condition.  But  the 
harvest  of  1849  was  abundant,  and  for  several  years  thereafter  the 
cry  of  famine  was  unheard  in  the  land. 

The  Bowery  in  which  the  celebration  took  place  stood  near  the 
south-east  corner  of  Temple  Block.  It  was  used  for  religious 
worship,  and  public  gatherings  in  general,  until  other  buildings  more 
suitable  supplied  its  place.  It  was  then  converted  into  a  theatre, 
the  original  temple  of  the  drama  in  Utah,  where  performances  were 
given  by  the  Musical  and  Dramatic  Company  and  its  successor  the 
Deseret  Dramatic  Association,  both  of  which  sprang  into  existence 
about  the  year  1851.  This  building  was  the  celebrated  "Old 
Bowery,"  referred  to  in  a  former  chapter. 

It  was  on  the  28th  of  August,  1849,  a  little  over  a  month  after 
the  pioneer  celebration,  that  Captain  Howard  Stansbury  arrived  at 
Salt  Lake  City  at  the  head  of  an  expedition  having  as  its  object  an 
exploration  and  survey  of  the  Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  Captain 
Stansbury.  as  stated,  was  accompanied  by  Lieutenant  J.  W.  Gunnison, 
like  himself  a  member  of  the  topographical  corps  of  the  U.  S.  Army; 
also  by  Lieutenant  G.  W.  Howland,  of  the  mounted  rifles.      These, 


with  fifteen  others,  comprised  the  surveying  party.  A  few  emi- 
grants for  California  had  traveled  with  them  from  the  frontier. 
Rumors  of  the  coming  of  the  expedition,  but  not  of  its  real  purpose, 
had  previously  reached  the.  Valley,  and  considerable  anxiety  was  felt 
and  much  speculation  indulged  in  by  the  Mormon  people  as  to  the 
design  of  the  Government  in  sending  it.  The  impression  prevailed 
that  the  object  was  to  survey  and  take  possession  of  the  lands  upon 
which  the  Saints  had  settled,  with  a  view  to  breaking  up  and  destroy- 
ing their  colony.  This  fear  had  been  enhanced  by  the  arrival  in  the 
Valley  a  few  days  before,  of  General  Wilson,  the  newly-appointed 
Indian  Agent  for  California,  previously  named  in  the  political  letter 
of  the  Mormon  leaders  to  their  confrere  Amasa  M.  Lyman.  One  of 
Wilson's  men  had  boasted  that  the  General  held  authority  from  the 
President  of  the  United  States — Zachary  Taylor — to  drive  the 
Mormons  from  their  lauds,  and  that  he  would  do  so  if  he  thought 
proper.  Evidently  General  Wilson  did  not  think  it  proper,  or  his 
boastful  attache  spoke,  as  officious  underlings  often  will,  without 
authority  ;  for  nothing  came  of  it.  It  was  supposed,  however,  until 
Stansbury  explained,  that  his  coming  was  in  some  way  connected 
with  the  malicious  boast  of  General  Wilson's  subordinate. 

This  fact,  which  was  known  to  the  Captain,  should  have  made 
clear  to  him,  though  it  does  not  seem  to  have  done  so,  why  he  met 
at  Captain  Brown's  settlement  on  the  Weber,  by  which  he  passed  on 
his  way  to  Salt  Lake  City,  what  he  complains  of  as  an  ungracious 
and  inhospitable  reception,  "strongly  contrasted,"  says  he,  "with  the 
frank  and  generous  hospitality  we  ever  received  at  the  hands  of  the 
whole  Mormon  community."  Captain  Brown's  record  for  generosity, 
save  perhaps  where  he  dealt  with  those  whom  he  deemed  his  people's 
enemies,  pursuing  them  into  the  wilderness  to  again  deprive  them  of 
their  possessions,  was  second  to  none  in  the  community.  His 
liberality  to  the  poor  around  him  during  the  famine — a  proverb  to 
this  day  in  Weber  County — sufficiently  attests  this  fact. 

Stansbury  states  that  before  reaching  Salt  Lake  City  he  had 
heard  of  the  uneasiness  felt  by  the  Mormon  community  over  his 


coming,  and  had  been  told  that  they  would  not  permit  a  survey  of 
the  lake  to  be  made,  and  that  his  life  would  scarcely  be  safe  if  he 
attempted  it.  "Giving  not  the  least  credence  to  these  insinuations," 
says  he,  "I  at  once  called  upon  Brigham  Young,  the  president  of  the 
Mormon  church  and  the  governor  of  the  commonwealth,  stated  to 
him  what  I  had  heard,  explained  to  him  the  views  of  the 
Government  in  directing  an  exploration  and  survey  of  the  lake, 
assuring  him  that  these  were  the  sole  objects  of  the  expedition.  He 
replied  that  he  did  not  hesitate  to  say  that  both  he  and  the  people 
over  whom  he  presided  had  been  very  much  disturbed  and  surprised 
that  the  Government  should  send  out  a  party  into  their  country,  so 
soon  after  they  had  made  their  settlement.  *  *  *  The 
impression  was  that  a  survey  was  to  be  made  of  their  country  in  the 
same  manner  that  other  public  lands  are  surveyed,  for  the  purpose 
of  dividing  it  into  townships  and  sections,  and  of  thus  establishing 
and  recording  the  claims  of  the  Government  to  it,  and  thereby 
anticipating  any  claim  the  Mormons  might  set  up  from  their  previous 
occupation.f  *  *  *         So  soon,  however,  as  the  true 

object  of  the  expedition  was  fully  understood,  the  president  laid  the 

f  Regarding  the  land  titles  of  the  Mormons,  Lieutenant  Gunnison  says:  ''They 
issue  a  right  of  occupancy  from  the  State  Registrar's  Office.  This  is  contingent  on  the 
grant  of  the  general  government,  of  course,  and  forms  one  of  the  subjects  upon  which 
they  may  come  into  collision  with  the  supreme  authority.  They  will  not,  without 
protest,  buy  the  land,  and  hope  that  grants  will  be  made  to  actual  settlers  or  the  State, 
sufficient  to  cover  their  improvements.  If  not,  the  State  will  be  obliged  to  buy  and  then 
confer  the  titles  already  given." 

The  noted  traveler  and  writer,  Richard  F.  Burton,  ten  years  later  wrote  upon  the 
same  subject  as  follows  :  "  The  Mormons  have  another  complaint  touching  the  tenure  of 
their  land.  The  United  States  have  determined  that  the  Indian  title  has  not  been 
extinguished.  The  Saints  declare  that  no  tribe  of  aborigines  could  prove  a  claim  to  the 
country,  otherwise  they  were  ready  to  purchase  it  in  perpetuity  by  pay,  presents  and  pro- 
visions, besides  establishing  the  usual  reservations.  Moreover  the  Federal  Government 
has  departed  from  the  usual  course.  The  law  directs  that  the  land,  when  set  off  into 
townships,  six  miles  square  with  subdivisions,  must  be  sold  at  auction  to  the  highest 
bidder.  The  Mormons  represent  that  although  a  survey  of  considerable  tracts  has  been 
completed  by  a  Federal  official,  they  are  left  to  be  mere  squatters  that  can  be  ejected 
like  an  Irish  tenantry." 


subject  matter  before  the  council  called  for  the  purpose,  and  I  was 
informed,  as  the  result  of  their  deliberations,  that  the  authorities 
were  much  pleased  that  the  exploration  was  to  be  made;  that  they 
had  themselves  contemplated  something  of  the  kind,  but  did  not  yet 
feel  able  to  incur  the  expense;  but  that  any  assistance  they  could 
render  to  facilitate  our  operations,  would  be  most  cheerfully  furnished 
to  the  extent  of  their  ability.  This  pledge,  thus  heartily  given, 
was  as  faithfully  redeemed." 

Captain  Stansbury  was  assisted,  in  his  survey  of  Great  Salt  Lake, 
by  Albert  Carrington,  a  prominent  Mormon,  afterwards  an  Apostle  of 
the  Church.  Mr.  Carrington  was  a  college  graduate,  well  qualified  to 
assist  in  this  scientific  labor.  Stansbury's  party  also  surveyed  Utah 
Lake  and  its  vicinity,  and  explored  a  new  route  from  Salt  Lake  Valley 
to  Fort  Hall.  As  stated,  they  remained  a  whole  year  in  this  region, 
spending  the  winter  of  1849-50  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

Still  poured  in  from  the  frontier  the  Mormon  emigration  from 
the  States  and  from  Europe.  The  first  company  to  arrive  in  the  fall 
of  1849  was  Captain  Orson  Spencer's.  It  had  sailed  from  Liverpool 
in  January,  and  reached  Kanesville  in  May.  This  company  had 
suffered  severely  from  cholera  while  ascending  the  Missouri  River. 
It  arrived  in  Salt  Lake  Valley  in  the  latter  part  of  September.  Orson 
Spencer  had  not  before  been  to  the  mountains,  having  had  charge  of 
the  British  Mission  since  January,  1847.  That  mission,  at  this 
period,  contained  nearly  thirty  thousand  Mormon  converts,  about  ten 
thousand  having  joined  the  Church  during  the  past  fifteen  months. 
Three  companies  following  Captain  Spencer's,  not  only  suffered  much 
from  cholera  on  the  Missouri,*'  but  nearly  perished  in  a  fearful 
snow-storm  at  South  Pass  early  in  October.  Seventy  of  their  cattle 
were  frozen,  but  no  human  lives  were  lost.      These  companies  were 

*  Captain  Dan  Jones'  company  lost  sixty  lives  from  cholera  that  season,  between  St. 
Louis  and  Kanesville.  It  was  such  fatalities  as  this  that  caused  the  Mormon  leaders  to 
contemplate  about  this  time  a  change  in  the  route  of  their  European  emigration.      Instead 

of  ascending  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri  rivers,  it  was  proposed  that  the  companies  cross 
the  Isthmus  of  Panama  and  land  at  San  Diego,  California,  thence  going  overland  to  Utah. 


commanded  by  George  A.  Smith,  in  general  charge  of  the  Church 
emigration  that  season.  Some  weeks  later  a  small  party  of  travelers 
left  their  wagons  in  the  snow  forty  miles  east  of  Salt  Lake  City,  and 
pushed  on  to  the  valley,  arriving  there  in  a  destitute  condition. 

A  movement  was  now  set  afoot  by  the  Mormon  leaders  for  the 
benefit  of  the  poor  among  their  proselytes  in  the  Eastern  States  and 
in  foreign  lands.  Hitherto  the  Church  emigration  had  consisted 
almost  entirely  of  persons  able  to  pay  their  own  way  over  sea  and 
land  to  their  new  gathering  place.  There  were  many,  however,  too 
poor  to  pay,  and  who  had  no  friends  to  pay  for  them.  Some  of 
these  were  scattered  through  Iowa,  Missouri,  and  up  and  down  the 
frontier,  while  othere  were  to  be  found  among  the  thirty  thousand 
Saints  in  the  British  Isles.  t 

Thus  far  those  who  had  emigrated  from  Great  Britain,  as  well  as 
many  yet  to  come  from  that  land,  were  mostly  of  the  class  of  whom 
Charles  Dickens,  some  years  later,  on  visiting  a  Mormon  emigrant 
ship  in  the  Thames,  wrote:  "I  should  have  said  they  were  in  their 
degree  the  pick  and  flower  of  England."  Dickens  meant  by  this,  not 
only  that  they  were  handsome  and  healthy,  but  measurably  thrifty 
and  prosperous.  They  were  made  up  of  the  material  generally 
composing  the  Mormon  emigrant  companies,  namely:  farmers, 
laborers,  mechanics  and  tradespeople,  with  a  liberal  sprinkling  of 
artists,  musicians,  writers  and  other  professionals,  representing  the 
lower  and  middle  classes.  But  there  were  many  British  proselytes 
who,  having  little  or  nothing  of  this  world's  wealth,  were  utterly 
unable  to  pay  their  passage  across  the  Atlantic.  It  was  for  the 
benefit  of  such  that  the  Mormon  leaders,  in  the  fall  of  1849, 
established  the  since  famous  Perpetual  Emigrating  Fund,  to  which  so 
many  in  this  land  owe  their  deliverance  from  a  state  bordering  upon 
pauperism,  and  their  subsequent  rise  in  the  financial  and  social 

Those  aided  by  this  fund  were  expected  to  reimburse  it, — paying 
back  into  its  treasury,  as  soon  as  they  were  able,  the  amounts 
expended  in  their  behalf;  to  be  used  for  the  benefit  of  other  poor 

*^-*^_^)-^ V 


passengers  to  Sutter's  Fort  was  $300;  while  goods  were  carried  at  the 
rate  of  $250  per  ton.  In  either  case  two-thirds  of  the  money  was 
payable  in  advance,  and  the  remainder  on  reaching  Salt  Lake  City. 

In  November  of  this  year  Sanpete  Valley  was  settled  by  a  com- 
pany from  Salt  Lake  City,  led  by  Isaac  Morley,  Charles  Shumway 
and  Seth  Taft.  Phinehas  Richards  was  also  one  of  the  company. 
They  formed  a  settlement  near  the  present  site  of  Manti,  the  location 
of  which  town  was  selected  some  time  later.  Manti  is  a  name  taken 
from  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Sanpete  is  a  variation  of  Sanpitch,  a 
noted  Indian  chief  of  the  Utah  nation. 

The  first  steps  toward  the  settling  of  Tooele  Valley  were  taken 
about  the  same  time,  though  not,  as  in  the  case  of  Sanpete,  by  an 
organized  company.  John  Rowberry  is  popularly  regarded  as  the 
pioneer  of  Tooele  County,  and  his  name  will  always  be  the  most 
prominent  one  in  the  early  history  of  that  locality.  He  went  there 
from  Salt  Lake  Valley  in  December,  1849,  his  object  being  the  same 
as  that  which  had  taken  Captain  Sessions  and  others  into  Davis 
County  two  years  before,  namely :  to  find  grazing  lands  for  stock. 
Mr.  Rowberry  had  charge  of  a  herd  belonging  to  Ezra  T.  Benson. 
Several  weeks  before  him,  however,  a  party  of  men,  also  in  the 
employ  of  Apostle  Benson,  arrived  on  Settlement  Creek,  a  little  south 
of  where  Tooele  City  now  stands.  One  of  these  men  was  Phinehas 
R.  Wright,  a  mill-wright.  Their  purpose  was  to  build  a  mill  near 
the  mouth  of  Settlement  Creek  Canyon.*  It  was  there  that  John 
Rowberry  joined  them.  Tooele  Valley  was  named  after  the  Tule,  a 
variety  of  bulrush  abounding  in  that  locality.  Mis-spelled  Tooele  by 
Thomas  Bullock,  the  pioneer  clerk,  in  a  public  document  of  that 
period,  the  orthography  has  since  remained  unchanged.  Tule  is  a 
word  from  the  Mexican. 

*  Francis  H.  Lougy,  of  Tooele,  who  was  but  a  little  boy  when  he  went  there  in 
18-RI  with  his  step-father  Phinehas  R.  Wright,  states  that  live  families  went  together 
immediately  on  the  adjournment  of  the  October  Conference.  The  names  of  the  heads  of 
these  families  he  gives  as  follows:  Phinehas  R.  Wright.  Gyrus  Call,  Cyrus  Tolman,  Sam 
Meeham,  Orson  Rrafett  and  the  mother  of  Eli  R.  Kelsey.  Mrs.  Kelscy  had  no  family  with 
her  at  the  time. 




Salt  lake,  weber,  utah,  sanpete,  juab  and  tooele    counties  created — parley  p.  pratt 
explores  southern  utah the  first    indian    war a  skirmish    at  battle  creek 







•L  HE  General  Assembly  of  Deseret  convened  again  in  December, 
>K  1849,  and  held  brief  sessions  at  intervals  through  the  winter. 
It  created  the  counties  of  Salt  Lake,  Weber,  Utah,  Sanpete, 
Juab  and  Tooele.  Juab  County  at  that  time  was  unsettled.  The 
Assembly  appointed  a  Supreme  Court  to  hold  annual  sessions  at  Salt 
Lake  City,  chartered  the  University  of  Deseret,  and  enacted  other 
laws  to  which  reference  will  be  made  later.  It  also  commissioned 
Parley  P.  Pratt  to  raise  a  company  of  fifty  men,  with  the  necessary 
teams  and  equipment,  and  explore  southern  Utah.* 
The  personnel  of  this  expedition  was  as  follows : 


Isaac  C.  Haight,  Captain,  Chauneey  West,  George  B.  Mabson, 

Parley  P.  Pratt,  Dan.  Jones,  Samuel  Gould, 

William  Wadsworth,  Hial  K.  Gay,  Wm.  P.  Vance. 

Rufus  Allen,  • 

*  Parley  had  previously  explored  the  canyon  now  called  by  his  name :  also  Parley's 
Park,  to  which  it  leads.  It  was  due  to  his  personal  exertions  that  Parley's  Canyo